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英语时态——8种基本时态讲解

发布时间:2014-02-10 16:53:50  

英语时态:英语中表示不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态,需用不同的动词形式表示,这种不同的动词形式称为时态。

二.种类:(基本时态)一般现在时 一般过去时

现在进行时 过去进行时 一般将来时 现在完成时 过去完成时

三.用法:

1.一般现在时:

1)一般现在时表示经常发生或习惯性的动作或状态及客观现实和普遍真理。

一般现在时常以动词原形表示,但当主语是第三人称单数时,动词词尾加-s或-es。

2)句型结构:主语+V.(包括be动词)+宾语+…

She is an engineer.

He has breakfast at 6:00every day.

3)注意:a)一般现在时通常与always , often , usually , every day , sometimes , once a week 等时间状语连用。

I always watch TV at 8:00 in the evening .

They go home once a week .

We usually do our homework at home .

b)表客观现实或普遍真理。

The sun always rises in the east .

The light travels faster than the sound .

c)表永远性的动作或状态。

He lives in the country .

4)第三人称单数变化形式。

a)一般情况动词在词尾加-s .

come---comes speak---speaks work---works live---lives

b)以o, s, x, ch, sh结尾的单词在词后加-es.

do---does go---goes finish---finishes brush---brushes

fix---fixes pass---passes watch---watches

c)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的单词变y为i加-es.

Study---studies carry-carries cry---cries

d)以“元音字母+y”结尾的单词直接加-s.

play---plays stay---stays

例句:

我们每天晚上九点做作业。

我在早上七点半起床。

他每天七点去上班。

我们经常下午打篮球。

他喜欢音乐。

地球围绕太阳转。

火车六点出发。

2.一般过去时

1)一般过去时表示发生在过去的动作或存在的状态,通常与表示过去的时间状语yesterday,

last night ,some years ago, in 1990,in those days.等连用。

I was a student 6years ago. I went to Beijing last year. They saw a film last night .

2)句型结构:主语+V.过去时+宾语+…

例句:

昨天他很忙。

去年他抽烟了。

两年前他去参军了。

他在1990年去世了。

4)动词过去式变化规则。

a)一般情况下的词加-ed.

work---worked call----called laugh----laughed

Explain----explained finish----finished knock----knocked

b)以不发音的字母e结尾的单词直接加-d .

live----lived change----changed smoke----smoked die----died graduate----graduated drive----drove

c)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的单词,变y为i加-ed.

study----studied carry----carried cry----cried

try----tried marry----married

d)以“元音字母+y”结尾的单词直接加-ed.

play----played stay----stayed

e)以“一个元音字母+一个辅音字母”结尾的单词应先双写这个辅音字母然后再加-ed. stop----stopped plan----planned pat----patted

f)动词不规则变化:

do----did go----went come----came run----ran write----wrote begin----began drink----drank keep----kept leave----left sleep----slept

make----made lie----lay dig----dug eat----ate know----knew cut----cut set----set let----let read----read hurt----hurt 例句:

我前天拿走了这本书。

去年我买了一辆自行车。

每天晚上我听音乐。

她通常待在家里。

两天前我完成了这项工作。

1) I (be) a teacher 2 years ago.

2) He (be) a student now.

(do) his homework at home every day.

4) They (join) the Party in 1998.

(eat) apples yesterday.

6) We (play) basketball every day.

( go ) home once a week.

3.一般将来时

1)表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表将来的时间状语tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next Sunday, soon, in a few days等连用。

2)句型结构:主语+will/shall+V.原形+…(第一人称用shall)

I shall go to Shanghai tomorrow.

They will have a meeting next week.

----She will be 20 years old.

----Will she be 20 years old?

----Yes, she will./ No, she won’t .

3)主语+will/shall+V.原形+…

be(am, is, are)going to

They will have a meeting next Sunday.

(will=are going to )

---What will they do next Sunday ?

---When will they have a meeting?

4) be about to+V.原形

I am about to leave school.

不能与表示时间的副词连用。

They are about to set out.(√)

They are about to set out soon.(×)

复习题:

(do) his homework at school every day.

2.They (finish) their work yesterday.

(visit) their farm next year.

4.我半小时后要吃午饭。

5.他将骑自行车去学校。

6.他们下周日将去买汽车。

4.现在进行时

1)现在进行时表示现在或现在这段时间正在进行的动作。通常与now, at present 等时间状语连用。

2)基本结构:主语+be(am, is, are)+ v-ing +…

You are listening to me carefully now.

