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2014年深圳英语八年级下Lesson 2 动词不定式

发布时间:2014-02-19 17:26:52  

Lesson 2

动词不定式

一、必须掌握的动词不定式的用法。

(一)、经常放在这些动词之后,做宾语。如:want, hope, wish, like, begin, start, forget, remember, need, ask, learn, decide, would like, try, offer, plan, refuse, agree, help 等。

其形式为:want to do; hope to do 等。

Eg: Remember to post the letter.

I hope to stay with you.

拓展:(1) 主语+谓语+it+宾语补足语+动词不定式

Eg: I find it difficult to learn English well.(其中it为形式宾语,不定式为真正的宾语)

注意:此处的谓语动词通常为,think,find,feel,consider

(2)当两个或两个以上的不定式连用时,后面的不定式往往省略to. Eg: He began to read and write after dinner.

接动词不定式做宾语的动词

拓展:(1)动词不定式可以和疑问词who(m), which, what, when, how, where (why) 除外等连用,构成动词不定式短语,在句子中做主语、宾语或表语等。 Eg: How to control the water pollution is a big problem. (作主语)

I don’t know how to study English well. (作宾语)

The trouble is whom to invite. (作表语)

(2)“疑问词+动词不定式(短语)”作宾语时,相当于一个宾语从句。 Eg: I don’t know what to do next time.= I don’t know what I should do next time.

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以上动词加不定式做宾语时,也要注意其后加doing的区别。

如: forget doing like doing begin doing start doing

但表达的意义不尽一样,动名词作宾语表示动作的经常性、习惯性,而不定式作宾语则表示某次具体的活动或行为。这样的动词有:like, love等。

I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim in such cold weather.

(like swimming表示一种习惯,而like to swim则表示一种具体的动作。)

动名词常用在这些动词的后面做宾语:enjoy, mind, finish, imagine, keep, practice, avoid,admit, deny, suggest等。

###一些常见用法###(选学部分:主语和表语)

(1)作主语

动词不定式作主语可位于句首。例如:

To learn a skill is very important for everyone in society.

也可使用it作形式主语,而将其置于句末。例如:

It is necessary for young students to learn a foreign language.

动词不定式作主语的常用句型有:

1. It is+adj./ n. (+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.

用于此句型的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult, possible, important, impossible, necessary, good, bad, exciting, interesting, surprising等。例如:

It is interesting to play this game.

It is necessary for you to change your job.

It was impossible for them to complete the task(任务) in such a short time. 考例1:Is ____ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship?

A. now B. man C. that D. it

用于此句型的名词有:pity, shame, pleasure, one’s duty, one’s job, fun, joy, good manners, bad manners等。例如:

What a pity it is for you to have missed such a wonderful film.

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2. It is+adj.+of sb.+to do sth.

该句型中只能使用描述某人的品德、特征的形容词,如: kind, nice, wise, silly, polite, impolite, friendly, foolish, clever等。例如:

It is friendly of the family to try to make me feel at home in their house.

3. It takes sb.+some time+to do sth.

该句型意为“做某事花费某人多长时间”。例如:

It took us half an hour to ride to the town by bike.

(2)定语

动词不定式作定语,应位于所修饰词语之后,即:作后置定语。例如:

Have you got anything to eat? (to eat修饰anything,位于其后)

I have much work to do.

(二)、作宾语补足语。

动词不定式作宾语补足语,放在宾语的后面,表示宾语是什么或怎么样。其后接带to的不定式做宾语补足语的动词(短语)有: ask, tell, like, love, hate, would like, order, teach, want, wish, advise, allow等。

其形式为: ask sb to do sth; tell sb to do sth 等

不定式的否定:not to do 如:ask sb not to do sth

Eg: The doctor asked him to take a good rest at home.

She taught me to write something interesting.

She asked me not to fight with others.

注意:(1)下面动词后面通常接省to的不定式:have, let, make, feel, hear, notice, see, watch.

