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发布时间:2014-02-08 10:44:31  


介词是一种“媒介”,是表示句中某一个词或短语与另一 个词或短语的关系的词。在英语中介词的功能十分强大, 介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,而是用来表示名词或


(一) 介词短语的功能

1. 用作表语
Mr. Smith is still in bed. 史密斯先生还在睡觉。 Dinner was at one o’clock. 一点钟开晚饭。 2. 用作状语 The children are playing by the river. 孩子们在河边玩。

They often talk in English after class.

3. 用作定语(介词短语作定语时必须置于被修饰名词之 后。) The woman in the room is his wife.

China is a country with a long history. 中国是一个具有悠久历史的国家。 4. 用作宾语补足语 We found her in tears. 我们发现她在哭泣。

The cold kept him in bed for three days.

(二)介词的宾语 1. 名词作介宾 We often play football in the afternoon. 我们经常在下午踢足球。

2. 代词作介宾(作介宾的代词用宾格)
No one knows except you and me. 除了你和我之外,没有人知道这件事。 3. 动名词作介宾 Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你帮了我的忙。

4. 介词短语作介宾 A man came out from behind the door. 一个人从门后出来。 5. “疑问词+不定式”作介宾

They failed to agree on where to spend their holidays.
到哪里度假他们无法取得一致意见。 6. 从句作介宾 I quite agree with what you said. 我很赞成你所说的话。

(三)常用介词的基本意义 1.表时间的常用介词
at on



表示在某个时刻或者瞬 I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning. 间 我通常在早上七点钟起床。
表示在具体的某一天或 He was born on the morning of May 10th. 者某天的上、下午等 他出生于五月十日的早晨。 表示在一段时间里(在 In summer, I like swimming. 将来时句子中则表示在 在夏天我喜欢游泳。 一段时间之后) after+具体时刻,表示 He said that he would be here after 6:00. “在??时刻之后”, 他说他六点钟之后会来这儿。 常用于一般时态 We have lived in China for two years. for后加一段时间,表 示“(延续)??之久”我们在中国住了两年。




介词 since

since后加时间点或过去 时的句子,表示“自从 (过去某时)以来”

She has worked here since 2000.
自2000年以来,她就在这里工作。 I enjoyed myself during the summer vacation. 我在暑假期间玩得很高兴 。 I won’t leave until you come back.


until before

表示“直到??为止” 表示“在??之前”

我将不离开直到你回来。 Wash hands be

fore dinner.

2. 表地点的常用介词
介词 in on under to behind 用 法 例 句 Qingdiao is in Shandong. 青岛在山东。 My pen is on the desk. 我的钢笔在桌子上。 There is a ball under the desk. 桌子下面有一个球。 Tom has gone to school. 汤姆已经去上学了。

表示“在??里面” 表示“在??上面” 表示“在??下面” 表示“到,去,向”

Who’s the girl standing behind 主要指“位置”的前后 Richard? 站在理查德后面的那个女 孩是谁?

介词 above

表示“在??上方”,它 表示上下的位置关系,与 below相对 表示“(垂直地)在?? 上方”,与under相对

The plane is flying high above the clouds. 飞机正飞翔在云彩之上。 A bridge is over the river. 在河上有一座桥。 This is a secret between you and me. 这是你和我之间的秘密。 —How do you like the book? ——你觉得这本书怎么样? —It’s the best among detective novels. ——它是侦探小说中最好的。 Is the street too narrow for the bus to go through? 汽车通过这条街道是不是太窄了?


between 多用于两者之间


指在三者或在三者以上的 对象之间 表示从中间“穿过,贯


穿”,表示动作发生在立 体空间,是从内部穿过




A bus is going across the street. 一辆公共汽车正横穿马路。 My bike is beside Tom’s. 我的自行车在汤姆自行车旁边。



3. 表示方式的常用介词
介词 用 法 例 句 1. by+表示交通工具的名词, He goes to school by bike. 表示“乘??(交通工具)” 他骑自行车去上学。 2. by+ v.-ing形式,表示“通 过??方式” in on in+语言类名词,表示 “用??语言” on+ radio/TV通过收音机/电 视 He learns English by listening to the radio. 他通过听收音机学英语。 Please say it in English. 请用英语说它。 He listens to music on the radio. 他通过收音机听音乐。



With the help of him, I won the 1. with the help of… 表 示 game. “在??的帮助下” 在他的帮助下,我赢得了比赛。 2. 表示“用” Cut the bag with the knife. 用刀子割开这个包。


What is your excuse about your about多用于在内容和观点 about being late yesterday? 上比较一般性的情况 关于昨天迟到你的借口是什么?


on 多表示属于专门性的内 容,是严肃的和学术性的 意为“像??一样”用于 说明相似关系,实际上不 是 意为“作为,以??的身 份”后跟表示职业、职 务的名词

It’s a book on animals.

