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初中英语句型转换详解及试题

发布时间:2014-02-08 15:00:40  

不少单项填空题干是由学生并不那么熟悉的句式构成的,这无形中增加了试题的难度。要答好这类试题,就必须设法将复杂的、不常见的句式还原成简单的、常见的句式,以便快速地把握句子结构,理解题目意思。还原的方法归纳起来主要有以下几种:

1. 将疑问句还原成陈述句;

2. 将感叹句还原成陈述句;

3. 将倒装语序还原成正常语序;

4. 将省略句还原成完整的句子;

5. 将强调句式还原成一般句式;

6. 将被动语态还原成主动语态;

7. 将复合句还原成简单句。

试做下列各题:

1. Is this factory _______you visited the other day?

A. the one B. that C. where D. when

2. Who did the teacher _______ the article?

A. have written B. have write C. had written D. has writing

3. Is ______you want to say?

A. that all B. all that C. all what D. what

4. Was it ___she heard with her ears __ really made her frightened?

A. what; that B. because; that C. that; which D. what; /

5. How pleased the Emperor was ______ what the cheats said!

A. hearing B. heard C. hear D. to hear

6. _______what the six blind men said sounded!

A.How foolishlyB.How foolish C.What foolishly D.What foolish

7. To all of you _______honour for the success.

A. belongs to B. belong to C. belongs D. belong

8. Here is a notebook, in which _______the names of the visitors.

A. write B. written C. were written D. was written

9. Never _________ she praised ______ what she did.

A. did; for B. did; of C. was; for D. was; of

10. John plays football _______, if not better than, David.

A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as

11. Could you give us the reason why you didn't do as ______?

A. were told B. to be told C. told to D. told

12. It was _____the old clock that the old man spent the whole morning at home.

A. repaired B. repairing C. to repair D. in repair

13. It was during the Liberation War ______ he died.

A. that B. which C. in which D. when

14. Was it _______yesterday evening _______you met him?

A. on; that B. on; when C. until; that D. not until; that

15. The students are ______ to hand in the exercises before class.

A. wished B. hoped C. agreed D. promised

16. Charles Babbage is generally considered______ the first computer.

A.to invent B.to have invented C.inventing D.having invented

17. His lost eyesight was_____ by his ever sharpening sense of hearing.

A. made up for B. made up of C. made use of D. made of

18. The blackboard was wiped______.

A. clean B. cleaned C. cleanly D. to be cleaned

19.The car________ she was traveling was late.

A. which B. by which C. on which D. in which

20. Is this the watch you wish to_______?

A.repair it B.have repaired it C.have it repaired D.have repaired

21.Would you please point out the mistakes in my composition, if________ ?

A. any B. none C. some D. anything

22. Is _______ he said it worth believing?

A. all what B. what C. it D. that

23. Whom would you rather have_________ with you this time?

A. to go B. go C. gone D. going

24. --- __________ you did?

--- No, as a matter of fact, I didn't need to.

A. That is what B.What is that C.Is that what D.Is what that

25. ________ everything he had taken away from him?

A. Was B. Should C. Did D. Had

26. Has everything________ can be done__________?

A.what; done B.that; been done C.that; already done D.what; already been done

27. Is this the school_______ you visited some foreigners a few months ago?

A. that B. which C. the one D. where

28. Where was________ the traffic accident happened last night?

A. it that B. it C. the place that D. the place

29. Whose eyes________ it that he saw in the darkness?

A. was B. were C. is D. are

30. It was______ the neighbours saw catch the thief.

A. him that B. he that C. said that D. where

31. Along the paths stood some signs,________ was written / ! Keep Off The Grass! /"

A. on which B. in which C. which D. that

32. Rather than________ on a crowded bus, he always prefers _______ a bicycle.

A.ride; ride B.riding; ride C.ride; to ride D.to ride; riding

33. They want to see how civilized(驯化) the animal can______.

A. experience B. change C. develop D. become

34. ________ it snow, the crops would grow better.

