haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

中考英语常错知识点总结1

发布时间:2014-02-08 16:59:37  

中考英语常错知识点总结 1

A a an

[误] I think it is an useful English dictionary.[正] I think it is a useful English dictionary. [析]在不定冠词a与an的用法中要注意的一点是:an用在以元音开头的词之前;而a则用在

以辅音开头的词之前。要特别注意的是以u字母打头的单词,如useful,university等,其第

一个音标是[j],所以要特别予以注意。

[误] I need a hour to finish this letter. [正] I need an hour to finish this letter. [析] 要注意hour和honest的第一个字母不发音。

[误] My teacher is a unknown man, but he is a very good man.

[正] My teacher is an unknown man, but he is a very good man.

[析] 要注意以u打头的单词,它的发音为[]时,单数名词前要用an,如uncle等。 [误] There is a "f" in the word "football".[正] There is an "f" in the word "football".

[析]英文字母单独使用时,如其第一个发音是元音时,其前面的不定冠词应该用an而不是a. [误] I have a little brother. He is a 8-year-old boy.

[正] I have a little brother. He is an 8-year-old boy.

[析] 要注意这些字母的第一个发音为元音,如eight, eleven等。

[误] This is an useful dictionary.[正] This is a useful dictionary.

able 

[误] This bike is able to be repaired. [正] This bike can be repaired.

[析] be able to 主要表达某事或某人具有某种能力去作某事,应译为"有本领"、"有能力"、"可

以"作某事,如:I'm able to swim across this river.

而can可以用来表示具有接受能力或吸收能力。如:This radio can be repaired here.

about 

[误] This class is about to begin just now.[正] This class is about to begin.

[析] 要注意be about to 是"将要"的意思,含有将来时之意,不要与表示过去时的时间状语连

用。另外,be about to 一般用作书面语,对应的口语是be going to.

about on 

about与on都可以作"关于"讲,但却有所不同,例如:This book is about physics. 应译为"

这是一本关于物理学的科普读物。"而:This book is on physics.则应译为"这是一本物理学

方面的专著。"

above 

[误] The temperature is five degrees over zero.[正] The temperature is five degrees above zero. [析] 表达"在……上方"时,above与over是可以互换的,如:The sky is above(or over)our heads. 但是要表达在垂直方向上的上方时则应用above不可用over,如:The sun has risen above the horizon. [误] There is often thick cloud above the South of China in summer.

[正] There is often thick cloud over the South of China in summer.

[析] 当表达覆盖之意时,只可用over而不能用above.

[误] There is a bridge above the river.

[正] There is a bridge over the river.

[析] 用来表达"从……上方越过"时不能用above只能用over,如:The plane flew over the city. 但

1

要注意There is waterfall above the bridge. 则应译为"在桥的上游有一个瀑布。"

across 

[误] He ran across the wood. [正] He ran through the wood.

[析] across是指某一动作在一平面内进行,而through则是指该动作在一三维立体空间的运动

过程。如:The man came in through the window. He walked across the square.

across 

across的主要用法有两个。其一,意为"对面",如:There is a school just across the street. 其二,

意为"横过",如:He walked across the street.

after 

[误] Two weeks after he left.[正] Two weeks later he left.[正] He left after two weeks. [析] 要表达"在多少时间之后",英语中有两种表达法,即:用later时,要时间在前,如three hours later; 而用after时要时间在后,如after three hours.

[误] My father will be back after a few hours. [正] My father will be back in a few hours. [析]受中文的影响,这个介词常常被误用。当你要表达在一段时间内某个动作可以完成时,一定要用in,而不能用after,因为after是指在某一时间之后。例如:This work will be done in two days. 即表明在两天内这一工作一定会做完。而如用了after,即表示在两天之后,完成的时间是不确定的。After behind 

after多用于表示顺序的前后,如:She walked in the line after Tom. 或用来表示"追赶",表示一种

动态,如:He ran after Mary. 而behind多用于强调先进与落后,如:She is much behind the other girls in sewing. 或者用于表达"迟于",如:The train was ten minutes behind the time table. 或者与表示静态的动词连用,如:She hid herself behind the flowers.

against 

[误] He against me. [正] He is against me.

