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仁爱英语七年级下册知识要点

发布时间:2014-02-09 09:56:49  

七年级下册U5-U7各个话题知识要点

Unit 5 Topic1

一般现在时(常与频度副词never, seldom, sometimes, often,usually, always等连用) 重点句型 —How do you usually come

to school?

—I usually come to

school by subway.

—How often do you go to

the library?

—Once/Twice/Three times a week/Very often/Every

day/Sedom

重点详解

1 I always come to school by bus. by+交通工具名称,表示使用某种交

通方式,中间不加限定词,如果交通工具前有a, the, my 等限定词,重点语法 第 1 页

就不能用by,而是用in或是on.

on the train=by train on his

bike=by bike in my car=by car. 巧辩异同 on foot 与 walk on

foot “走路”,是介词短语,不能

作谓语,只作方式状语,位于句末。walk “走路”,是动词,可以作谓

语。

go to…on foot= walk to I

often go to school on foot. =I often walk to school.

同样,go to….by bike = ride a

bike to go to…. by car = drive a car to

go to … by plane = fly to

go to… by bus = take a bus to

2 Come on! It’s time for class. come on “快点,加油,来吧”。

It’s time for sth. “该做某事 第 2 页

了”,与 It’s time to do sth.意思一样。

3 look的短语 look the same看

起来一样

look like看起

来像……

look for寻找 look after

照顾

4 do my homework at school 在学校做作业

do one’s homework 做家庭作业(注意:one’s 要随主语的变化而变化,常用形容词性物主代词my, your, their, our, his, her等)。

5 we want to know about the school ...............

life of American students. 我们想了解一下美国学生的学校生活。

want to do sth. “想做某事”,want 后接动词不定式作宾语。

第 3 页

know about “了解,知道关于…”。 6 巧辩异同 a few与few a few “一些”,few“很少,几乎没有”,修饰可数名词。

a little与little a little“一些”,little“很少,几乎没有”,修饰不可数名词。

7 They often play basketball or soccer, go swimming and so on. ................. go swimming 去游泳 and so on “等等”,表示还有很多。

拓展 go+v.-ing 表示去做某事,

类似的有: go fishing 去钓鱼 go shopping 去买东西 go boating 去划船 go skating 去滑冰

8 How often do you go to the library? 你多久去一次图书馆? how often“多久一次”,问频率。 第 4 页

答语常用频度副词never, always,often等或单位时间内的次数once a week一周一次 twice a month每月两次three times a year每年三次

语法讲解 一般现在时 一般现在时表示:

(1)现在所处的状态。Jane is at

school.

(2)经常或习惯性的动作。I often go to school by bus.

(3)主语具备的性格和能力。He likes playing football.

(4)客观真理。The earth goes round the sun.

常用的时间状语:often, always, usually, sometimes, every day等等。

行为动词的一般现在时,助动词是 第 5 页

do/don’t和does/doesn’t.当主

语是第一、二人称和所有复数形式

时,行为动词用原形。

肯定式:I go to school on foot.

否定式:I don’t go to school on

foot.

疑问式:Do you go to school on

foot? —Yes, I do. —No, I

don’t.

当主语是第三人称单数时,动词用

第三人称单数形式,在词尾加-s

或-es。

肯定式:He goes to work by bus.

否定式:He doesn’t go to work

by bus.

疑问式:Does he go to work by bus?

—Yes, he does. —No, he doesn’

t.

Topic2

第 6 页

重点语法 现在进行时态。

重点句型 What are you doing?

He is cleaning the

dormitory.

Are you doing your homework?

Yes, I am./No, I am not.

How long can I keep them?

Two weeks.

重点详解

1 at the moment“此刻,现在”,

相当于now.

2 巧辩异同 go to sleep与go to

bed

① go to bed“上床”“就寝”I

often go to bed at ten.

② go to sleep“入睡”“睡着”Last night I went to sleep at two o’clock.

3 巧辩异同some, a few 与a little 第 7 页

“一些,有些”三者都修饰名词。 some既可以修饰可数名词又可以

修饰不可数名词。

We want some apples and some water.

a few用在可数名词复数之前,a

little用在不可数名词之前。 There are a few books and a little waterin the classroom. 4 与how相关的短语 how often多

长 how many多少 how much多少钱 how old多大

5 And you must return them on time.

你必须按时归还它们。Return意为“归还,回归”

① return sth. to sb.把某物归

还某人=give back sth. to sb. ② return to“回到…”,相当于

come back to…

第 8 页

6 Maria and a girl are talking at

the lost and found.

talk“交谈”,常用的短语talk

to/with sb.“与某人交谈”

巧辩异同talk, say, speak与tell

(1) talk“交谈”,表示通过谈话

方式交换意见、消息等。

(2) speak“说话”,强调开口发声,

后常接某种语言。

(3) say “说”,强调所说的话的

内容。

(4) tell“告诉”,有时兼含“嘱

咐”“命令”等。tell a truth说真话,tell a lie说谎, tell a story 讲故事等固定搭配。 7 I can’t find my purse and I am ....

looking for it. look for“寻找”,..........