A. were B. Were to C. Should D. Would

35. The boy I considered________ cheated in the exam.

A. being honest B.to be honest C.was honest D.that is honest

36. Did_________ on time make her teacher angry?

A.not to come B.her not to come C.her not coming D.not her coming

[附] 强调 1. 英语中表示强调的有强调句型It is..., that...; It was...that.... 强调句型只有两个时态,即 It is 和It was, 后跟被强调部分,然后用 that.... 被强调的是句子的主语,宾语和状语。状语可以是副词,介词短语或从句。如果被强调的是人,可以用who. 例句:

A.It was in the morning that he often went to see his friend.

B. It is I who am your close comrade-in-arms.

C. What is it that you want me to do?

2. 强调用法,只用于肯定句中,用do, does 或did加动词原形。

A. Do be here on time. (千万要准时来呀。)

B. The family did send him to school.

C. He does know all about it.

3. 在否定句中,如果表示强调,多在句尾加at all. 例如:

A. I know nothing about it at all.

B. He didn't do his homework at all.

4. 当遇到not ...until...这一句型变成强调句型时,一定要用:It is(was)not until...that.... 例句:

A. It ws not until yesterday that I knew he ws coming. (I didn't know he was coming until yesterday.)

B. It was not until I grew up that he told me all about it. (He didn't tell me anything about it until I grew up.)

C. It is not until six o'clock that he will go to school. (He wont' go to school until six o'clock.)

答案及简析:

1. A。乍看题干,很可能会有学生将this factory当作先行词而误选B或C,但若将题干还原成陈述句,便会清楚地发现句中缺少表语,四个选项中唯有A项可以当表语。

2. 选B。 因助动词did后须接动词原形,首先可将C、D排除;再将题干还原成陈述句,这时可发现句中有 "have+复合宾语"这一结构,而the teacher 与write之间系主谓关系,故A也应排除。

3. 选A。 将题干还原成陈述句后可知,that充当主语,先行词all以及后面的定语从句作表语。

4. 选A。 只要将题干还原成陈述句,便可发现这是一个强调结构,即答案应在A、B之间,根据句子结构和意义较易排除B。

5. 选D。答题时,肯定会有学生因动词was而选A或B,但若将题干还原成:The Emperor was pleased ______ what the cheats had said. 这一陈述句,便会发现句中有be pleased to do这样一个句型,动词不定式在此充当原因状语。

6. 选B。将题干还原成陈述句后即可清楚地发现空格处充当的是表语。

7. 选C。答题时,有的学生会误将all of you当作主语而选B或D,但若将题干由倒装语序还原成正常语序:The honour for the success _______to all of you. 就会发现主语实为抽象名词the honour,故谓语应用单数。

8. 选C。 从句系倒装语序,主语实际上是the names...。

9. 选C。 正常语序是She was never praised for what she did。

10. 选B。题干中的插入语部分明显有省略现象,这无形中增加了学生答题的困难,困难之一是搞不清David是主语还是呼语。但若将省略的部分补回,使题干成为这样一个完整的句子:John plays football_____ David does if John does not play better that David does. 便不难看出David 系主语,即答案在B、D之间,而D项通常用于否定句,应予排除。

11. 选C。 as从句系一省略结构,补全后为: as you were told to do, 题干中省略了从句的主语和系动词(不可只省一者),还省略了不定式(省略不定式时,符号to应予保留)。

12. 选B。 只要将该强调句式还原成一般句式,即可看出句中有spend some time doing sth. 这样一个句型。

13. 选A。判断是强调结构,还是含有定语从句的复合句的方法是,将表语代入从句,若句子完整即为强调结构,反

之为含有定语从句的复合句。本句是强调结构。

14. 选D。 还原后的陈述句为: Not until yesterday evening did you meet him. (= You didn't meet him until yesterday evening.)