[析] 要注意against意为"反对",但它在英文中却不是动词,而是介词,如要讲反对某事或某

人时则要加动词be, 如:He is against somebody/something.

against for

against意为"反对"、"不赞成";而for则意为"同意",为其反意词。

如:Are you for or againstthe plan?

age 

[误] He is twenty years old of age.[正] He is twenty.

[正] He is twenty years old. [正] He is at the age of twenty.

ago 

[误] Tom's father has been dead five years ago.[正] Tom's father died five years ago.

[析] ago意为由说话时算起,若干时间以前。它只能和一般动词过去时连用,而不要与完成时连用。

[误] Yesterday I met a friend. We didn't see each other for a long time since we left the college twenty years ago.

[正] Yesterday I met a friend. We hadn't seen each other for a long time since we left the college

twenty years ago.

[析] 要注意的是在本句是ago是用在由since引起的从句之中,只是从句应用过去时,但不影

2

响主句的时态。

agree 

[误] Does the teacher agree to us?[正] Does the teacher agree with us?

[误] Does he agree with our plan?[正] Does he agree with us?

[析] agree with 指"同意某人的提议、建议、计划"等。如果要讲同意某项计划则要用agree to,

如:Do you agree to the plan?

all [误] The old man has two sons. All of them are workers.

[正] The old man has two sons. Both of them are workers.

[析] all是指三者或以上的全部,而both则是指"两者都"。

[误] The all children are playing football now.[正] All the children are playing football now.

 [析] all作修饰词时其位置要在所有的修饰词之前,不论这些修饰词是定冠词、指示代词、形 容词或名词,或代词的所有格。

[误] You all are right. [正] You are all right.

[析] all作同位语时其位置要置于be动词之后,实意动词之前,如:The teachers all work hard.

或用于第一助动词之后,如:The boys have all been waiting for their mothers.

almost 

[误] Nearly nobody thinks he is right. [正] Almost nobody thinks he is right.

[析] nearly与almost是近意词,其含意差别不大,但是与否定词连用时要用almost, 例如:She

brought almost no money with her. 此句中的almost不能用nearly替换。

alone 

[误]The old man lived lone but he didn't feel lonely.[正]The old man lived alone, but he didn't feel lonely. [析] alone, lone, lonely 三个词全具有"孤单、孤独"之意。但其用法不同:

lone可以作定语,而alone则只能作表语,lonely则多指感情上与感觉上的孤独。

already 

[误] We are already for the work. [正] We are all ready for the work.

[析] already 是副词,其意为"已经",如:He already knew about it. 而all ready为形容词意为"

准备好"。

already yet 

already多用于肯定句中,例如:The students have already finished the work. 而yet则多用于

疑问句与否定句中,如:Have you finished it yet? I haven't finished it yet.

also 

[误] I didn't find the dictionary also.[正] I didn't find the dictionary either.

[析] 作为"也"讲,在否定句中要用either而不能用also.

Also too 

also与too都可用在肯定句中表示"也",但also通常用于be动词或情态动词之后,如:I can

also do it myself. 而too一般放于句尾。I'll attend his class, too.

among 

[误] If the three apples are divided among the two boys how much will each receive?

[正] If the three apples are divided among the three boys how much will each receive?

3

[析] among常用于三个事物或人物之间,而between则多用于两者之间。

and 

[误] He did not speak loudly and clearly.[正] He did not speak loudly nor clearly. [误] Our school is not in New York and Chicago, but in Boston.

[正] Our school is not in New York or Chicago, but in Boston.

[析] "和"这一概念在肯定句中应用and,但在否定句中则要用or

angry [误] My mother was angry to me. [正] My mother was angry with me.

[误] He was angry with what I said.[正] He was angry at what I said.

[析] 要注意be angry后面如果接人,表示"对某人生气不满"时应用be angry with somebody.

但要接事物时要用be angry at something.

another 

[误] I have two sisters, one in America and another in English.

[正] I have two sisters, one in America and the other in English.

