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初中英语6大时态

发布时间:2014-02-09 13:52:55  

初中英语6大时态

用法:

1) 现阶段经常性,习惯性的动作。例如:

I get up at six every morning. He plays tennis once a week.

2) 现在的状态。例如:

My mother is a teacher. She teaches English in a school.

3)客观真理。例如:The earth goes around the sun.

常见的标志词:often,usually,sometimes,always,seldom,never,every day/week…,how often,once a week,in the morning/afternoon/evening等。

构成:主语是I, we, you, they和名词复数时作谓语的行为动词用原形。主语是he, she , it和名词单数时,动词第三人称单数的变法如下:

1)当主语是第一、二人称和第三人称复数以及名词复数时:

肯定式: S + be(is/am/are) + ···

否定式: S+ be (is/am/are) + not + ···

一般疑问式: Am /Is /Are + S + ···?

简略回答: (肯) Yes, S + be(is/am/are).

(否) No, S + be(is/am/are) + not.

特殊疑问句式: 特殊疑问词+一般疑问句?

2)主语为第三人称和名词单数时:

肯定式:S + V/动词的第三人称单数

否定式:S + don't/doesn't + V + 其他

一般疑问式:Do/Does + S + V + 其他

简略回答:(肯)Yes, S + do/does

(否)No, S + do/does not

练习题:

1. --- May I help you, sir?

--- Yes, I bought the TV the day before yesterday, but it ______.

A. didn’t work B. doesn’t work C. won’t work D. can’t work

2.______ the bus until it ______..

A. Get off, stops B. Get off, will stop C. Don’t get off, stops D. Don’t get off, will stop

3.The 70-year-old man ______ exercises in the morning.

A. takes B. are taking C. took D. will take

用法:

1).将要发生的动作。例如:

I will leave for Beijing tomorrow.

2).将要存在的状态。例如:

This time next year I will be in Japan. Where will you be?

3).打算要做的事。 例如:

Are you going to watch the film on television tonight?

4).表示往来运动的某些短暂性动词,可用现在进行时表示将来时。这类动词有:arrive,

come,leave,fly,move等。 例如:

They are arriving at this village in five hours.

He is coming to see me next week,

We are leaving / flying for London.

常用时间标志词:Tomorrow,soon,next week,this evening,in five days,from now on,in the future等。

构成:

1). will/shall + v

2). be + going to + v

练习题:

1. I______ for Hong Kong on Saturday. Will you go to see me off at the airport?

A. am leaving B. am left C. am going to leaving D. left

2.I______ to see grandma and help her with some housework next week.

A. came B. am going C. come D. will come

3.We Chinese ______ the Olympic Games in 2008.

A. held B. shall holding C. are holding D. are going to hold

4.From now on, I ______ the same mistakes again. Believe me.

A. make B. will make C. won’t make D. made

5.We ______ the old people in the old people’s house tomorrow afternoon.

A. help B. shall help C. are helping D. helped

6.I don’t know if he ______ . If he ______ , let me know.

A. comes; comes B. will come; comes C. will come; will come D. coming; comes

7.It ________ us a long time to learn English well.

A. takes B. will take C. spends D. will spend

用法:

1. 过去发生的动作。例如:

The police stopped me on my way home last night.

2. 过去存在的状态。例如:

They weren't able to come because they were so busy.

3. 常用于一般过去时的时间状语:

yesterday,three months ago,last year,in 1979,等。

构成: S+V-ed

动词的过去式。作谓语的行为动词的词尾变化如下:

一般过去时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和like为例): 练习题:

1. Mr. Mott is out. But he ______ here a few minutes ago.

A. was B. is C. will be D. would be

2.---Hi, Tom.

---Hello, Fancy. I ______ you were here.

A.don’t know B.won’t think C. think D. didn’t know

3. ---What did you do last night,Gina?

---I ______ Titanic 3D in the City Cinema.

A. watch B. watched C. am watching D. will watch

4. ---Will Mary come to the party tomorrow?

---I’m not sure. She ______ an hour ago without saying anything,

A. has left B. left C. leave D. will leave

5. After the students ______ their exams, they celebrated by having a party.

A. passed B. failed C. joined D. gave

6. ---Is that your father speaking?

---Sorry, he isn’t in. He ______ abroad on business last month.

A. go B. went C. will go D. has gone

用法:

1)说话时正在进行或发生的动作(动作是在说话时正在进行)。例如:

She is waiting for a bus now.

2)现阶段正在进行或发生的动作(但是动作并不是必须在说话时正在进行)。例如:You are working hard today.

Kate wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian.

The population of the world is growing very fast.

3)频度副词always, forever等词连用时,表示不断重复或某种强烈的感情。如: She is always smiling. He is always trying out new ideas. (表示欣赏,表扬)

4)表示按计划即将发生的动作(仅限于go, come, arrive, leave, start, fly, begin, stay 等动词)。如:

The party is beginning at 8:00 o’clock.

