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初中直接间接引语讲解

发布时间:2014-02-13 17:07:44  

教学内容:直接引语和间接引用

教学目标: 能掌握直接引语和间接用法和结构 重点和难点:直接引语和间接

直接变间接

讲解:

一、在复合句中,作宾语的句子(主谓结构)就叫宾语从句。直接引语变间接引语多数情况下构成宾语从句。变化时应注意以下几点:

1.引导词(连词)

① 如果直接引语是陈述句,变成间接引语,引导词用that, that没有实际意

义,口语或非正式文体中常省略 e.g He said, “My mother is a doctor.” →He said (that) his mother was a doctor.

② 如果直接引语是一般疑问句,变成间接引语,引导词就用if。不能省略

e.g “Are you English?” He asked me→He asked me if I was English.

③ 如果直接引语是特殊疑问句,变成间接引语,引导词就用特殊疑问句的

疑问词,如:what when where which who how等,这些词有意义,不能

省略:eg “How old are you ?” He asked me→He asked me how old I was.

二、间接引语的宾语从句中,引导词之后都必须使用陈述语序,即 “引导词+主语+谓语…),肯定式的宾语从句不用助动词do(did或does) e.g.

She asked, “What does he want?”→She asked what he wanted.

He asked me ,“Do you like English?” →He asked me if I liked English.

变化注意事项

一、如何变人称:

顺口溜“一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新”。

“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:

She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→______________________ “二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:

He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。

“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:

Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→__________________________

二、如何变时态:

直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。

现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如:

1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said ____________

2)She said. "We hope so."→She said ______________

3)She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said __________________

(1) 一般现在时变为一般过去时

(2) 现在进行时变为过去进行时

(3) 一般将来时变为过去将来时

(4) 现在完成时变为过去完成时

(5) 一般过去时变为过去完成时

(6) 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。

"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → ___________________________________________ ②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→_____________________________________________________ ③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →____________________ ④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →___________________________ ⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said. "You had better come here today。" →Peter said _______________

三、如何变状语:

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由“现在”改为“原来(”例:now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由“此”改为“彼”(例:this 改为that),如:

He said, "These books are mine." →He said ______________

指示代词

this……these

these……those

表示时间的词

now……then

today……that day

this week(month ,etc)……that week (month ,etc)

yesterday……the day before

last week(month ,etc)……the week(month ,etc) before

three days (a year ,etc) ago……three days (a year. etc) before

tomorrow……the next (following ) day

next week (month ,etc)……the next (following ) week (month ,etc)

表地点的词

here……there

动词

bring……take

come……go

四、如何变句型:

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that____________________ ②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:

He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked ___________________

"You have finished the homework, haven?t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked ___________________

"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me _______________ ③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→

She asked me ____________________

④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:

"Don?t make any noise," she said to the children. →

She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise.

"Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→

She asked him ____________________

⑤直接引语如果是以“Let?s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动句词(或从句)。”如:

He said, "Let?s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.

练习题:

( )1.He said that he ________speak a little English when he was five.

A is able to B able C could D can

( )2.Please tell me where _______have our picnic tomorrow。

A we will B will we C you are D will you

( )3.Did you hear________ clearly?

A what he said B what he says C what did he say D how did he said

( )4.He wanted to know why _______up late.

A did she get B she got C does she get D she gets

( )5.Could you tell me ________from your house to the factory?

A how far it is B it is how far C how far it was D how far is it

( )6.Could you tell me if it _________ tomorrow?

A rain B will rain C raining D rains

( )7.Tom asked me ________ English.

A if I likes B if I liked C that I like D that I liked

( )8.Our teacher told us the earth ________around the sun.

A goes B go C went D going

( )9.Do you remember what________________ when I came in?

A Tom is doing B Tom was doing C is Tom doing D was Tom doing

( )10.He asked how many pictures_______。

A did they draw B do they draw C they will draw D they would draw

( )11.They asked if the teacher ________them some songs the next week.

A would teach B had taught C will teach D taught

( )12.He asked me if I ________in Shanghai.

A live B lived C is living D will live

Ⅱ.句型转换。

1. I don?t know what to say.

I don?t know ________ ________ ________ ________.

2. “What?s your favorite color” she asked me.

She asked me what ________ favorite color _________.

3. “What are you doing?” Jim asked me.

Jim asked me ________ ________ ________ __________.

4 Tom said to me, “You are a good student.”

Tom told me ________ ________ ________ a good student.

5He said , “I will go to the Great Wall tomorrow.”

He said that he ________ ________ to the Great Wall _______ ________ ______.

6“Do you like playing football.” She asked me.

She asked me ________ ________ ________ playing football.

7“I can?t work out this math problem.” Tom said.

Tom said that ________ ________ work out ____________ math problem. 8 He asked Jim, “ Where does your pen pal come from?”

He asked Jim __________ __________ pen pal __________ from.

9. Mary asked Gina, “ Are you ill?”

Mary asked Gina _________ ________ __________ ill.

10. Tom said to me , “Pass the ball to me.”

Tom ________me ________ ________ the ball to _________.

阅读理解

George liked flying a plane. Once he bought a small plane and learned how to fly it. He soon became so good that he could make his plane do all kinds of tricks(技巧).

George had a friend. His name was Peter. One day George said to his friend, “ Peter, would you like to have a trip in my plane?” Peter thought, “ I?ve traveled in a big plane several times, but I?ve never been in a small one, so I?ll go.”

