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定语从句专项复习

发布时间:2014-02-20 18:52:44  

定语从句专项复习 Attributive Clauses - by 小权权

什么叫定语从句?
? 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或者代词的从 句,我们就把这个从句称为定语从句。 ? 定语从句因为在句中起定语的作用,所以 定语从句也叫形容词性从句。

定语从句的作用
? 定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或 ? 代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即为先 行词。定语从句通常出现在定语从句之后, 由关系词(关系代词和关系副词)引出。

先行词和引导词
? 被定语从句修饰的名词、代词成为先行词。
? 如:This is the book that/which I lost . ? 译:这是那本我丢的书。

? 句中的the book即为先行词。
? 句中that/which即为引导词。

初中常见的引导词
引导词 that which 先行词 人/物 物 从句中作的成分 主语/宾语 主语/宾语

who whom whose
where when

人 人 人的/物的
地点 时间

主语/宾语(在口语中) 宾语 定语
状语 状语

想想:把that/which、who/whom、whose、where/when分为四组来记忆会更加 好,这是为什么呢?区别在哪里?

? ①that/which在从句中都可以充当主语或者宾语, 但是that的先行词可以是人,也可以是物;而 which的先行词只能是物。 ? ②who/whom的先行词都是人,但who在从句中既 可以充当主语,也可以充当宾语(在口语里); 而whom只能充当宾语。 ? ③whose的先行词就可以是人的,也可以是物的, 在从句中充当定语。千言万语汇成一句话:引导 词后边有名词的,就是这个家伙了。 ? (Tip:whose+n.) ? ④where/when都在从句中充当状语,但一个是表 示地点,一个是表示时间。 ? (Tip:从句中如果有了主语宾语,无非就是缺少 状语,这时候考虑一下这两个引导词。) ? ⑤口诀:引导词代替先行词在从句中做成分。

热身练习,轻松过关! (12,天津)Please pass me the cartoon book ____ has a Mikckey Mouse on the cover A.whom B.whose C.who D.which 答案:D。 (12,成都)It’s interesting that there are many people _____ speak French in Canada. A.which B.where C.who 答案:C (12,南京)The English-dictionary ______ my father bought for me many years ago is still of great value. A.whose B.when C.who D.that 答案:D (11,哈尔滨)”Get new knowledge by reviewing the old”is a famous saying by confucius(孔子).He was a great thinker _______ words still have a great effect on millions of people around the world today. A.who B.who’s C.whose 答案:C

? ⑴若在句中没有先行词时,用the one补充。 ? 例句: ? Is this the school _______ you visited yesterday? ? Is this school ___________you visited yesterday? ? 想想:这两个句子有什么区别?这两个空 分别填什么?

? ? ? ?

首先,我们先把一般疑问句换成陈述句

: ①This is the school ___ I visited yesterday. ②This school is ______ I visited yesterday 很显然,在例句①中先行词是the school, 所以填that/which;而在例句②中没有先行 词,所以要用the one来补充,所以填the one. ? 疑问:the one在这里是作引导词呢还是作 先行词? ? 回答:the one在这是作为补充的先行词, 之所以引导词没有是因为引导词作宾语时 可以省略,the one后常用引导词that。

? ? ? ?

⑵只用that不用which的情况: ①先行词被最高级、序数词修饰时。 ②先行词是不定代词(anything等)时。 ③先行词被no、every、little、some、all、 any、much等修饰时。 ? ④先行词被the only、the very、the last等 修饰时。 ? ⑤先行词是人和物时。 ? ⑥先行词被such、so、the same、as修饰 时,并且主语、谓语、宾语齐全时。