[析] 要注意英语中another, other, the other, the others, others的不同用法,现分别说明如下:another作形容词其意为:泛指的另一个或再一个,别的,类似的。一般在句中作定语,如: This is not good enough, please show me another one. another还可以作为代词用,如:One student said:"I want to play baskball."another said:"I want to play football."other作形容词其意为"泛指其余的,别的"。如:I have other books besides these. 又如:Ask some other people please. the other则为特指,作形容词时其后面可接单数或复数名词,如:She has two flowers. One is white, the other one is yellow. (特指,单数)又如:There are fifty students in our class, twenty five are boys, the other students are girls. (特指,复数)但当the other作为代词时,它代表的可以是单数,也可以是复数,如:He has a book in one hand, and a pen in the other. (单数)又如:There are some people in the room. Four are girls, the other(复数)are boys. 要注意的是当the other作主语时,其后面的谓语动词要视具体情况而定,它可能是单数,也可能是复数。others则只能作代词,其意为other ones即为:泛指某些,某一部分人或物,如:Each of us must think of others. 而the others只能作为代词,它是特指某一些人或物,如:I know only one or two of the students; the others are unknown to me.

answer 

[误] Someone is knocking at the door. Please reply the door bell.

[正] Someone is knocking at the door, Please answer the door bell.

[析] answer与reply是近意词,作为及物动词用时有时二者是可以互换的,如:The student answered/replied that he wanted to watch TV. 但在某些特定场合则不易互换。作为应答之意时则多用answer,如:You should answer to your name. Please answer my letter as soon as possible. Answer my question in English.

any 

[误] Do you have some questions?[正] Do you have any questions?

[析] some一般要用于肯定句,而any则用于否定句或疑问句。

[误] China is larger than any other countries in Asia.[正] China is larger than any other country in Asia. [析] 要注意any other 其后要跟单数名词,但any of the other 其后要接复数名词。

4

China is larger than any of the other countries in Asia.

[误] Here are some books; you can choose anyone of these.

[正] Here are some books; you can choose any one of these.

[析] anyone只能指人,而any one即可指人 也可以指物。

around 

[误] The nine planets go around of the sun.[正] The nine planets go around the sun. [析] around后面不要再加介词,如:The sun shines all around us.

around round 

作介词用的around与round通常可以互换,只不过美语常用around,而英语常用round,例如:

You can see the post office round/around that corner. (绕过那个弯你就可以看到邮局。但是一定要区别它们的不同之处:round可以用作形容词、副词、介词、动词、名词;而around只能用

作副词或介词。例如:The post office is just round (around) the house (用作介词). He has round face (用作形容词). The river rounded the stones. (用作动词)

arrive [误] I arrived Beijing the day before yesterday.[正] I arrived in Beijing the day before yesterday. [正] I reached Beijing the day before yesterday.[误] He arrived in the school at 11∶00. [正] He arrived at the school at 11∶00.

[析] arrive为不及物动词,当到达的是较大的地理区域时用介词in,而到达较小的地方时则用

at, 如:arrive in New York, arrive at the village.

Arrive reach get 

arrive如上所述是不及物动词,而reach则是及物动词。如:How did you reach the school this morning?

而get可用作不及物动词,作"到达"讲时其后面多与to连用。如:When did you get to New York? as [误] This man works in the bank for a manager. [正] This man works in the bank as a manager.

[析] as与for有时是可以通用的。如:This room is used as (for) a classroom. 但是用来指官衔、 职位时只能用as.

[误] My brother is so taller as Tom. [正] My brother is as tall as Tom.

[析] as… as之间只能用形容词与副词的原级,而不能用比较级。在否定句中可以用so…as,

也可以用as…as,但在肯定句中只能用as…as,如:He is not so tall as Tom.

[误] I'll give him the note as soon as he will come.[正] I'll give him the note as soon as he comes. [析] as soon as所引导的状语从句中应使用一般时态表示将来。

ask 

[误] The student asked a question to the teacher.[正] The student asked the teacher a question. [析] ask应接双宾语,即ask somebody something.

[误] They asked some books. [正] They asked for some books.

[析] 向某人要求某物时应用ask somebody for something或ask for something from somebody, 如:

He asked his mother for some money. 或He asked for some money from his mother.

asleep [误] He is deeply asleep. [正] He is fast asleep.

[析] 要讲"熟睡",就要用fast来修饰asleep。另外, 在英语中一般不讲somebody is sleeping

而要用asleep。关于睡觉这一词的惯用法还有:go to sleep(如:The old man usually goes to

sleep at ten.), fall asleep(如:I fell asleep at English class yes terday.)

