2．以s， sh， ch， x等结尾的词加“es”，如bus→buses， watch→watches等；
3．以辅音字母＋y结尾的词，变y为i加es，如baby→babies等；以元音字母＋ y结尾的名词变复数时，直接加s变复数，如monkey→monkeys， holiday→holidays， storey→storeys（楼层）；
a）加s的名词有：photo→photos ，piano→pianos， radio→radios， zoo→zoos
b）去掉f， fe 加ves的名词有：
wife→wives life→lives thief→thieves
1） 以y结尾的专有名词，或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时，直接加s变复数。例如： two Marys the Henrys
2） 以o 结尾的名词，变复数时：
a. 加s，如： photo---photos piano---pianos
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b. 加es，如：potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes
c. 上述a和b两种方法均可，如zero---zeros / zeroes。
3） 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时：
a. 加s，如： belief---beliefs roof---roofs
b. 去f,fe 加ves，如：half---halves
knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves
wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves；
c. 上述a和b两种方法均可，如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。
1） child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth
mouse---mice man---men woman---women
注意：由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词，其复数形式也是 -men 和-women，如an Englishman，two Englishmen。但German不是合成词，故复数形式为Germans；Bowman是姓，其复数是the Bowmans。
2） 单复同形，如deer，sheep，fish，Chinese，Japanese ，li，jin，yuan，two li，three mu，four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外，美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如：a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
people police cattle 等本身就是复数，不能说 a people，a police，a cattle，但可以说a person，a policeman，a head of cattle, the English，the British，the French，the Chinese，the Japanese，the Swiss 等名词，表示国民总称时，作复数用，如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
b. news 为不可数名词。
c. the United States，the United Nations 应视为单数。
The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
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"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。
5） 表示由两部分构成的东西，如：glasses （眼镜） trousers, clothes等，若表达具体数目，要借助数量词 pair（对，双）; suit（套）; a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。
比较：Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 （不可数）
These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 （可数）
This factory produces steel. （不可数）
We need various steels. （可数）
Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量，如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。
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sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室
talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系
2） man, woman, gentleman等作定语时，其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如： men workers women teachers gentlemen officials
goods train （货车） arms produce 武器生产
customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷
two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路
two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
复数中国人the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese
瑞士人the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss
澳大利亚人the Australians an Australian two Australians
俄国人the Russian a Russian two Russians
意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians
希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks
法国人the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen
日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese
美国人 the Americans an American two Americans
印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians
加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians
德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans
英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen
瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes
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英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系，带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格，如：a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下：
1） 单数名词词尾加"'s"，复数名词词尾没有s，也要加"'s"，如the boy's bag 男孩的书包，men's room 男厕所。
2） 若名词已有复数词尾-s ，只加" ' "，如：the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
3） 凡不能加"'s"的名词，都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系，如：the title of the song 歌的名字。
4） 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时，名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词，如：the barber's 理发店。
5） 如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，则表示"分别有"；只有一个's，则表示'共有'。例如： John's and Mary's rooms（两间） John and Mary's room（一间）
6） 复合名词或短语，'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如：a month or two's absence
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1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.
a． little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages
2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.
a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes
3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.
a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation
4.Painting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.
a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil
5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.
a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many
6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.
a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense
7.The room was small and contained far too ______.
a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures
b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures
8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.
a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers
9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself. a great many…many c. much…a great deal
b. a great deal of…much d. many…a great many
10.She didn’t know _____ he had been given.
a. how many information c. how many informations
b. the number of information d. how much information
11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.
a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm
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b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm
12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
a. women doctors c. woman doctors
b. women doctor d. woman doctor
13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.
a. growns-ups c. growns-up
b. grown-up d. grown-ups
14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
a. stander-by c. standers-by
b. stander-bys d. standers-bys
15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.
a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war
b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war
16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.
a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels
17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.
a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress
18.All the people at the conference are ______.
a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher
b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers
19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance. a. some property c. properties
b. some properties d. property
20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.
a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are
21.He has written several books, but his last works _____ well known among his friends. a. have b. have been c. is d. are
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22.After he checked up my ______ heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days. a. father-in-law’s c. father’s-in-law
b. father-in-law d. father’s-in-law’s
23.He told me _____ would come to his birthday party.
a. many Jack friends c. many Jack’s friend
b. Jack’s many friends d. many friends of Jack’s
24.I had my hair cut at the _____ around the corner.
a.barber b. barbers c. barber’s d. barbers’
25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at ______.
a. Peter and Helen’s c. Peter and Helen
b. Peter and Helens d. Peter’s and Helen’s
26.______ receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun’s energy.
a. The earth’s surface c. The surface of earth
b. The surface earth d. The earth surface
27.Numerous materials are available to ______.
a. today of designers c. today’s of designers
b. today’s designers d. today designers
28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don’t you know he is an old friend of ______?
a. my brother b. my brothers c. my brother’s d. my brother’s friend
29.______ is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know.
a. This John’s old friend c. That’s Jahn’s old friend
b. This old friend of John d. This old friend of John’s
30.______ is too much for a little boy to carry.