即学即用我能行! 1.You must watch carefully everything _____ the teacher does in class. A.where B.who C.that D.what 答案:C 2.The last place _______ we visited in the countryside was a farm. A.that B.which C.where D.in which 答案:A 3.He talked about the teachers and schools _______ he had visited. A.which B.who C.what D.that 答案:D 4.All the apples _______ fell down were eaten by the pigs. A.that B.those C./ D.what 答案:A 5.I refuse to accept the blame for something ______ was someone else’s fault. A.who B.that C.as D.what 答案:B 6.Please give me some book ______ is written by confucius. A.who B.that C.where D.when 答案:B 7.Hi,Lucy,is this book ______ you bought yesterday? A.the one B.that C.which D./ 答案:A

? ⑶why也是一个引导词,先行词一般是the reason,在从句中作状语。 (Tip: the reason why.....) 易错分析:要弄清the reason在从句中的成分。 练习:
1.Nobody knows the reason ______ she didn’t attend the meeting. A.that B.which C.why D.when 2.The reason ______ he gave me was that he got up too late. A.that B.when C.why D.where 答案:B、A

? ⑷特殊先行词特殊用法。 ? ①当先行词是point、case、situation时, 引导词用where;当先行词是occasion时,引 导词用when。 ? ②当先行词是way时,引导词用that或者是 in which,在从句中充当宾语时常省略。 ? ③当先行词是time,当time译为‘时间’时, 先行词用when或者during which;当time译 为‘次数’时,先行词用that.

? ⑸易混淆分析。 ? 例句:
1.I will never forget the days _______ we spent together. 2.I will never forget the days _______ we lived together. 首先先从引导词在从句中所替代的成分开始分析,分析后可 以发现,例句一中引导词在从句中充当宾语,例句二中引 导词在从句中充当状语。所以例句一中的the days是作为 物,而例句二中的the days作为一个时间来看,所以原句 是: 1.I will never forget the days which/that we spent togeth

er. 2.I will never forget the days when/in which we lived together. (Tip:做定语从句的题,一切从口决开始,先找出成分,再 看先行词,最后想引导词。→熟记表格)

? ⑹怎样快速看出从句所缺成分?
? 在做定语从句的题目时,找出引导词在从句中所充当的成 分尤为重要,当然,如果从句中缺少主语,那就很容易看 出来,但是,如何看出是缺少宾语还是状语呢? ? 首先先来看到下面这个内容:
? ? ? ? ? ★及物动词(vt)→后面必须要跟宾语。 ★不及物动词(vi)→后面不能跟宾语,但可以加个介词后再跟宾语。 首先拿到题目,先把先行词套进从句的谓语后边,如 I will never forget the days _______ we lived together. 我们先把the days套进去,就变成we lived the days.然后我们翻译一下:我 们住在日子,很明显,这时候就不通顺了,说明live是不及物动词(vi),这时 候就知道从句中不缺少宾语,又有主语了,所以只能缺少状语。再看一题: I will never forget the days _______ we spent together. 依然是先把the days套进去,就变成we spent the days.很明显符合我们那个 公式sb spend(s) some time on sth/(in) doing sth,翻译过来也顺,说明spend 是个及物动词,刚好它后面没有宾语,所以引导词就在从句中作宾语的成分。

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? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?

常见的介词+whom/which的搭配。 ①where=介词+which。 ②when=介词+which。 ③whose=of which the+n. =the+n.+of which ④why=for which

例句:This is the building in which I live. 先把这个含有定语从句的复合句拆分为两个句子: This is the building. I live in this building. 可见,从句部分原来是live in this buidling,现在把in提前到引导词前构成介词 +which的结构。 试一试,填引导词: 1.The farm ___________ I live is very big. 2.I will never forget the day _______ I met you. 答案:1、 on which/where 2、on which/when

? 后话:其实定语从句并不难,只要掌握了 方法,掌握的技巧,你很容易就可以轻易 拿下。虽然定语从句在中考的考察当中所 占的分值不是很大,但是在作文中我们可 以利用定语从句来为我们的作文增添一点 文采。同理英语也是一样,只要下点工夫 去背背,去看看,其实英语就是这么简单! ? 这个怎么读?-So easy! 读书郎点读机= = ? 祝大家学习进步! ? The End


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