15. 选A。 看到该题,有的学生会认为四个选项似乎都可选用,因为这四个动词均能接动词不定式,但只要我们将原句改为主动语态便会发现空格后接的是sb to do这样一个复合结构,四个动词中唯有wished 能接这样的结构。

16. 选B。 还原成主动句后可知,句中有consider(认为)sb to do 这样一个句型。而选项A 根据动作的先后关系不难排除。

17. 选A。 将原句还原成主动句后可以更准确地把握主、宾语之间的逻辑关系。本题只有选make up for(弥补),句子才合乎逻辑。

18. 选A。 还原成主动句可以更清楚地看出空格处是补语,应选用形容词clean来充当。

19. 选D。答题时,学生一般都能很快排除A,因为travel 与the car 之间并不存在动宾关系;亦能排除C,因为in、on 两个介词中,car 通常只与前者搭配;而在剩下的两个选项中,却极容易误选B,为什么B 是错误的呢?为便于理解,我们不妨将题干先转换为这样两个简单句:She was traveling _____the car.(car前的冠词不可丢,因为题干中的关系代词which d 意义上等同于先行词the car。)The car was late. 由于by car系习语,car前不能加入冠词,故空格处只能填in.

20. 选D。先将复合句还原成两个简单句:Is this the watch? You wish to have it repaired. 不难发现it 指代的是the watch,而在定语从句中,it 的句法作用已被关系代词(尽管已经省略)所替代,故应将it 舍去,以免重复。 同学们,通过以上典型试题的分析与讲练,请同学们再分析剩下的练习。

21---36:ADBCA BDAAA ACDCB C

同义句转换题是近几年中考英语的一个常考题型,其出题形式通常是同时给出两个句子,第一句完整,第二句中设有几处空格,要求考生填入适当的词或词组,使第二句的意思与第一句意思相同。它综合考查考生的语法、词汇、短语或习惯用语和句型结构等知识,要求运用所学的词汇、语法知识和句型结构填写句子,使句子结构完整、逻辑合理、语法知识无误、意思与所给句子相同。通过对近几年的中考英语试题中同义句转换题的分析,我们发现中考英语同义句转换题主要考查以下几个方面:

一、运用同义词(组)进行转换

用同义词或同义词组对原句中的某些词或词组进行替换,注意转换后的词或词组的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:

1. That day we could see flowers here and there.

That day we could see flowers __________.

分析:答案为everywhere。everywhere与here and there都表示“到处”。

2. The teacher always takes good care of the children in the school.

The teacher always_______ ______the children well in the school.

分析:答案为looks after。take good care of与look after…well都表示“好好照顾”。

二、运用反义词(组)的否定式进行转换

即用反义词或词组的否定式表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词(词组)的积累和换位思维的能力。如:

1. It’s clear that this visit is different from last time.

It’s clear that this visit is not the___ ___last time.

分析:答案为same as。be different from意为“与……不同”;the same as意为“与……相同”,其否定式与be different from同义。

2. I think wealth is less important than health.

I ___ think wealth is ___ important than health.

分析:答案为don’t,more。less important的意思是“没有(不及)……重要”;more important的意思是“(比)……更重要”,该结构与not连用,则表示“不比……更重要”。

另外,有的反义词即使不与否定词连用,而只需改变句子结构也可构成同义句。如:

He lent some money to his friend.

He friend ___ some money ___ him.

分析:答案为borrowed,from。borrow…from意为“向……借……”;lend…to意为“把……借给……”。两个结构意思相反,但若变换“借出者”与“借入者”的位置,则可转换为同义句。

三、运用不同语态进行转换

即运用主动语态与被动语态的变化来转换同义词,但此时要特别注意时态、动词一致性。如:

1. Everyone should give back his library books on time.

Library books should____ ____ ____ on time.

分析:答案为be given back。被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be。

2. It is widely accepted that more people use computers in the world today.

Computers ____ widely ___ in the world today.