这是一本论及动物的书。(学术 专著) He talked to me like my father. 他像父亲那样跟我谈话。(他 不是我父亲。) He talked to me as a father. 他以父

亲的身份跟我说话。 (他是我父亲)





表示“除??之外”,是从 整体中除去一部分,含有 “减”的意思,属于否定形 式

We are all here except Li Ming because he is ill. 除了李明,我们都在这里,因为他生病 了。

表示“除??之外”(还有, This time we’ll all go there besides Tom. besides 其余都相同),含有“加” 这次除了Tom我们都将去那里。(意思 的意思,属于肯定形式 是Tom也去) into with “往??里(进、蹦、跳) 去”常和动词连用 表示伴随,“和??一起” Many frogs jumped into the lake. 许多青蛙跳进了湖里。 He came in with a book in his hand. 他进来了,手里拿着一本书。

without “没有”,用作状语 for 表示目的,“为了”

He left without saying a word. 他什么也没有说就离开了。
Let’s go for a walk.让我们去散散步。

1. I go to school _____ bus every morning. A. in 通 B. on C. at D. by 【解析】选D。by + 交通工具,表示“乘坐??”且by与交

即“on the bus”。故选D。

2.—I joined the League _____ May, 2009. What about you? —I’ve been a League member _____ three years. A. in; for B. on; in C. on; for D. in; since 【解析】选A。考查时间介词的用法。“May, 2009” 意思为

“2009年5月”,故应选介词“in”;由答语“我是团员已经 3年
了”可知,此处应是“for +一段时间”,故选A。

3. We couldn’t finish our work so early _____ your help. A. without B. with C. for D. By

【解析】选A。句意:没有你的帮助我们不能这么早完成我 们的工作。without“没有”,是否定介词。

4. Shanghai Disneyland has started to be built and it will be
open _____ five years. A. in B. for C. from D. before


5. John is standing _____ Gina and Jim.

A. at

B. during

C. between

D. in

【解析】选C。句意:约翰正站在吉娜和吉姆之间。 between…and 为固定搭配,意为“在 ??( 两者)之间”。 故选C。 6.—Your sweater looks nice, is it made of wool? —Yes, and it’s made _____ Shanghai. A. by B. in C. for D. from

【解析】选B。 “be made in+地点”意为“某地制造”。

7.—Why are you standing there, Maggie? —I can’t see the blackboard clearly. Two tall boys are sitting _____ me. A. behind B. in front of C. beside D. after

【解析】选B。behind“在??后面”;in front of“在??前
面”;beside“在??旁边”。由题意可知答案选B。 8. Bonnie looks very smart and is always _____ pink because pink is her favourite colour. A. with 故选D。 B. on C. about D. in


9.—What does your En

glish teacher look like? — She’s tall and thin _____ long hair. A. have B. has C. there is D. with


10.—How do you study for a test?
— _____ working with friends. A. By B. With C. On D. For

【解析】选A。by+ v.-ing意为“通过某种方式”。

11. The moonlight goes _____ the window and makes the room bright. A. across B. through C. over D. in 【解析】选B 。句意:月光穿过窗户并使房间明亮。

over强调从上面越过。故选B。 12.— I think drinking milk is good _____ our health. —Yes, I agree _____ you. A. with; to B. to ; to C. at; with D. for; with

【解析】选D。be good for“对??有好处”;agree with

13. We’ll have dinner at Qianxilong Restaurant, which is

famous _____ its seafood.
A. of B. to C. for D. as 【解析】选C。be famous for “以??而著/闻名”。 14.—Who else do you know at the party _____ Jim and Tom? —Lucy and Lily. A. in B. next C. among D. besides 【解析】选D。——句意:你知道在晚会上除吉姆与汤姆之

外的其他的人是谁?——是露西与莉莉。besides “除??之

15. I wrote _____ my brother last Saturday, but I haven’t heard _____ him up to now.

A. from; to B. to; of C. to; to D. to ; from
【解析】选D。write to sb.“给某人写信”;hear from“收到 某人的信”。故选D。

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