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二冠词

发布时间:2014-02-22 19:33:42  

二、 冠词

(一) 知识概要

冠词在英语中只有3个词,分为两类:不定冠词a与an,定冠词the。 a用在以辅音开始的单数名词前,an用于以元音开始的单词前。不定冠词用来表示一类事物中泛指的某 一事物,而定冠词则用于特指的某一个或某些事物,可用于不可数名词、可数名词单数及可数名词复数前。

(二) 正误辨析

[误]This building is an university.

[正]This building is a university.

[析]a用于以辅音音素开始的单词前,而an用于以元音音素开始的单词前,而不是元音字母开头的单词前。university的第一个音素是[j],所以用a而不要用an。又如:There is a “n” in the word.是错句,应为:There is an “n”in the word.因字母n的发音的第一个音素是元音。要注意的还有hour因其第一个字母h不发音,所以应该用an hour。例如:

I need an hour to finish the work.

It is a useful dictionary.

It is a European country.

I bought a used car.

an.常用的情况有:an old man, an English teacher, an elephant, an idea, an hour ago, an honest boy

[误]“Can you help me” “Sorry, I'm in hurry.”

[正]“Can you help me” “Sorry. I'm in a hurry.”

主要的难点是用在固定词组中:

如:have a walk/a rest /a look

in a hurry 匆匆忙忙

make a face 作鬼脸

do somebody a favour 帮某人忙

a number of =many

have a good time (玩得好)

have a cold (感冒)

have a headache (头痛)

[误]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good. [正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good. [析]在文章中第一次提到某物时用不定冠词,而第二次提到时用定冠词。

[误]There are nine planets around a sun.

[正]There are nine planets around the sun.

[析]世上独一无二的天体等名词前应加定冠词,如:the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea.

[误]I live on a second floor of this building.

[正]I live on the second floor of this building.

[析]在序数词,形容词最高级前要用定冠词。如

[误]I want to learn the second language this term

[正]I want to learn a second language this term. [析]在序数词的含意不是顺序中的第一第二,而其意在再学一个,再来一个时用a,本句的意思应为:这学期我要学一门第二外语。

[误]Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[正]The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[析]在河流名称前应加定冠词the,如黄河 The Yellow River the Panama Canal 巴拿马运河 the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河

[误]Rich are not always happy.

[正]The rich are not always happy.

[析]在形容词前加定冠词表示一类人。.

[误]The sun rises in east.

[正]The sun rises in the east. [析]在方向、方位前应用定冠词,如 the direction 及in the past, in the future

[误]I like to climb the mountain in the autum

[正]I like to climb the mountain in autumn.

[析]一年四季前不用定冠词,如:Spring is the best

[误]Sometimes my parents come to school to see me.

[正]Sometimes my parents come to the school to see me. [析]有些名词被用作其本身原来所含目的时不加冠词,如:go to school上学,leave school(辍学),after school(放学),但如果当建筑物讲时应加冠词,

如例句中其父母来校不是上学,而是看望孩子,则要加定冠词。又如,He was in hospital for two days.(他在医院住院两天了。)而:He went to the hospital to see his mother.

[误]I bought a same dictionary as she bought.

[正]I bought the same dictionary as she bought.

[析]习惯用法the same, the only, the very

[误]The police caught the thief by his arm.

[正]The police caught the thief by the arm. [析]这是英文表达法与中文的明显不同之处,也是初学者极易忽视之处。在英语中的某些动词,如:catch(抓),take(拿),strike (打),pat(拍),hit(击),hold(握),pull(拉)…动词后应加人,再加介词on, by, in, with…之后

定冠词千万不要换作his, he

[误]He was paid by hour.

[正]He was paid by the hour.

[析]by和计量单位之间要有定冠词the

[误]I went to New York by his car.

[正]I went to New York by car.

[正]I went to New York in his car.

[析]by仅仅与交通工具相连表示应用某种工具,而加了别的修饰词后其前面的介词也应作相应的转换。如:by car (坐小汽车) by taxi(坐出租车)by bike(骑自行车)

by air (乘飞机)by sea (乘船) [误]Mary began to learn how to play

piano when she was three.

[正]Mary began to learn how to play the piano when she was three. [析]在乐器前要加定冠词,而在球类游戏,如,play football play basketball and so on.

[误]The little boy wanted to go to cinema.

[正]The little boy wanted to go to the cinema. [析]英语中虽有一些名词与go to连用时不加定冠词,以表示该名词的内涵,如:go to school (上学),go to bed (睡觉) 但是去看电影却是一个例外 go to the cinema.

的一个特点。

[误]I live at 105 the Lake stree

[正]I live at 105 Lake Street.

[析]街道名称前不用冠词。

[误]Next summer holiday I will go to country to live on a farm.

[正]Next summer holiday I will go to the country to live on a farm. [析]country既作国家讲也作乡村讲。作乡村讲时,一定要加定冠词,而且只有单数形式,作国家讲时可以有复数形式。Eg Japan is a country, Japan, Chian India are Asian countries.

[误]The picture looks better at the distance

[正]The picture looks better at a distance. [析]at a distance离开一定的距离。In the distance 远方,远处

常用的词组有:as a rule (照例)

in a hurry (匆忙)

in the morning/afternoo

in the sun (在阳光下)

in the rain (雨中)

in the same way (同样的方式)

in the shade (在阴凉处)

in the day time (白天)

in the end (最终)

on the other hand (换句话说)

on the contrary (相反)

[误]The little boy and girl walk along the street a hand in a hand. [正]The little boy and girl walk along the street hand in hand. [析]这是英语中常见的词组,如

bit by bit (逐渐)

day after (by) day (一天又一天)

day and night (日日夜夜)

face to face (面对面)

from A to Z (自始至终)

from time to time (再三)

hand in hand (手拉手)

shoulder by shoulder.(肩并肩)

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