分析:答案为are,used。computers是复数名词,助动词用are。

四、非延续性动词与延续性动词的相互转换

即非延续性动词与延续性动词进行转换,此时往往会涉及时态的变化。如:

1. The manager left two hours ago.

The manager _____ ____ ____ for two hours.

分析:答案为has been away。leave为非延续性动词,不能与for two hours这样的一段时间连用,而改成be away这样的延续性动词后,则可连用一段时间。

2. The film began five minutes ago.

The film has been _____ _____ five minutes.

分析:答案为on for。has been提示时态是现在完成时态,“for 时间段”表示“持续(一段时间)”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。

3. Mr Li joined the Party twenty years ago.

Mr Li _____ _____ _____ the Party for twenty years.

答案:has been in。短暂动词join,意为“参加、加入(组织,政党)”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将join改成be in或be a member in…。

五、运用不同引语进行转换

即将直接引语变为间接引语或将间接引语转换成直接引语。此时还要注意相关时态、人称、动词、状语等相应的变化。如:

1. “I’ve found my wallet,” he said to me.

He _________ me that he _________ _________ his wallet.

分析:答案为told,had found。此题是将直接引语转换成间接引语。

2. “Did you see her last week?” he said.

He _______ _______ I had seen her the week _______.

分析:答案为asked if/ whether, before。此题是将疑问句的直接引语转换成间接引语。

六、运用简单句与复合句之间的转换

即将简单句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的简单句。如:

1. We didn’t go out for a walk because it was raining.

We didn’t go out for a walk _______ _______ the rain.

分析:答案为because of。将原因状语从句because it was raining改为表示原因的介词短语because of the rain。

2. He was so excited that he couldn’t go to sleep.

He was ______ ______ ______ go to sleep.

分析:答案为too excited to。将so…that…换成too…to…结构,原句的that从句为结果状语从句,改写句中的不定式仍表结果。

3. Now I will show you how to do the work.

Now I will show you ______ ______ ______ do the work.

分析:答案为how you can。即将原句中的“疑问词 不定式”结构转换成宾语从句。

4. You should put them back after you use them.

You should put them back _____ _____ them.

分析:答案为after using。即将after引导的状语从句改写为after引导的介词短语。

七、运用并列句与复合句之间的转换

即将并列句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的并列句。如:

1. Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus.

____ we ____ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus.

分析:答案为If,don’t。if引导条件状语从句。

2. The man gave us a talk last week. Now he will give us another talk this week.

The man _____ gave us a talk last week _____ _____ us another talk this week.

分析:答案为who/ that,will give。who/ that gave us a talk last week为定语从句,修饰先行词the man。

八、运用关联连词连接或合并句子

即运用关联连词both…and…,neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…等将两个简单句合并为一个简单句。此时要注意的是,both…and…连接两个主语时,谓语总是用复数,而neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常应与靠近的主语保持一致。如:

1. Tom can’t speak Japanese well and Jim can’t, either.

______ Tom ______ Jim can speak Japanese well.

分析:答案填Neither,nor。neither…nor…表示“……和……(两者)都不”,刚好与原句的两个否定结构的意思相吻合。

2. Alice has read the book and Peter has read it, too.

______ Alice ______ Peter have read the book.

分析:答案为Both,and。both…and…的意思是“……和……(两者)都”。

3. This store sells men’s shoes, and it also sells men’s clothes.

This store sells ______ ______ men’s shoes ______ ______ men’s clothes.

分析:答案为not only,but also。表示“不仅……而且……”之意。

九、利用某些典型句式或结构进行转换

这类典型结构如so…that…,too…to…,enough to,not…until…,so do I等。如:

1. Jim wants to go boating and his parents want to go boating, too.

Jim wants to go boating, and ______ ______ his parents.

分析:答案为so do。句意为“……他的父母也一样(一样想去)”。

2. John went to bed after he finished his homework.

John ______ go to bed ______ he finished his homework.