强调寻找的过程; find“找到”强调找的结果。

第 9 页

8 look(at), see与 read look(at)

指看的动作,see指看的结果,read常指看书、看报纸等。

9 Here are some photos of his.

这有他的一些照片。

photos of his是双重所有格。his

是名词性物主代词,后还可以接名词所有格。a friend of mine我的一个朋友 a classmate of my brother’s我弟弟的一个同学 10 I also want to go there one day.

我也希望有一天到那儿。

also意为“也”,常用于be动词

和情态动词后面,实义动词的前面。

巧辩异同 also与too also放在

句中,too用于句末。

语法讲解 现在进行

第 10 页

1.现在进行时表示:现在正在进行或发

生的动作。

2.常用的时间状语:now, at the moment,

look, listen等。

3.谓语动词构成:

be(am/is/are)+v.-ing形式。

4.动词的-ing形式构成:

第 11 页

5.现在进行时态的肯定、否定和疑问式。

(1)肯定式:I am running. You are

running. He/She is running.

(2)否定式:I’m not running. You

aren’t running. He/She isn’t running.

(3)一般疑问句及回答:—Are you

running? —Yes, I am./—No, I am not.

—Is he/she

running? —Yes, he/she is./ —No. he/she isn’t.

Topic3

重点语法 一般现在时和现在进行时的

使用和异同。

重点句型 What day is it today? It’s Wednesday.

第 12

Why do you like it? it’s easy and interesting.

What class are they having? They are having a music class.

重点详解

1 询问星期几用What day…?回答:It’s Wednesday/Sunday…。

与特殊疑问句词what有关的短语: what class什么班 what color什么颜色 what time几点 what date几号(日期)

2 How many lessons does he have every weekday?

How many+可数名词的复数形式;How much+不可数名词。

3 一个星期的第一天是Sunday, 在星期几前用介词on, 在具体点钟前用at.

第 13 页

4 learning about the past了解过.............

去 learn about了解

拓展 learn from向……学习

learn by oneself自学

5 What do you think of …? = How do

you like…?你认为……怎么样? 6 —Why? —Because it’s

interesting. 用why提问必须用because回答。

7 Which subject do you like best?

你最喜欢什么科目?

like best最喜欢,可用favorite“特别喜爱的”转换。

8 be friendly to sb. 对某人友好 9 I can learn a lot from it.我能

从中学到很多东西。

(1) learn…from“从……学习”。

(2) a lot = much“许多”,后接宾

语时要说a lot of 也可以表示“非 第 14 页

常,十分”。

Unit6 Topic1

重点语法 There be 句型和方位介词短语。

重点句型 There are two bedrooms

and a a small study.

There is a lamp, a computer, some books and so on.

—Is there a computer

in your study? —Yes, there is. Don't put them here.

Put them away.

重点讲解

1 It’s on the second floor. 在哪一层楼,用介词on。on表示

在……上面。second是序数词,前面要用定冠词the, 意为第二(的)。

巧辩异同 two与second 第 15 页

two是基数词,second是序数词,“第二”或“第二的”,指排列顺序。 2 in 在……里面,是方位介词。in the box in the classroom

Is there…? 表示某地存在……吗?其肯定回答是:Yes, there is. 否定回答No, there isn’t.它的复数形式为Are there…? 其肯定回答是:Yes, there are. 否定回答No, there aren’t.

3 巧辩异同 there be与 have

(1) there be“有”,指(某地)存在“有”。

(2) have“有”,指人或某物“拥有”。The is a dog in the picture. The dog has two big eyes.

注:there be be .........遵循就近原则。.........用.is还是,取决于离该动词最近的....are..............那个名词。如果该名词是单数或不可................ 第 16 页

数名词就用,如果是复数就用。 .....is..........are....4 have a look看看。后面接名词时

要用at. 如have a look at your watch.