They went up, and George flew around for half an hour and did all kinds of tricks in a shaken voice(颤抖的声音), “ Well, George, thank you very much for these two trips in your plane.”

George was very surprised and asked, “ Two trips? ”

“Yes, my first and my last.” Answered Peter.

( )1.. Peter ______ his friend?s plane.

A. had to fly in B. was asked to have a trip in

C. was asked to fly D. asked George to fly

( )2. Peter went up with George in the plane because ______ .

A. he liked traveling very much B. George was good at flying his plane

C. he had never traveled in a small plane D. Peter could do all kinds of

flying tricks

( )3. They were in the plane for ______ minutes.

A. forty-five B. sixty C. thirty D. some

( )4. How many times did Peter travel in his friend?s small plane?

A. Once B. Twice C. Three times D. Several times

( )5. From the passage we know that ______ .

A. Peter thanked George for the nice trip

B. Peter thought it was wonderful to have such a trip

C. Peter felt surprised that his friend could fly so well

D. Peter was worried about his safety while George was doing tricks in the

sky

课后习题

一、句型转换

1).How does he get on with his new classmates? Could you tell me? (改为含有宾语从句的复合句)

Could you tell me how _______________ ____________ on with his new classmates?

2).What is he doing there? Mother didn't know. (改为含有宾语从句的复合句 Mother didn't know what __________________ ____________doing there.

3).You'd better ask your mother whether is it cheap enough before you try it on.(改错)

4)What's his name? I asked him.(改为含有宾语从句的复合句)

I asked him what __________ _______________ ______________.

5)Why didn't he look happy? Could you tell me?(改为含有宾语从句的复合句) Could you tell me why ___________ _______________ look happy?

6)Does he still live in that street? I don't know(改为含有宾语从句的复合句) I don't know ___________ he still ___________ in that street.

7)Whose children is the old woman looking after?Did you find out? (改为含有宾语从句的复合句)

Did you find out whose children the old woman __________ _______________ after?

8)The moon moves round the earth. My sister told me.(同上)

My sister told me ____________________ the moon__________________ round the earth.

9) I think it is not going to snow tomorrow.(改错)

10). "Do you want to try something new。" Tom's mother asked him.(同义句转换) Tom's mother asked him_____________ _____________ ______________to try

something new

二、单项选择

1. He said ________ she would leave the message on the headmaster's desk.

A. that B. where C. which D. what

2. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shopkeeper ________ Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book.

A. that B. how C. what D. if

3. A: Could you tell me ________ she is looking for?

B: Her cousin, Susan.

A. that B. whose C. who D. which

4. I want to know________.

A. what is his name B. what's his name C. that his name is D. what his name is

5. Could you tell me________?

A. when did Tom come back B. when does Tom come back

C. when Tom will come back D. when Tom comes back

6. A: Could you tell me ________?

B: I'm not sure.

A. how many people have been out of hospital B. when is Thanksgiving Day

C. which animal does he like best D. what time will the dolphin show start

7. Mr. King didn't know ________ yesterday evening.

A. when does his son come home B. when his son comes home

C. when did his son come home D. when his son came home

8. The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 ________ Christmas Day.

A. is B. was C. has been D. which

9. I wonder ________ you would like to come to my birthday party.

A. that B. whether C. that if D. that whether

10. A: I'm waiting for the mail. Do you know ________ it will arrive?

B: Usually it comes by 4:00.

A. how B. where C. when D. What

宾语从句专项练习

一、将下面的句子连接成为含有宾语从句的复合句。

1.These flowers are from Guangdong. He said.

He said _______ these flowers _______ from Guangdong.

2. Light travels faster than sound. My teacher told me.

My teacher told me _____ light _______ faster than sound.

3.There will be a meeting in five days. Jack didn?t know.

Jack didn?t know _____ there _____ ____ a meeting in five days.

4.Can they speak French? I want to know.

I want to know ______ _______ _______ _______ French.

5.Are the children playing games? Tell me.

Tell me ______ the children ______ ______ games.

6.Have you finished your homework yet? Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang.

Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang ____ _____ ____ ____ ___ homework yet.

7.How many people can you see in the picture? Who knows?

Who knows ______ _____ _____ ____ _____ ______ in the picture?

8.Where did she park her car? Do you know?

Do you know _____ _____ ____ her car?

9.What does he often talk about? The girl wondered.

The girl wondered _____ _____ often ________ about.

10.Who knocked at the door so loudly? I don?t know.

I don? t know ____ _______ at the door so loudly.

11. Does he still live in that street? I don't know.

I don't know ______ he still _______ in that street.

12. What's his name? I asked him.

I asked him what _____ _____ _____.

13. When does the train arrive? Please tell me.

Please tell me ________ _________ ________ _________.

14. Do they want fried chicken? He asked the boys.

He asked the boys _______ they ______ fried chicken.

15. Was the watch made in Shanghai? I don't know.

I don't know _______ the watch _______ made in Shanghai.

二、选择填空。

( ) 1. What did Mike say? He said ____________________.

A. if you are free the next week B. what colour was it

C. the weather is fine D. summer comes after spring

( ) 2. Tom asked my friend ________________.

A. where was he from B. that the earth is bigger than the moon

C. when did he come back D. not to be so angry

( ) 3. Let me tell you __________________.

A. how much is the car B. how much does the car cost

C. how much did I pay for the car D. how much I spent on the car

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