a.A bike’s weight c. The weight of a bike
b.The weights of a bike d. Bile’s weight
31.Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.
a. little b. much c. a large number of d. a large amount of
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32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were ______ left.
a. only few seats b. a very few seats c. only a few seats d. so a few seats
33.______ travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.
a. A little mail b. A piece of mail c. A mail d. A small mail
34.The Department purchased ______ to improve the working conditions there.
a. a new equipment c. new equipments
b. a new piece of equipment d. new pieces of equipments
35.The boy tried hard but there has been ______ in his work.
a. little improvement c. many improvements
b. a little improvement d. few improvements
36.Today’s modern TV cameras require ______ light as compared with the earlier models. a. only a few b. only few c. only a little d. only little
37.No country can afford to neglect ______.
a. an education b. educations c. education d. the education
38.Please write the answers to the questions at the end of ______.
a. eighth chapter b. chapter eight c. eight chapter d. chapter the eight
39.______ is only surpassed by that of monkeys’ and apes’.
a. The intelligent dog c. The intelligence of dogs
b. The dogs whose intelligence d. The dogs being intelligent
40.All ______ must take the graduate Management Admission Test.
a. business student b. business’s students c. business students d. business’s student
41.______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself. a. Three minutes call c. A three-minutes call
b. Three-minute call d. A three-minute call
42.The ______ about nuclear energy revolves around the waste problem.
a. public’s chief concern c. chief public concern
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b. public chief concern d. chief concern of public’s
43.______ the first and largest ethnic group to work on the construction of the transcontinental railroad.
a. Chinese were b. The Chinese was c. Chinese was d. The Chinese were
44.______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.
a. Looker-on b. Lookers-on c. Looker-ons c. Lookers-ons
45.A group of spectators was dispersed by the police who ______ at the scene of the accidents within minutes.
a. were b. have been c. was d. has been
46.Our livestock ______ not as numerous as they used to be.
a. is b. are c. be d. been
47.One of the most surprising things is that ______ may come from petroleum.
a. much of tomorrow food c. many of tomorrow’s food
b. much of the food of tomorrow d. much of tomorrow’s food
48.Scott is an orphan but he received ______.
a. very good education c. a very good education
b. very good educations d. many good educations
49.After several day’s hardworking, we have made ______ on the design.
a. much improvement c. many improvement
b. several improvements d. some improvement
50.The boy was very happy that his mother bought him a new pair of shoes at a ______ yesterday.
a. shoes shop b. shoe shop c. shoes’s shop d. shoe’s
51.Eggs, though nourishing, have ______ of fat content.
a. large number b. a large number c. a high amount d. the high amount
52.He has done some ______ on that subject from various angles over the past ten years. a. research b. a research c. researches d. the researches
53.Recently, he has lost all his ______.
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a. wage and saving at card c. wages and saving at card
b. wages and savings at card d. wages and savings at cards
54.The country’s wealth comes chiefly from its many ______.
a. herd of cattle b. heard of cattles c. herds of cattle d. herds of cattles
55.In Britain the ______ are all painted red.
a. letter boxes b. letters box c. letters boxes d. letters’s box
56.Ten years had passed. I found she had ______.
a. a little white hair c. a few white hair
b. some white hair d. much white hair
57.All his ______ far from satisfaction
a. conduct is b. conduct are c. conducts is d. conducts will be
58.Although the town had been attacked by the storm several times, ______ was done.
a. a few damages b. few damages c. little damage d. a little damage
59.He was ______ what to do.
a. at his wit end b. at his wits end c. at his wit’s end d. at his wits’s end
60.Would you like to have a cup of tea and ______ with me?
a two toasts b. two pieces of toast c. two piece of toasts d. tow pieces of toasts
61.Accurate ______ covering the fact are not obtainable.
a. datum b. datums c. data d. datas
62.On Monday morning some teachers exchanged a few ______.
a. how-are-yous c. how-are-you’s
b. of how-are-you’s d. of how are you
63.Albert said he met the girl ______
a. at his uncle’s Smith room c. at his uncle Smith’s room
b. at Smith’s his uncle’s room d. at the room of his uncle’s Smith’s
64.It is four months since I last saw Keats ______.
a. at Mrt Smith’s ,the book seller c. at my aunt’s, a book seller
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b. at my aunt’s, Mrs Palmer’s d. at Mrs Palmer’s, the book seller’s
65.This room is ______.
a. the editor’s-in-chief’s office c. the editor-in-chief’s office b. the editor-in-chief office d. the editor’s-in-chief office
66.My old classmate, Comrade Sun ,works at ______.
a. a teacher college c. a teacher’s college
b. a teachers’s college d. a college of a teacher’s
67.The policemen put the criminal ______.
a. in a iron b. into a iron c. in irons d. into a pair of iron
68.Our teacher gave me ______.
a. an advice b. the advice c. many advice d. much advice
69.My mother cut the cloth with ______ scissors.
a. a b. two c. a couple of d. a pair of
70.My house is within ______ from the railway station.
a. a stone’s throw b. a throw of a stone c. stone’s throw d. the stone’s throw
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