分析:答案为didn’t,until。not…until意为“直到……才”。

还原法就是应试者把题干还原为自己熟悉的结构,这样,题目就会变得简单,答案就会一目了然,具体来说,可采用以下几种方法:

一、将倒装句改成陈述句。由于倒装句的使用,句子的结构变得陌生,对于这类题,可将题干还原成一个陈述句。 如:Whom would you rather have___with you﹖

A.to go B. go C. gone D. going

分析:本题题干改成陈述句,则应是:Would you rather havewhom___with you﹖

这样我们一眼就可以看出答案为B。

二、将陈述句改为倒装句。

如:We had____left home then it began to rain.

A.no sooner B.hardly C.almost D.nearly

分析:No sooner...then是一个大家十分熟悉的句型。在考察知识点时,命题者却使用了一个陈述句。如果把题干改成:____had left home then it began to rain.这道题的答案A也就变得十分清楚了.

三、去掉从句或插入语。命题者有意地在一个句子中间插入一个从句或插入语,造成主谓隔离。如果将题干中的从句或插入语去掉,题干就会变得很简单。

如:The person we spoke to___no answer at first.

A.make B.making C. makes D.made

分析:可以看出we spoke to是一个定语从句。将其去掉后,我们就会发现这个句子少了一个谓语动词。故本题选用答案D。

四、改被动句为主动句。由于被动句的使用,句子的结构相对于主动句来说就没有那么清楚。我们如果将其改为主动句,这类题就会变得清楚的多。

Time should be made good use of___our lessons well.

A.learing B.learned C.to learn D.learns

分析:将题干改写为主动句,则为We should be good use of time____our lesson well可以发现介词of有其相应的宾语,其后不能在用动名词做宾语。应选不定式做目的状语。答案是C。

五、改省略句为一个完整的句子。省略句使考生不易看清句子的结构。对于这类试题,可恢复被省略的成分,使句子的结构变得明朗,进而选择合适的答案。

—How long has this bookshop been inbusiness﹖——_____1982.

A.After B.In C.Since D.From

分析:将答语部分改为一个完整的句子;This bookshop has been in business___1982.在所给的选项中只有since能同现在完成时连用。故答案为C

一.用“及物动词+不定式”结构可以将含有that引导的某些宾语从句的复合句转换成简单句。例如:

1. He decided that he would buy a digital camera online.

→He decided to buy a digital camera online.

2. We hoped that we would come back soon.

→We hoped to come back soon.

3. I expect that I shall finish my work by this Sunday.

→I expect to finish my work by this Sunday.

二.用“疑问词+不定式“结构可以将某些含有连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句转换简单句。例如:

1. I don’t know which one I can buy .

→I don’t know which one to buy.

2. We wonder where we’ll go this Sunday.

→We wonder where to go this Sunday.

3. Could you please teach me how I can search the Internet?

→Could you please teach me how to search the Internet?

三.用“too…to…”结构可以将含有so…that引导的结果语从句(否定)的复合句转成简单句。如:

1. The boy is so young that he can’t look after himself.

→The boy is too young to look after himself.

2. The question is so difficult that I can’t answer it .

→The question is too difficult for me to answer.

四.用“…enough +不定式”结构可以将含有so …that …引导的结果状语从句(肯定)的复合句转变为简单句。例如:

1. The girl is so tall that she can reach the apples on the tree.

→The girl is tall enough to reach the apples on the tree.

2. This hall is so large that it can hold 2000 people.

→This hall is large enough to hold 2000 people.

3. The table was so light that the little boy can carry it.

→The table was light enough for the little boy to carry.

五.用“happen + 不定式”或“seem +不定式”结构可以分别将“It happens that…”和“It seems that… ”等含有主语从句的复合句转换为简单句。例如:

1. It happened that the teacher saw him playing in class.

→The teacher happened to see him playing in class.

2. It seemed that sharks have been on the earth for thousands of years .

→Sharks seemed to have been on the earth for thousands of years.

3. It seemed that this camera offered the most at the best price.

→This camera seemed to offer the most at the best price.