5

at [误] It will really do you no harm quite.[正] It will really do you no harm at all. [析] at all和quite的汉语意思均为"全然"、"确定的",但at all适用于否定句,

例如: -I'm sorry. I'm late. -No trouble at all. 

又如:I don't think it is right at all. 而quite则适用于肯定句,例如:He is quite a good teacher. [误] The children play football for lunch.[正] The children play football at lunch.

[析] 英语中的at lunch为"在吃午饭时"。这种惯用法还有at work(在工作),at table(在吃饭),

at desk(在学习)。而for lunch则是为午饭而准备的食物,又如:We had some milk for breakfast.

[误] There is a post office in the corner of the street.

[正] There is a post office at the corner of the street.

[析] at the corner是指墙外面的角,而in the corner是指建筑物内部的角落。例如:There is a

computer in the corner of the room. There is a street lamp at the corner of the street.

at in on 

在表示时间时用来表示具体钟点用at,如:He will be back at six. 表示一天的上、下午时要用in,如:I usually get up at six in the morning. 但要注意的是,in the morning和in the afternoon这两个词组

中如果加入了任何修饰词,其介词要换为on, 如:on the cold morning, on the hot afternoon.又如:See you on Monday morning. 如讲到具体的某一天,要用on, 如:on Sunday, 如:I usually want to visit my mother on Sundays. 在谈到周、月、季、年时要用in,如:All the children will be happy in Easter week. He was born in July. 但要注意在泛指圣诞节、复活节、感恩节时都用at, 如:Where are you going at Easter.

2010年中考英语常错知识点总结 2

back  [误] I'm sorry. I have to back home.

[正] I'm sorry. I have to go back home. [正] I'm sorry. I have to go home.

[析] back用作"回到(某处)"之意,不是动词。

be  [误] Where do you from? [正] Where are you from?

[析] "你从何处来"应为Where are you from?或Where do you come from? 但要注意这两句话均

是问对方从哪个国家来的。要是口语中问"你是从什么地方来?"应讲Where did you come

from? 回答用I came from the library.

beat [误] We have won your class.

[正] We have beaten your class. [正] We have won the game.

[析] win是胜过之意,它是及物动词,但其后的宾语只能接比赛、战争、奖品、奖金的名称,

如:Which team won the football match? 而beat指打败对手、敌人……如:My brother beat

me at poker.(要注意的是,beat的过去式与原形相同,而过去分词为beaten)。

[误] The ball beat me badly. [正] The ball hit me badly.

[误] He used to hit the little boy black and blue.[正] He used to beat the little boy black and blue. [析] beat指打击多次,而hit则为击中对方的一次性打击。

beautiful [误] He is a beautiful boy.[正] He is a handsome boy.

[析]我们可以讲She is a beautiful girl. This is a beautiful park. 但要讲男人的"英俊"时要用handsome. because 

[误] The reason why I was late is because I was ill.[正] The reason why I was late is that I was ill.

6

[误] Because it was Sunday, so the park was crowded.[正] Because it was Sunday the park was crowded.

[析]这种错误是因为中文的习惯与英语的表述法不同,中文常讲我来晚了的原因是因为我病了, 而英文中的第二个因为要用that代替。又因中文常讲因为……所以……,而英文中用了因为就不能再 用所以了,同样用了"所以"也就不要再用"因为"一词。例如:Because we study hard, we passed the exam easily. 或者:We study hard so we passed the exam easily.

because because of 

because后要接从句,例如:We like physics because we can learn a lot of new ideas. 而because of

后要接名词作介词宾语,如:He is not at school because of the illness.

before 

[误] We have two hours to kill before we will go home.[正]We have two hours to kill before we go home.[析] kill time意为"消磨时光"。

英语状语从句中要用一般现在时表示将来的动作。如:If it rains we will not go to the park.

[误] I did this work two days before. [正] I did this work two days ago.