5 talk about“谈论,议论”,后接

名词或动名词。

talk with/to “与某人交谈” 6 用来询问某地有某物,其结构为:

What’s+介词短语,回答时应用

there be句型。

7 play with“和……玩耍”,“玩”

play with sb. “与某人一起玩” 8 put away 把……放好

9 look after“保管,照顾”,相当

于take care of.

look at看…… look like看起

来像…… look for寻找 look the same看起来一样

10 巧辩异同in the tree与on the 第 17 页

tree

(1) in the tree 指外来物体在树上。

(2) on the tree树木本身长出来

的花、树叶等。

11 巧辩异同like doing与like to do like doing 表示经经常性或习惯性的兴趣、爱好。与love doing相似。 like to do 表示偶尔的、一次性的喜欢。与love to do相似。

12 I’m very glad to get a letter from you.我很高兴收到你的来信。 get a letter from sb. 收到某人的来信=hear from sb.

Topic2

重点语法 There be 句型 Wh-questions

重点句型 What’s your home like?

What’s the matter?

第 18 页

Sorry, I can’t hear you.

I’ll get someone to check it

right now.

There is something

wrong with my kitchen fan.

重点讲解

1 house with three bedrooms.有三

间卧室的房子。 with “有,

带有”。

With还可以意为“和(某人/某物)

在一起”

2 apartment for a family of two.

适合两口之家的公寓。

(1) for表示“给……”表示目的

或功能。后接物主代词或名词,

但通常带’s.或者后接表示无

生命物体的名词。Here is a

letter for you.

(2)of的含义为“属于某人/某事 第 19 页

物”。She is a friend of Lily’s. = Shes is Lily’s friend. 3 What’s the matter?怎么了?该

句常用来询问某或某物出了什么什么问题或毛病;询问具体某人或某物出了什么问题时,还可以表达为:What’s the matter with sb./sth.某人或某物出了什么毛病。 What’s the matter? = What’s wrong?

4 I hear you playing the piano.

我听见你在弹钢琴。

hear…doing sth.“听见……在做

某事”,强调正在进行的动作。 hear…do sth.“听见……做了某事”,强调全过程。

hear about sth.听到关于某事物的消息 hear from sb.接到某人的来信、电话等

第 20 页

hear of sb./sth.听到或知道某人或某事物的情况

5 a lot of = lots of许多 后接可

数名词,相当于many;后接不可数名词,相当于much,用于肯定句中;但是注意:如果是否定句,刚常用many或much.

6 be far from… 离……远(抽象距

离) be…away from…离……远(具体距离)

My school is not far from the

bookstore. The sea is 2 miles away from the hotel.

7 There is something wrong with

sb./sth.某人或某物出问题/有毛病了。

8 I’ll get someone to check it

right now.我马上派人去检查。 get sb. to do sth.使某人做某事 第 21 页

someone=somebody某人

right now= at once= right away

马上,立刻

语法讲解 There be…

(表示“有”)用法

1.“There + be+主语+地点状语”表示“某处有某物”;地点状语也可放在句首,有时可用“,”与后面的部分隔开。There are some pictures on the wall.=On the wall, there are some pictures.

2.它的疑问形式是将“be”提到“there”之前。 Are thery any books on the desk?

3. 它的否定形式是在“be”后加“not”.

4. There be如果后面接两个名词作主语,那么“be”的人称和数与邻近的名词一致。

Topic3

第 22 页

重点语法 特殊疑问句和问路、指路的方式。

重点句型 —Excuse me, how can I

get to … —Go along… and

turn left at the first street.

Be careful!

Don't play on the street.

重点讲解

1 go up “沿着……走”与它相近的

词有go along/down

2 get to 到达,后接地点名词 get

to =reach=arrive in/at

与get有关的短语: get in 收

获 get on上车 get off下

get out出去

get out of从……出来 get up起床

3 across from 在……对面

第 23 页

4 It’s good to help children and

old people to cross the road.帮助孩子和老人过马路是一种助人为乐的行为。It’s good to do sth.做某事是助人为乐的行为。 5 on the corner of = at the corner

of “在……拐角处”,表示在某一地方或建筑物外面的拐角处。in ..

the corner of 表示在某一建筑物内的拐角处。 .

6 有关come的短语

come to 来到 come form来自

于…… come on 加油,赶快 come in 进来

come out 出来 come down下来

come back回来

Unit7 Topic1

重点语法 掌握be动词的一般过去式。 重点句型 —Were you born in Hebei? 第 24 页

Yes, I was./ No, I wasn’t.

—When was your daughter

born? —She was born on October nd22, 1996.

What's the shape of your

present? What does it look like?

How long/wide is it?

What do we use it for? We use it to study English.