六.用“in order +不定式”或“so as +不定式”结构可以将含有so that 引导的目的状语从句的复合句转换为简单句。如:

1. She decided to buy a camera online so that she could receive it soon.

→She decided to buy a camera online in order to receive it soon.

→She decided to buy a camera online so as to receive it soon.

2. I went over my composition again and again so that I couldn’t make any mistakes.

→I went over my composition again and again in order not to make any mistakes.

→I went over my composition again and again so as not to make any mistakes.

3. Miyoko bought a camera so that she could take pictures in Beijing.

→Miyoko bought a camera in order to take pictures in Beijing.

→Miyoko bought a camera so as to take pictures in Beijing.

七.在某些作表语的形容词后面加不定式可以将某些含有状语从句的复合句转变成简单句。例如:

1. I was glad when I heard the good news .

→I was glad to hear the good news.

2. Tom’s parents were very surprised as they knew all about it.

→Tom’s parents were very surprised to know all about it.

八。"祈使句+or+简单句"可转换为"if引导的否定的条件句+主句"的句型;"祈使句+and+简单句"可转换为"if引导的肯定的条件句+主句"的句型。例如:

1. Be brave, or you'll lose your chance. → If you aren't brave, you'll lose your chance.

2. Come on, or we'll miss the early bus. → If we don't hurry, we'll miss the early bus.

九 定语从句的主从句缩略为简单句

为了使表达言简意赅,英语中常用一定的语法手段把句子简缩。定语从句简缩成单词或短语就是其中常见的一种现象。

1.在主动式定语从句中,如关系代词作从句的主语,谓语是一个行为动词,这时从句常缩略为一个现在分词短语。如:

① The man who is walking along the street comes from our company.→

The man walking along the street comes from our company.

②This lens produces rays which converge towards a point. →

This lens produces rays converging towards a point.

如果从句的谓语动词后没有作状语的介词短语,由该动词变成的现在分词常置于所修饰的词之前。如:

① This lens produces rays which converge . →

This lens produces converging rays.

②The countries which are developing should get united. →

The developing countries should get united.

把定语从句简缩为现在分词短语有以下几种情况:

(1)从句的谓语和主句的谓语所表达的时间要一致。如:

We used to live in the house which faced south. →

We used to live in the house facing south.

(2)从句的谓语动词是进行时态。如:

Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man who will be sitting at that desk. →

Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man sitting at that desk.

(3)从句和主句的谓语所表达的时间都是泛指。如:

China is a developing socialist country which belongs to the third world. →

China is a developing socialist country belonging to the third world.

(4)从句谓语动词的动作一发生,主句谓语动词的动作紧接着发生。如:

The man who stole into the room was caught immediately on the spot. →

The man stealing the room was caught immediately on the spot.

(5)从句谓语动词的动作可发生在主句谓语动词的动作这前。如:

Can you catch the bus which will leave at 8 this morning? →

Can you catch the bus leaving at 8 this morning?

2.在定语从句中,如从句的谓语动词是系动词be 的一般现在时或一般过去时,表语是介词短语、形容词短语或名词短语,该从句可以缩略成介词短语、形容词短语或名词短语,作后置定语。如:

① We saw the glasses that were on the table fall off onto the floor. →

We saw the glasses on the table fall off onto the floor.

② China is country which is rich in resources. →

China is country rich in resources.

③ They had to fetch water from a well which was a mile away from the village. →

They had to fetch water from a well a mile away from the village.

如果定语从句仅有一个案形容词作表语,从句简缩后,该形容词的位置由其性质而定:若是表语形容词,应放在所修饰的词之后。如:

All those who are present are from the north. →

All those present are from the north.

若是定语形容词,则应置于所修饰的词之前。如:

I want the flower which is red. →

I want the red flower.

3.如定语从句中的谓语动词有表示程度、方式等副词作状语,可把从句缩略为“副词+ 现在分词”结构作定语,置于

所修饰的词前面。副词和现在分词用连字符连起来。如:

① The peasants who work hard deserve such rewards. →

The hard-working peasants deserve such rewards.

