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三代词

发布时间:2014-02-22 19:33:35  

三、代词

(一)代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词。 人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。

人称代词 如:我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们(它们) 主格 i you he she it we you they

宾格 me you him her it us you them

物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。 如:我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的

形容词性物主代词起形容词的作用,用在名词前:my your his her its our your their

名词性物主代词(名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词) mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

反身代词:我自己 你自己 他自己 她自己 它自己 我们自己 你们自己 (他/她/它)们自己

反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

指示代词:主要有this(这个), that(那个), these(这些), those(那些) 疑问代词:who, whom whose, what, which,

疑问副词:when, how, where, why。

不定代词在初中课本中主要有both, one, none,

(二) 正误辨析

[误]Tom's mother is taller than my.

[正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.

[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。

[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books. [正]You and he should go to the library to return the books.

[析]主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其排列顺序一般为“二三一”即you, he, she, I,而复数人称代词通常按“一二三”排列即:we, you, they: 男女并列时,应先男后女。 [误]He or his brother is doing their homework

[正]He or his brother is doing his homework. [析]由either?or, neither?nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前面,复数名词放在后面,此时要用复数代词,如:The teacher or his students is finishing their work.

[误]Myself did it yesterday.

[正]I did it myself yesterday.

[析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。 [误]Take care of ourselves.

[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)

[析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称you.

[误]Please bring your daughter with yours

[正]Please bring your daughter with you.

[析]介词后面应该接宾语。

[误]Make yourself home.

[正]Make yourself at home.

[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为“像在家里一样”。这样enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home 像在家中一样 help yourself to something 自己拿某物,请自便 seat oneself就坐 dress oneself 穿衣

[误]— Who's this speaking.— That's Mary.

[正]— Who's that speaking.— This is Mary.

[析]在电话用语中,this指讲话人自己,而that指对方。 [误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter.

[正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter.

[析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,

[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read

[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.

[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming.

They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.

[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.

[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours.

[析]same与定冠词the是固定搭配不可更改。

[误]— He studied very hard this term.— So she did.

[正]— He studied very hard this term.— So did she.

[误]— English is difficult to learn.— So is it.

[正]— English is difficult to learn.— So it is.

[析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即studied hard既适用于he,也适用于she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,表示“确实如此,的确是这样”,则不要用倒装句。

[误]Everyone should do one's best

[正]Everyone should do his best.

[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one's,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one's best.则是对句。如果one与别的词组成其他词如 anyone, everyone或only one 则要用his/her. [误]— Who won the game?— None.

[正]— Who won the game?— No one.

[析]由who提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是no one,而由How

many句子的否定回答中的简略语是None.如:How many book do you have?--- None.

[误]There are many trees on either sides of the street.

[正]There are many trees on either side of the street.

[正]There are many trees on both sides of the street.

[误]Either you or I are right.

[正]Either you or I am right.

[析]either…or..要么……要么……谓语动词应该遵循就近原则。 [误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor

[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.

[误]We like both this little boy.

[正]We both like this little boy.

[析]both作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在be动词之后,如:We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema.用于第一助动词之后,如:We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都不对。又如:I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我全不能给你。

[误]There are trees on every sides of the street.

[正]There are trees on each side of the street.

[析]every用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而each用于两者或两者以上的每一个,因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用each

[误]All my parents are engineers.

[正]Both my parents are engineers.

[析]all用于三者或三者以上的全部,而both用于两者之间的全部。 与all有关的习惯用法

all the year round,(一年) all week(整个星期), all day(整天), all winter (整个冬天)

[误]The all village was flooded.

[正]All the village was flooded.

[析]all作修饰语时要用在所有修饰词之前。

[误]The post office is on other side of the street.

[正]The post office is on the other side of the street.

[析]单数可数名词如在泛指某一个时用another,而特指时则要用the other,因街道只有两边,而不在这边必定是在另一边。

[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?. [正]There are ten students here. Where are the others?

[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students? [析]the others=the other students.

[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor. [正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor. [析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I'm sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用the other.

[误]Some people like sports. The others like reading.

[正]Some people like sports. Others like reading. [析]在泛指复数名词前用some…others…表示某些人……某些人……

[误]Please remember to water the flowers each other day.

[正]Please remember to water the flowers every other day.

[析]every other day为 每隔一天,固定词组,如on the another hand另一方面

[误]Many know him,but few likes him

[正]Many know him, but few like him. [析]few用于可数名词前,意为几乎没有,其做主语时谓语动词要用复数。而a few为有一些。 [误]You have few friends, haven't you?

[正]You have few friends, have you?

[析]little与few用于句中时,均要按否定句看待,反问句是前面肯定,后面否定,前面否定,后面肯定。

[误]Much of what you said are true.

[正]Much of what you said is true. [析]much用于不可数名词,作主语时用单数形式的谓语动词。

[误]This room is enough large for the students to live in.

[正]This room is large enough for the students to live in.

[析]enough 还可以作形容词来修饰名词,这时enough可以放在名词之前,也可放在名词之后,如:money enough 与enough money皆对,当enough做副词修饰形容词时,则只能置于形容词之后了。 [误]I want any books to read. Do you have any?

[正]I want some books to read. Do you have any?

[析]按照语法any用于疑问句和否定句,而some用于肯定句。 [误]Would you like anything to drink?

[正]Would you like something to drink?

[析]在由would you like发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要为对方提或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复,此时用some。 [误]Someone want to meet you.

[正]Someone wants to meet you.

[析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用and连接两个不定代词,也要看作单数,Everyone and anyone has the right.每个人,任何一个人都有权利。

[误]Be careful. Don't drink too many.

[正]Be careful. Don't drink too much.

[析]much修饰不可数名词,饮料和水为不可数名词。

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