She is writing a letter this year.

Look! They are dancing.

We are studying English at present .

It’s raining hard now.

3)动词现在分词的构成

① 一般动词直接在词后加-ing

do – doing read - reading work – working think – thinking

study – studying go – going watch – watching jump - jumping

②以不发音的字母e 结尾的动词,应先去掉 e 然后加 – ing

like – liking take – taking leave – leaving live – living

receive – receiving dance – dancing come – coming smoke – smoking write - writing ③ 以“一个元音字母 + 一个辅音字母”结尾的动词,应先双写这个辅音字母然后再加-ing stop – stopping begin – beginning dig – digging

swim – swimming run – running sit – sitting

(注意:listen – listening open – opening eat – eating rain – raining sleep - sleeping)

5.过去进行时

1) 通常与 at 6:00 yesterday, at this/ that

time yesterday, when 引导的时间状语等连用。

2) 基本结构 主语+be (was/were) +v- ing +…

1.It was raining at 7:00 the day before yesterday.

2.They were building a reservoir at this time last winter. 3)例句

1. 前天那个时候Tom 正在看电影。

2. 上周日四点我们正在游泳。

3.师看见我们时我们正在玩扑克。

4.I ____ (do) my homework yesterday.

5.He ____ (do) his homework at 5:00 yesterday.

6.He ____ (do) his homework now.

6.现在完成时

1)1. 表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响

2.表示过去某时间已经开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态

通常与下列时间状语连用 up to now, in the past, recently, by… , for 5 years, since 1994, so far, already, yet, ever, just…

2)基本结构 主语+ have/has + P.P(动词过去分词)

1.I’ve finished this work.

2.He has ever been to Australia.

3.I have not heard from her recently. 3)过去分词的构成(规则变化同过去式的构成)

不规则变化如下

do did done go went gone eat ate eaten come came come Have had had write wrote written be was/were been see saw seen hear heard heard swim swam swum drink drank drunk give gave given forget forgot forgotten take took taken keep kept kept sleep slept slept teach taught taught buy bought bought tell told told make made made cut cut cut hurt hurt hurt read read read let let let

4) 注意

1. 含有终止意义或暂短意义的动词不能与 for, since 引导的一般时间状语连用。 (buy, begin, die, come, go , join, leave 等)

A) I have bought a book.

I have bought a book for 3 day. (wrong)

I have had a book for 3 years.

B) He have joined the army for 3 years. (wrong)

He has been in the army for 3 years.

He joined the army 3 years ago.

C) He has been dead for 3 years.

He died 2 years ago.

It is 2 years since he died.

He has died for 2 years. (wrong)

D) He has gone to Australia.

He has been to Australia.

2.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别 (时间状语的区别)

I ___ (hear) form her recently / yesterday.

3.例句:

他已经阅读了这本书。

我们到目前为止已学习了两千个单词。

他们居住在中国三年了。

他看这部电影两次了。

Bob 自从 1997 年在这所学校教学。

7.过去完成时

1)表示动作发生在过去某一时间之前已经完成的动作或状态, 强调“过去的过去”, 常与 by the time, by the end of…,before , by 等引导时间的状语连用。

2)基本结构 主语+ had + 动词过去分词 + …

When I got to the cinema yesterday the film had begun already.

昨天当我到达电影院时电影已经开始了。

He had learned English before he came here.

他来这儿之前已经学会英语了。

He had aught this class for 3 years by the time I left the school.

当我离开这个学校为止 他已教这个班级三年了。

By the end of last term I had learned 2000 English words.

到这学期末我已学会了2000 个英语单词。

I. Fill in the blanks.

1. We usually ___ (get ) up at 7:00 every morning.

2.She ___ (watch) TV when she heard a loud knock at the door this time yesterday.

3.My mother ___ (come) here tomorrow.

4. Look ! Some one ___ (dance) there.

5. Wei Hua’s brother ___ (join) the army in 1995.

6. He ___ (write) a letter this afternoon.

7. Rice ___ (grow) in the south of China.

8. She said ___ (go) to Japan next year.

9. We ___ (study) 2,000 words since we came to the school.

10. By the end of last term he ___ (teach) that class for 2 years.

II. Translation

(1)我每天早上7 点通常打篮球。

(2)昨天我去游泳了。

(3)我们将在下学期学习俄语。

(4)他现在正在玩游戏。

(5)去年冬天这个时候他们正在盖房子。

(6)我居住在山东20 年了。

(7)到上月末为止他工作十年了。

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