② This is a river which flows fast. →

This is a fast-flowing river.

4.如定语从句中的及物动词带有一个普通名词作宾语,可把从句缩略为“名词+ 现在分词”结构作前置定语。名词和现在分词用连字符连结起来。如:

The south of Jiangsu is an area which grows rice. →

The south of Jiangsu is a rice-growing area.

Malaysia is a country which produces rubber. →

Malaysia is a rubber-producing country.

5.一系列定语从句形容词在定语从句中作表语时,从句可缩略成并列形容词短语作前置定语。如:

① A person who is gentle, lovable and familiar is always easy to get along with. →

A gentle, lovable and familiar person is always easy to get along with.

② Marxism is a science which is living and developing. →

Marxism is a living and developing science.

6.如定语从句中的谓语动词与所修饰的词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,从句通常可以缩略成不定式短语,放在所修饰的词之后置定语。如:

He is a good person with whom you can work. →

He is a good person to work with.

7.根据名词或名词短语可作定语的原则,可以把定语从句缩略成名词或名词短语,用于修饰另一个名词。如: a house which stands on a corner → a corner house ;

a ruler which measures 50 centimeters → a 50 centimeters ruler ;

a garden which is full of flowers → a flower garden;

a factory which makes small cars → a small-car factory

8.如定语从句中的谓语动词have 表示“有”的含义,从句可缩略成with 短语作后置定语,也可以缩略成“清凉油能+ ed”作前置定语。如:

people who have money → people with money 或moneyed people ; a girl who has blue eyes → a girl with blue eyes 或a blue-eyed girl

主动式定语从句在以下几种情况下不通简缩:

(1)从句谓语动词的动作发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前(两个动作紧接着发生的情况除外)。如:

The man who gave us a lecture has left for Shanghai.

(2)从句中含有完成时态。如:

Those who have done the work may go now.

(3)从句中含有情态动词。如:

Do you know the woman who can speak four foreign languages?

(4)从句与所修饰的先行词被其它成分隔开。如:

Not a single book can be found which has something to do with the subject.

(5)从句与所修饰的先行词之间有插入成分。如:

“Here is the man,”he said, “who sells newspapers.”

十 含状语从句的复合句转换成简单句

即将状语从句转换成状语短语。如:

He can’t come because he is ill. 他因病不能来。

→He can’t come because of his illness. 他因病不能来。

Turn off the light before you leave. 离开前请关灯。 →Turn off the light before leaving. 离开前请关灯。 He went home after he finished his work. 他做完工作后就回家了。 →He went home after finishing his work. 他做完工作后就回家了。 He was so angry that he couldn’t speak. 他气得话都说不出来。 →He was too angry too speak. 他气得话都说不出来。 He studied hard in order that he could pass the exam. 他努力学习以便能考及格。 →He studied hard in order to pass the exam. 他努力学习以便能考及格。

专题练习

将复合句改为简单句

1. I hope that I will hear from you soon.

I hope ______ ______ from you soon.

2. I wonder how I can go there.

I wonder ______ ______go there.

3. When and where they should build a new power station is a difficult problem for them. When and where ______ ______ a new power station is a difficult problem for them.

4. The teacher who is wearing glasses teaches us English.

The teacher ______ glasses teaches us English.

5. My father got up early so that he could catch the first bus.

My father got up early ______ ______ ______ catch the first bus.

6. The girl is so short that she cannot be a model.

The girl is ______ short ______ be a model.

7. Do you mind if I smoke here ?

Do you mind ______ ______ here ?

8. The girl who is dancing on the stage is my sister.

The girl ______ on the stage is my sister.

9. I think it important that middle school students should learn English.

I think it ______ ______ middle school students ______ learn English.

10. I feel that it is dangerous to play with fire.

I feel ______ ______ to play with fire.