[析]用ago组成的时间状语其主句中的谓语动词要用过去时,而before引起的时间状语其主句中

的谓语动词多用完成时,如:I has done this work a few days before.

before long long before 

before long是"不久"之意,例如:I shall go to America before long. 而long before则是"很久很久

"之意,如:We knew this teacher long before we saw him. (我们在看到这位老师之前很久就知道他了。)

begin [误] The meeting will begin from Monday.[正] The meeting will begin on Monday. [误] The film has begun for ten minutes. [正] The film has been on for ten minutes. [析]begin是瞬间动词,所以它的完成时态不能接表示一段时间的状语,如:The film has begun这句话是对的,即"

电影已经开始"。但要讲已经开始10分钟了则要用has been on即"上演了10分钟"。

begin start 

begin与start两词后面加不定式或动名词都可以,且意思并无区别,但在表达习惯时接动名词的

用法较多,如:How old wern you when you first started learning English?但这两个词的进行时态中则多用不定式,如:I was beginning to get hungry. 但如果句子的主语是物而不是人,则多用不定式,如:The ice began to melt. It started to get dark before we got to school. 当动词是表达某种心理状态时,要用不定式,如:The student began to understand his mistakes.

[误] They study hard in the class from the beginning to the end.

[正] They study hard in the class from beginning to end.

[析] from beginning to end是习惯用法,即自始至终,不要加冠词,但如单独使用则要加冠词,

例如:At the beginning,the teacher gave us an exam.

behind [误] He missed the class because he was behind the time.

[正] He missed the class because he was behind time.

[析] behind time一短语意为"晚了",而behind the times意为"落后于时代"。behind是介词同时

又是副词,如Come out from behind the door(介词). He's a long way behind(副词). He fell

behind with his classmates(副词).

below [误] What's that below the chair.[正] What's that under the chair.

7

[析] under意为"正下方",而below意为"比……低",或指"在下游"。如:There is a fall below the

river. (河的下游有一个瀑布。)其反义词为over,如:There is a big plane flying over the city.

但在"下面的例子"一表达语中则要用the example below, 而不要用under.

beside [误] The students stood besides the teacher.[正] The students stood beside the teacher. [误] I study English beside Chinese. [正] I study English besides Chinese. [析] beside意为"在……旁边",而besides是"除……以外(还如何)"。

beside by near 

beside意为"在……旁",如:There is a tall tree beside the river. by多指"倚、靠"、"沿着"之意,如:She is standing by the window. near多用来表示两地间距离不远,如:There is a post office near our school. better [误] You had better to do it at home. [正] You had better do it at home.

[误] You hadn't better wake me up at six. [正] You had better not wake me up at six. [析] had better在肯定句中为"应该作某事",其后加不带to的不定式,而在否定句中应用had

better+not+动词原形。在简答语中had常省略为'd,如:You'd better not. 又如:

 Let's go first. No, we'd better not.

between 

[误]Among the two trees there is a space of the feet.[正]Between the two trees there is a space of the feet.[析] 两者之间多用between,三者或三者以上之间则用among.

[误]You must choose between this club or that club.[正] You must choose between this club and that club.[析] 在两个之间作出选择要用between…and…,而不能用between…or….

big  [误] There was a big rain last night.[正] There was a heavy rain last night.

[析] 大雨在英语中只能用a heavy rain而不要用a big rain. 

bit  [误] He is a bit fool. [正] He is a bit of a fool.

[析] a bit可以作程度副词,与a little相同,但它用于名词前应用a bit of, 而用于形容词前则

应用a bit,如:I'm a bit tired, 而其简答的否定句应为Not a bit, (一点儿也不。)又如:

-Do you mind if I open the door? -Not a bit. 

black [误] The children became black after swimming in the sea.

[正] The children became sunburned after swimming in the sea.

[析] 因太阳照晒而皮肤变黑,不应用black而应用sunburned, sun colour或dark.

[误] The girl has black eyes and black hair.[正] The girl has dark eyes and black hair. [析] 英语中black eyes的意思是被打得发青的眼睛。

[误] The Europeans like red tea.[正] The Europeans like black tea.

[析] 红茶在英文中应为black tea. 这种惯用法还有:black and blue(鼻青脸肿,青一块紫一块);

blackandwhite(黑白电视片)。go black意为"在失去知觉时眼前一片黑暗";look black

意为"情况不妙,前景暗淡"。如:After the fight he was black and blue.On TV, I like colour for

something and blackandwhite for others.

body [误] Going to bed earlier and getting up earlier is good for your body.