重点讲解

1 英语中日期可以有两种表达法:

st (1)月日,年。May 1,2008

st(2)日月,年。1 May,2008

2 plan to do sth.计划做某事 plan for sth.某事订计划

3 基数词变序数词的规律:

基变序,有规律,五、十二ve用f替再加th

一二三,特殊记,整几十改y为 第 25 页

ie再加th

八去t九去e再加th,几十几只改个位就可以。

4 表示确切“几百”时,hundred后

面不加“s”,但表示不确定数目的“数以百计”时,hundred后面应加“s”,用“hundreds of”表示。 three hundred students三百名

学生 hundreds of students几百名学生

5 英语中表达物体的长、宽、高,先

说数字,再说单位,最后加上一个表示长、宽、高的形容词。“.”读做“point”。 6.4米长 six point four meters long

6 What do we use it for?我们用它

来做什么?

use sth. to do sth.用某物做某

事. = use sth. for doing sth. 第 26 页

7 buy sb. sth. = buy sth. to sb.

买某物给某人.

语法讲解 be动词的一般

过去时

1. be动词的一般过去时,表示过去存

在的状态。 My brother was at school yesterday.

2. be动词的过去式为was/were,其否定

式为was not/wasn’t和were not/weren’t.

3. 一般疑问句以及简略回答:—Were

you born in July,1999? —Yes, I was./No,I wasn’t.

Topic2

重点语法 掌握情态动词can/can’t,could/couldn’t的用法。

重点句型 —Can/Could you dance?

—Yes, I can/could. No, I can’t/couldn’t.

第 27 页

—What can you do? —I

can speak English. He can’t sing English songs.

重点讲解

1 —Do you want to sing Chinese

songs or English songs? —Chinese songs.

选择疑问句中,回答时只能选择一

者作答,不能用“Yes”或“No”回答。

2 I’d like to take these flowers

to the party. take sb./sth. to sw.带某人/某物去某地

巧辩异同 take与bring take (从说话人处带到别处)带去,带走 bring (由别处带到说话人处)带来

3 一段时间+ago是表示过去的时间状语。 two years ago

第 28 页

at the age of 在……岁的时候

4 be good at doing sth. = do well in doing sth.擅长做某事,在……方面做得好。

5 with one’s help = with the help of… 在……的帮助下

6 can和could的使用

(1) can(could)“可以,同意,准许”表示请求,允许。could语气较can委婉。

(2) can“会,能”,表示能力,could表示过去的能力。

Topic3

重点语法 行为动词的一般过去时及其回答。

重点句型 —Did you sing a song at

the party? —Yes, I did/No, I didn’t.

第 29 页

I missed the chair and fell down. How could you lie to me?

Kangkang made a silent wish and them he blew the candles out in one breath.

重点讲解

1 Did Kangkang enjoy himself?康康玩得开心吗?

Enjoy是及物动词,后接名词,代

词或是动名词,意为“喜爱,欣赏,享受……的乐趣。”

enjoy oneself = have a good/great time玩得愉快 enjoy doning sth. 喜欢做某事

巧辩异同 like, love与enjoy

(1)like喜欢(程度较弱)like doing/to do

(2) love热爱(程度较强)love 第 30 页

doing/to do

(3)enjoy喜爱,欣赏,享受……的乐趣enjoy doing

2 It’s your turn.该你了。

turn 是名词,意思是“轮流”,It’

s one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人做某事。还可以做连系动词,意为“变成……”,后接形容词做表语。

3 反身代词oneself变化如下:①第

一二人称用形容词性物主代词+self(selves)

I→myself you→yourself(yourselves) ②第三人称用人称代词宾格+self(selves) he→himself they→themselves 4 What happened to Michael at the party?聚会上迈克发生什么事情了?

happen to sb. 某人发生某事, 第 31 页

to是介词 happen to do…碰巧干某事,to是不定式符号

语法讲解 一般过去式

一、一般过去式表示:(1)过去存在的

状态。My father wat at work yesterday afternoon. (2)过去某个时间发生的动作。 I got up at 6:30 yesterday. (3)过去经常或反复发生的动作。He always went to work by bus last year. 常用的时间状语:two days/months/years ago, last year, in those days, just now, in 2002等。

二、动词过去式的构成:

1. 规则动词①在动词后面直接加“ed”。

play-played ②动词以“e”结尾加“d”。move-moved ③动词以辅音字母加y结尾改y为i加ed.

第 32 页

study-studied ④动词为重读闭音节,双写词尾的辅音字母加ed. plan-planned stop-stopped

2. 不规则动词 am/is-was are-were

do-did (详情见书后不规则动词表)

三、行为动词一般过去时态陈述句变否

定句和一般疑问句:

肯定句:I bought some books

yesterday. 否定句: I didn’t buy any books yesterday.

一般疑问句:Did you buy any books yesterday?

第 33 页

第 34

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