其形式为: have/let /make sb do sth feel sb do sh

hear sb do sth hear sb doing sth

watch/ see/ notice sb do sth watch/see/notice sb doing sth

(2) help 后接动词不定式做宾语补足语时,不定式符号to可以省略也可以不省略。

Eg: He often helps us (to) do some farming work.

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(三)、 做目的状语。

动词不定式表目的时,可放在句子的前面,也可以放在句子的末尾。但在句子前面时,动词不定式常用逗号和句子隔开,而在句子末尾一般不用逗号隔开。 Eg: To get there on time, we set out at five in the morning.

We set out at five in the morning to get there on time.

即学即练:

单项选择:

1. Our teacher often asks us questions in groups.

A. discuss B. to discuss C. discussing D. discussed

2. He promised his old friend during his stay in Tianjin.

A. see B. seeing C. saw D. to see

3. ------ Why are you so excited today?

------ We were told a picnic this weekend.

A. have B. to have C. having D. had

4. It’s relaxing to get close to nature the beauty.

A. enjoy B. enjoyed C. to enjoy D. enjoys

5. ----- I didn’t hear you come in just now.

----- That’s good, we tried any noise, for you were sleeping.

A. not make B. not to make C. to make D. making

6. ----- I’m new here.

----- Don’t worry. I’ll do what I can you.

A. help B. to help C. invite D. to invite

7. The teachers asked us football on the street.

A. don’t play B. not play C. not to play D. to not play

8. She’s not strong enough walking up mountains.

A. to go B. going C. go D. went

9. a book in the library, enter a key word into the computer.

A. To find B. Find C. To write D. Write

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10. ----- Which dress do you like best, Madam?

------ Sorry, I can’t decide now.

A. to buy which one B. buy which one

C. which one to buy D. Which should I buy it

11. Try to sing more English songs, and you will find it interesting a

foreign language.

A. learning B. learns C. learn D. to learn

12. The Greens enjoy photos, They always go out with their camera.

A. to take B. take C. took D. taking

13.----- I will go to Harbin for summer vacation. What about you?

----- I haven’t decided where

A. go B. went C. going D. to go

14. Would you please tell me next?

A. how to do B. what to do C. what do I do D. how I should do

15. The girl wasn't to lift that bookcase.

A. too strong B. enough strong C. strong enough D. so strong

16. .For a time his grandmother found accept his new idea.

A. hard B. it hard C. it hard to D. it is hard to

17.As she has never been there before, I'll have someone her the way.

A. show B. to show C. showing D. showed

18.You drive slowly. The roads are wet.

A. had rather B. would rather C. had better D. would better

19.Nothing can make the brave soldier his country.

A. turn against B. to turn against C. to turn to D. turn to

20.In the old days it was difficult for the poor a job.

A. find B. to find C. look D. to look for

21.It was foolish his car unlocked.

A. for him to leave B. of him to leave C. for him leave D. him to leave

22.Remember the newspaper when you have finished it.

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A. putting back B. put back C. to put back D. will put back

23.Your flat needs it for you?

A. to clean; to do B. cleaning; doing

C. cleaning; to do D. to be cleaned; doing

24. You’re going to China next year. you should now practice__as much as possible.

A. speak B. to speak C. speaking D. speak about

25. If you don't feel well, you may just_____

A. stopped reading B. stop reading C. stopped to read D. stop to read

26. Alex finished ___ his homework before having supper.

A. do B. doing C. to do D. does

用所给词的适当形式填空。

1. My mum wants me (drink) milk every day.

2. He hopes (provide) some money for these poor students.

3. Why do you decide (visit) the museum?

4. Who taught the girl (sing) the English song.

5. We often go to the shop (buy) school things.

用所给词的适当的形式完成短文。

Cindy was ill in hospital. We were sorry (hear) that. We decided (visit) her today. We hoped (help) her in some way. Cindy was happy (see) us. She started (talk) with me about her school. She told us that she would like (go) to school soon, but the doctor asked her (stay) in bed for three days. We told her not (worried) about her lessons. We will do everything we can (help) her. Cindy said she would try her best (catch) up with us.

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