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教学素材 、语态

发布时间:2014-02-08 10:44:20  

十、语态

语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语的关系。当主语

是动作的执行者时用主动语态(某人做某事); 当主语是
动作的承受者时,用被动语态(某事被人做)。

(一)各种时态的被动语态 被动语态由“主语+be+及物动词的过去分词”构成,助动 词有时态、人称和数的变化。
结构 例句

一般现在时:
主语+am/is/are+过去分词 一般过去时:

The classroom is cleaned every day.
教室每天都被打扫。 Our school was built in 1998.

主语+was/were+过去分词
一般将来时: 主语+shall/will+过去分词

我们的学校是在1998年建造的。
The sports meeting will be held tomorrow. 明天举行运动会。

现在进行时:
主语+am/is/are +being+过去分词 过去进行时: 主语+was/were +being+过去分词 现在完成时: 主语+has/have +been+过去分词 过去完成时:

The car is being repaired.
车正在修理中。 The machine was being painted then. 那时机器正在上油漆。 The bank has been built. 银行已经建成了。 I had been invited to visit Japan before I came here. 在来这儿之前我 已经被邀请访问日本了。

主语+had +been+过去分词 过去将来时:
主语+should/would+过去分词

Ann told me she would be sent to America.
安告诉我她将被派往美国。

含有情态动词的被动语态:
主语+情态动词+be+过去分词

The bike can’t be put here.
这辆自行车不能被放在这里。

(二) 主动语态和被动语态之间的转换 在主动句变为被动句时,要注意主动句和被动句中时态应

该一致,同时还应该注意被动句中主语的人称和数要与谓
语动词保持一致。主动语态和被动语态的转换形式主要方 法:第一步:把主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态的主语。 第二步:把主动语态的谓语变为be+过去分词。 第三步:把主动语态的主语放在介词by之后用来说明动作

的执行者,有时可以省略。

(三) 主动语态变被动语态的注意事项 (1)双宾语及物动词变成被动语态时,将间接宾语

或直接宾语变为主语。
They gave the children many good books. 他们给了孩子们很多好书。 →The children were given many good books. 或Many good books were given to the children.

【温馨提示】 及物动词(give,send, take, bring, teach, show, tell, make, buy, pass,get等)常常带有两个宾语,变为被动 语态时可以将其中一个宾语改为主语,另一个保留不动,这

种情况下的to可以省略。
They gave the visitors a warm welcome. 他们对来访者表示热烈欢迎。

→ The visitors were given a warm welcome. 或 A warm welcome was given to the visitors.

有些及物动词(buy,make,find,get等)在被动语态中被
保留的间接宾语前通常加for,此时for不可以省略。 Mother bought me a computer. →

A computer was bought for me. 妈妈给我买了一台电脑。

(2)含有感官动词和使役动词的主动句变为被动句。在主

动语态中是不带to的不定式作宾语补足语,在变为被动语态
时要加上to。 He made us laugh. →We were made to laugh. 我们被逗笑了。 (3)动词短语的主动语态变为被动语态,动词短语不可分。

My son is looked after by his grandma.
我的儿子由他的奶奶照顾。

(4)主动形式表示被动意义。 ①break,wash,sell,read,write等动词作不及物动词时,

与副词连用常用主动形式表示被动意义。
These clothes sell well. 这些衣服很畅销。 ②feel,sound,taste,smell等动词常用主动形式表被动意 义。 The songs sound good. 这些歌听起来好听。

模拟演练
1. More than two schools _____ in the city next year. A. are built B. were built C. have built D. will be built 【解析】选D。根据时间状语可知时态为一般将来时,再根 据主语和谓语之间存在被动关系可知该题应该用一般将来 时的被动语态。 2.—Look at the sign on the right. —Oh, parking _____ here. A. doesn’t allow B. isn’t allowed C. didn’t allow D. wasn’t allowed 【解析】选B。动名词作主语时谓语动词应该用单数形式, 再根据主语和谓语之间存在被动关系可以确定答案为B项。

3. — Have all the students known that our class will visit the

factory this afternoon?
— Yes. Every student _____ about it. A. have told C. has told B. have been told D. has been told

【解析】选D。根据问句时态为现在完成时可知答语的时态也

为现在完成时,再根据主语Every student和谓语之间存在被
动关系可知该题应该用现在完成时的被动语态,因主语是第 三人称单数,可以确定答案为D项。

4. — Do you know Winter Olympic Games?
— Sure. Once Winter Olympics _____ the White Olympics. A. call B. called C. were called D. will call

【解析】选C。根据时间状语Once可知时态为一般过去时, 再根据主语和谓语之间存在被动关系,可知该题应该用一般

过去时的被动语态。

5. The Olympic Games _____ every four years.

A. are held
C. are holding

B. were held
D. will hold

【解析】选A。根据时间状语every four years可知时态为一 般现在时,再根据主语和谓语之间存在被动关系可知该题应 该用一般现在时的被动语态。

6. More and more people have realized we won’t have cleaner

water to drink unless something _____ soon.
A. was done B. will be done C. to be done D. is done

【解析】选D。根据主句的时态为一般将来时,可知unless 引导的让步状语从句应该用一般现在时,再根据主语和谓语 之间存在被动关系,可知该题应该用一般现在时的被动语态。

7. The grand buildings _____ in two years. A. were built C. will be built B. are built D. have

been built

【解析】选C。根据时间状语in two years可知时态为一般将
来时,再根据主语和谓语之间存在被动关系可知该题应该用 一般将来时的被动语态。

8. The persons under 16 years old shouldn’t _____ to go to the
Internet bar. A. be allowed B. be allowing C. allow D. allowed

【解析】选A。句意:16岁以下的人不准进入网吧。句中的 shouldn’t be allowed是含有情态动词的被动语态的否定结构。

9. That’s a nice watch! Is it _____ in China?
A. make B. making C. made D. makes

【解析】选C。手表是被人制造出来的,故本句应该用被动 语态。

10. —Could you tell me whom the radio _____ by?
—Sorry, I have no idea. A. invents C. is invented B. invented D. was invented

【解析】选D。 the radio与动词invent之间存在被动关系,

且时态为过去时,因此答案为D项。

11. —What about the pen you bought yesterday?
—It _____ well. I like it very much. A. was written C. wrote B. is written D. writes

【解析】选D。 主语是物时,可用write 的主动形式表达被动 意义。

12. —Do you often see William _____ on the playground?

—No, but he is often seen _____ Chinese Kongfu in the park.
A. run; play C. running; play B. run; to play D. running; to play

【解析】选B。问句和答语都含有感官动词see,且问句是主 动句,答语是被动句。主动句中see之后接动词不定式要省略

to;被动句中see之后接的动词不定式不能省略to,故本题正
确答案为B项。


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