[正] Going to bed earlier and getting up earlier is good for your health.

[析] 中文常讲对你身体有利,而英文中则讲对你健康有利。

borrow 

8

[误] May I lend some books from the library?[正] May I borrow some books from the library? [误] How long can I borrow it? [正] How long can I keep it?

[析]英语中有三个词都可译为"借",但意义各不相同如:"借入"是borrow,其常用句型结构是borrow something from somebody,这是个瞬间性动词,不可与表示延续的时间状语连用。例如:The students want to borrow some books from the library. "借出"用lend,即借给别人东西。其常用句型是lend somebody something, 或lend something to somebody.例如:Could you lend us your dictionary?或Could you lend your dictionary to us? 它也是瞬间性动词,也不能与延续的时间状语连用。keep则是延续性动词,可以和表示长时间段的时间状语连用,也可与how long等疑问词连用,如:You can keep it for three days.

born (bear的过去分词)

[误] I born in Shanghai.[正] I was born in Shanghai.

[误] He was born from Greek parents.[正] He was born of Greek parents.

[析] "出身于……样的家庭"不要作from而要用of,例如:He was born of a poor family. both [误] They both are students.[正] They are both students.

[误] They refuse both to answer this question.[正] They both refuse to answer this question.[析] both作同位语时,一般要用在be动词之后实意动词之前。

[误] I know his both parents.[正] I know both his parents.

[误] The both brothers were students.[正] Both the brothers were students.

[正] Both brothers were students.

[析] 当both与形容词性物主代词my, his, her等以及定冠词the连用时,都应将这些词置于both

之后。另外,在与定冠词连用时the可以省略。

[误] Both of my parents are not at home.[正] Neither of my parents are at home. [误] Both of your answers are not right.[正] Neither of your answers is right.

[正] Both your answers are wrong.

[析] both不能用于否定句中作主语。表示"两者都不"时要用neither;但作宾语时both与either

则都对,但要注意句意有所不同。例如:I cannot give both of the books to you. (我不能将

两本书全给你。)而I cannot give either of the books to you. (两本书中哪本书也不能给你

bring [误] Please bring this dictionary to Mr Brown.[正] Please take this dictionary to Mr Brown.

[误] Next time, please take your little sister here.[正] Next time, please bring your little

sister here.[析] 英语中bring是"带来",而take是"带走"。还有一个词fetch, 表示"

到某处去把某物取、接回来"。如:Please fetch the doctor at once.

business 

[误] My father went to Shanghai for business.[正] My father went to Shanghai on business. [析] on business出差

busy 

[误] The students were very busy to prepare for the exam.

[正] The students were very busy preparing for the exam.

[析] be busy doing something为"忙于作某事"

[误] The students were busy for the exam.[正] The students were busy with the exam.

9

[析] busy直接接名词时应用with.

but 

[误]He couldn't help but realizing that he was wrong.

[正] He couldn't help but realize that he was wrong.

[误] She couldn't help to cry when she saw her mother.

[正] She couldn't help crying when she saw her mother.

[析] couldn't help其后应接动名词,表示情不自禁的动作,但couldn't help but后面要加动词原

形即省to的不定式,所以前一句应译为"他才真正认识到他错了。"

buy 

[误] I have bought this dictionary for three years.[正] I have had this dictionary for three years.

[析] buy是截止性(即瞬间)动词,它可以有完成时,如:I have bought this dictionary. 但是不能与 表示较长的时间状语连用。如要讲我这本字典已买了3年了则要用have had这一结构即我拥有这本字典已3年了。

by

[误] The boy shot the cat by a gun.[正] The boy shot the cat with a gun.

[误] He came to school by a taxi this morning.[正] He came to school by taxi this morning. [析] 作为某种运输手段来讲,by与名词间不能有冠词,如:by car, by bike, by air等。如有了冠词或其他修饰词,则应用别的相应的介词,如:"我们今天早上是乘他的车来的"一句应译为:We came here in his car this morning.与by结合而成的词组很多,常用的有:by the way顺便说说;by hand手工制作;by oneself独自地;by no means决不。

10

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com