5)由while(when)引导的状语从句,动词通常用进行时。

While you are sitting on the grass, I’ll read you the novel.

常见时间标志词:now,at present,these days,look,listen,all the time,at the moment,be quiet等。

构成: Be + v-ing

肯定句: S + be + V-ing

否定句: S + be + not + V-ing

一般疑问句:Is(Are) + S + V-ing?

特殊疑问:wh_+ be + S + V-ing?

练习题:

1.They ______ ready for the coming test these days.

A. are getting B. get C. will get D. got

2. Be quiet. All the workers ______.

A. sleep B. are sleeping C. will sleep D. slept

3.Listen! Someone ______ at the door.

A. knocks B. knocking C. is knocking D. knocked

概念:

1)过去某一阶段或某一时刻正在进行的动作。 例如:

This time last year I was living in Brazil.

What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

常用于过去进行时的时间标志词:

at four yesterday afternoon,yesterday,then,all night, at that time/moment 等。

构成: was / were +v-ing

2)过去进行时与一般过去时的区别

过去进行时表示在过去一段时间正在进行的动作,而一般过去时表示一个完成的动作。如:

I was writing a composition last night. (可能没写完)

I wrote a composition last night. (已经写完)

练习题:

1)Daddy promised me he ______ me a computer

A. was bought B. had bought C bought D. would buy

2)They said they ______ do some sports if it was fine.

A. were going to B. went C. would going D. were going

3).The last time I __ Jane she ___ cotton in the fields.

A. had seen, was picking B. saw, picked

C. had seen, picked D. saw, was picking

4).I don ' t think Jim saw me; he ___ into space.

A. just stared B. was just staring

C. has just stared D. had just stared

5).I first met Lisa three years ago. She ___ at a radio shop at the time.

A. has worked B. was working

C. had been working D. had worked

6). The reporter said that the UFO ___ east to west when he saw it.

A. was traveling B. traveled

C. had been traveling D. was to travel

概念:

1)表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果.常与already, just, ever, never, before等词连用. 如:

She has never read this novel.

2)表示 “过去的动作”一直延续到现在并有可能继续延续下去. 常与for (后跟段时间)或since (后跟点时间)等连用.如:

I have been a member of the Party for 10 years.

I have been a member of the Party since 10 years ago.

注:在有for 和since 引导时间状语的句子中不能用短暂性动词,应用与之相应的表示状态的词。如:

He has died for 3 years.(F)

He has been dead for 3 years.(T)

延续性动词与非延续性动词之间的转换:

leave → be away; borrow → keep; buy → have;

begin/start → be on; die → be dead; fall ill → be ill;

finish/end/stop→ be over; get up → be up; put on → wear;

come here → be here; go there → be there; become → be;

join → be in+组织机构或be a member of+组织机构;open/close sth → keep sth open/close catch/get a cold → have a cold;come back → be back fall asleep → be asleep;get to/ arrive/reach → be (in); wake up → be awake;

leave → be away from; get to know → know;

go (get) out → be out; catch a cold →have a cold;

go to school → be in school; go abroad → be abroad;

marry → be married; make friends with → be friends with;

lose → be lost /be missing /be gone; lose one's job /work → be out of work /a job

注:①现在完成时不能和表示明确的过去时间连用。如:in 1998, last morning等

②have/has been to 表示“去过”(去了又回来了)

have/has gone to 表示“去过”(去了没回来了)

如:Where has she gone?(句中所指的人不在)

Where has she been?(句中作指的人在)

构成:

have / has + v-ing

2)现在完成时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和see为例):

肯定句:S+ have(has)+V-ed

否定句:S+ have(has)+not(haven’t,hasn’t)+V-ed 一般疑问句:Have(Has)+ S+V-ed+?

特殊疑问句:wh_+have(has)+ S+V-ed+?

练习题:

1.--How long ______ he ______ a fever?

--- Ever since last night.

A. have, got B. have , had C. have, caught D. did, have

2.My bowl is empty. Who ______ all my soup?

A. drinks B. had drunk C. has drunk D. drank

3. I ______ you for a long time. Where ______ you ______?

A. Didn’t seen; did, go B. didn’t see; have, gone

C. haven’t seen; have, been D. haven’t seen; have gone A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written

5. —— A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good

C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better

6. Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was ; studying B. will ; study

C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

7. We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .

A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

9. —Do you know him well ?

— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

10. —How long have you ____ here ?

—About two months .

A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

用法:

1、表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作。 他表示的时间是“过去 的过去 ”常与by last year, by the time of yesterday,等连用。如: She said she had seen the film 4 times.

When Mr Li got to the classroom, all the students had begun reading. By the time they arrived, the bus had left.

2、表示 从过去某一时间开始一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。常与for (后跟段时间)或since (后跟点时间)等连用.如:

She had worked in this school since it opened 25 years ago.

构成:

肯定式:had + V_ed

否定式:hadn’t + V_ed

疑问式:Had … + V_ed

简略回答: Yes, S + have/has had.

No, S + had

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