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直接引语变间接引语语法讲解

发布时间:2014-02-11 13:54:57  

直接引语变间接引语语法讲解

一、人称

人称变化可以遵循如下顺口溜“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新”。

“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化,如:

She said. “My brother wants to go with me.”

→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称,或被第二人“你”所修饰,从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称,如: He said to Kate,"How is your sister now?"

→He asked Kate how her sister was then.

“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化,如:

Mr. Smith said,“Jack is a good worker.”

→Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker.

二、时态

直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。其基本法则和宾语从句的时态变化一致,也就是说从句时态要和主句时态一致。如果从句是过去时,主句要向后退一格时态,变成一种过去时。

1. She said. “I have lost a pen.” →She said she had lost a pen.

(现在完成 变 过去完成)

2. She said. “We hope so.” →She said they hoped so.

(一般现在 à 一般过去)

3. She said,“He will go to see his friend。”

→She said he would go to see his friend. (一般将来 → 过去将来)

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

①直接引语是客观真理。如:

“The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth”, the teacher

told me.

→ The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the

earth。

②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said, “John, where were you going when I met you in the street?”

→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street.

③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如: Xiao Wang said,“I was born on April 20, 1980.”

→Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980.

④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如: He said, “I get up at six every morning.”

→He said he gets up at six every morning.

⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to,had better,used to)和已经是 过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said,“You had better come here today.”

→Peter said I had better go there that day.

三、其它

直接引语变间接引语,具有指代性的词也需要变化,一些具体变化如下: 指示代词 this ---that these --- those 表示时间的词 now --- then today --- that day this week(month, etc.) --- that week (month, etc.) yesterday --- the day before (前天) last week(month) --- the week(month) before 前。。。 three days(a year)ago --- three days(a year)before tomorrow --- the next (following ) day

如果直接说明天,可以用the next day,

如果说下一天则用the following day专指下一次,最近的一次

next week(month)---the next(following)week(month)

表地点的词 here --- there

动词 bring --- take come --- go

四、句型:

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:

She said, “Our bus will arrive in five minutes.”

→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语

从句.如:

He said, “Can you swim, John?” →He asked John if he could swim.

“You have finished the homework, haven’t you?” my mother asked.

→ My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

“Do you go to school by bus or by bike?”

→ He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, “When do they have their dinner?”

→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为“tell(ask, order命令, beg祈求等)sb.(not) to do sth.”句型。

如:

“Don’t make any noise,” she said to the children.

→ She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise.

“Bring me a cup of tea, please,” said she.

→ She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

⑤直接引语如果是以“Let’s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest建议 +动名词(或从句)。”如:

He said, “ Let’s go to the film.”

→ He suggested going to the film.

→ He suggested that they should go to see the film.

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