11. Marx found that it was necessary to study Russia.

Marx found______ ______ ______ study Russia.

12. After his father died, he left his home town.

He left his home town after the ______ ______his father.

13. Don’t forget to turn off the gas before you leave the kitchen.

Don’t forget to turn off the gas ______ ______ the kitchen.

15. She won’t go to see the play because she has lost her ticket.

She won’t go to see the play ______ ______losing her ticket.

16. She went for a walk after she had supper.

She went for a walk ______ ______.

17. I could swim when I was eight years old.

I could swim______ ______ ______ of eight.

18. He was late for school because it rained heavily.

He was late for school ______ ______ the ______ rain.

19. I don’t know how I can answer the question.

I don’t know ______ ______ ______ the question.

20. Please tell me what I should do first.

Please tell me ______ ______ ______ first.

21. He is so young that he can’t join the army.

He is ______ ______ ______ join the army.

22. She works so hard that she can pass the exam.

She works ______ ______ to pass the exam.

23. If you use your head, you’ll find a way.

______ your ______, ______ you’ll find a way.

24. If you don’t work hard, you won’t pass the exam.

______ ______, ______ you won’t pass the exam.

25. The box is so heavy that we can’t carry it.

The box is ______ ______ ______ us to carry.

26. The problem is so easy that I can work it out.

The problem is ______ ______ ______me ______ work out.

27. I can’t pass the exam if you don’t help me.

I can’t pass the exam ______your ______.

28. I saw that he was playing computer games.

I saw ______ ______ computer games.

29. She heard that the boy cried all night.

She heard the boy ______ all night.

30. It seemed that he would catch up with others.

He seemed ______ ______ up with others.

将简单句改为复合句

1. The problem is too difficult for us to work out.

The problem is _______ ______ that we _______ work it out.

2. Hurry up, or you’ll be late for the party.

_______ you _______ hurry up, you’ll be late for the party.

3. The tree is too tall for us to reach .

The tree is _______tall _______ we can’t reach_______ .

4. The teacher asked us to come earlier.

The teacher asked us ______ ______ ______ come earlier.

5. The doctor put down the telephone , and hurried to Jim’s home.

______ the doctor put down the telephone, he went to Jim’s home as ______ as possible.

6. Don’t play basketball here, or you may break the window.

______ ______ play basketball here, you may break the window.

7. He came late because of the bad traffic.

He came late ______ the traffic was ______ .

8. He built a lab at the age of nine.

He built a lab ______ ______ ______ nine.

9. I can’t finish the work in time without your help .

I can’t finish the work if ______ ______ ______ me .

10. The water was too dirty for us to drink.

The water was ______dirty that we ______ drink ______.

11. At the end of the meeting his bag was lost.

He couldn’t find his bag ______the meeting ______over.

12. The teacher told us to do the experiment.

The teacher told us how ______ ______ ______ the experiment.

13. Could you tell me how to get to the station?

Could you tell me ______ ______ ______ get to the station?

14. She likes pork a little, but she likes beef better.

She ______ beef ______ ______ pork.

15. Mike is the tallest student in his school.

______ ______ in the school is taller than Mike.

Keys:将复合句改为简单句

1.to、hear 2. how、to 3. to 、build 4. wearing (with ) 5. in、 order 、to(so 、as、to )

6.too、 to 7.my smoking 8.dancing 9.important for to 10.it dangerous 11. it necessary to

12.deach of 13.before living 15. because of 16. after supper 17.at the age 18.because of heavy

19.how to answer 20.What to do 21.too young to 22.hard enough 23.Use head and/then 24.work hard or

25.too heavy for 26.easy enough for to 27.without help 28.him playing 29.cry 30.to catch

Keys:将简单句改为复合句

1.so difficult can't 2.If don't 3. so that it 4.if we could 5.After hurrily 6.If you 7.because bad 8.when he was

9.you don't help 10.so could it 11.when was 12.if we could 13.how I can 14.likes better than 15.No one

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