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m7-unit1 grammar

发布时间:2014-02-25 12:52:03  

Grammar

M7 Unit1

Transitive and intransitive verbs

动词简介
●动词(Verbs)是最复杂的一种词类。它既 可以表示动作,又可以表示状态;它有人 称和数的变化,而且必须与主语的人称和 数保持一致;它还有一些特有的语法特征, 如时态,语态和语气。
●根据它在句中的功能,动词可分为实义动 词、系动词、助动词和情态动词四类。

实义动词:有完全的词义,根据其句法作用分为 及物动词(vt.)和不及物动词(vi.)。 I can see a boy. vt ★ I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion. vt ★ Birds fly. vi ★ My watch stopped. vi


●及物动词(transitive verb)后跟宾语,不 及物动词(intransitive verb)后不跟宾语。

1)I love you. 2)My parents give me 1,000 yuan per month. 3)The joke made me happy.
以上句子结构分别是 及物动词 宾语 1)主语+_________+___________ 及物动词 间接宾语 直接宾语 2)主语+_________+___________+__________ 及物动词 宾语 宾补 3)主语+_________+___________+__________

●1.及物动词后可跟一个宾语、双宾 语(即直接宾语和间接宾语)或复合 宾语(即宾语和宾语补足语)。

1)He bought an English dictionary. 名词 2)I saw her last night. 代词 3)I didn’t mean to hurt you. 不定式 4) Love means caring each other. 动词-ing形式 5) Who can foresee what the future will bring? 从句
●用作宾语的可以是名词、代词、动 词不定式、动词-ing形式或从句。

1)On my birthday she gave me a mobile phone 间接 直接宾语 as a gift. 宾语
2)Please hand me the book over there. 间接 直接宾语 宾语 ●直接宾语一般是事物,是及物动词 动作的承受体;间接宾语一般是人, 是及物动词动作的接受者。

补充:常见的接双宾语的及物动词
bring, buy, lend, offer, choose, do, get, give, hand, find, keep, order, pass, pay, promise, read, return, same, sell, show, sing, teach, tell, write, call, find, wish等。 句型结构: 1.vt.+sb.+sth=Vt.+sth+to+sb.(to侧重指动作的方 向或目标,常见的此类动词有give,offer, show, tell, teach, lend, send等) 2.vt.+sb.+sth=Vt.+sth+for+sb.(for侧重指动作的 受益者,常见的此类动词有 buy, draw, make,design, cook等)

练习 1:(08徽)---Are you happy with your new computer? C --- No, it is ______ me a lot of trouble. A. showing B. leaving C. giving D. sparing
2.递给我那本词典。

Pass me the dictionary./ Pass the dictionary to me.
3.我给他定了两张票。

I booked him two tickets./ I booked two tickets for him.

名词 1)This will soon make DVDs things of the past. 2)Please color the picture green . 形容词 3)He kept the lights on all night. 副词 介词短语 4)We found him in a cave the next morning. 5) He told me to clean my room. 动词不定式 6) I saw her dancing. 动词-ing形式 7) She sensed herself followed by a m

an. 动词-ed形式 ●用作宾语补足语的的可以是名词、形容词、 副词、介词短语或非谓语动词。

补充:及物动词后接 复合宾语结构(及物动词+宾语+宾补) 1)带名词做宾补的动词有:call, think, make, consider, elect,choose等 2)带形容词做宾补的动词有:keep, make, think, paint, wash,color等 3)带省略to的不定词或现在分词和过去分词做宾 补的动词有:feel, listen, hear, make, have, let, see, look, watch, observe, notice等(口诀:一感,二听 三让,四看,还有一个要注意) 4)带to的不定式(短语)做宾补的动词有: advise,allow, invite, encourage, permit, order,urge(敦促),intend等

4.我们选他当班长。 We made him monitor. 5.请把门油成白色。 Please paint the door white. 6.你注意到他经过吗? Have you noticed him pass by? 7.我们逮住那个年轻人正在商店门前偷车. We caught the young man stealing a bike in front of the shop. 8.醒来后他发现外面的世界全变了。
When he woke up he found the world outside changed.

9.我说服了哥哥给我买一部新手机。 I persuaded my brother to buy a new cellphone for me.

Every year, millions of trees are planted in China.
By the late 1970s, video recorders small and cheap enough for home use were introduced.

●大多数及物动词都能用被动语态的形 式。

He has arrived. He is running . It happened in June 1932. 2.不及物动词后不跟宾语。且不能用于被动语态。
The farmers work hard. 副词,状语 More challenges lie ahead of me.

副词短语,状语 ●不及物动词后可接用作状语的副词或副词短语。

★He had arrived in Beijing. ★He kept on saying really mean things to hurt me. ★I listened to music before I could speak.
●有些不及物动词后可接介词短语(然后接宾 语)。 ◆补充:常见的不及物动词有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed,start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve....

练习: 1.刚才这条路发生了事故。 An accident happened on the road just now.
2.昨天这房子发生了大火。 A fire broke out in the house yesterday. 3.在过去十年中国发生了巨大的变化。 Great changes have taken place in the past ten years. 4.他就是我们所谈论的那个人。 He is the person about whom we talked just now.

★Mum is cooking (breakfast) in the kitchen now. ★Glad to meet you. ★Where shall we meet? ★we saw the mountain when the clouds lifted.

★He lifted his glass and drank.
3 许多动词既能用作及物动词又能用作不及物 动词。 如cook, meet, move, hurt, pass, run, remember, answer, write,contribute等。有的意义相同, 有的意义不同。

意义不同的有: beat vi. 跳动 vt. 敲、打; grow vi. 生长 vt. 种植 play vi.玩耍 vt. 打(牌、球)

,演奏 smell vi.发出(气味) vt. 嗅 ring vi.(电话、铃)响 vt.打电话 speak vi.讲话 vt. 说(语言) hang vi. 悬挂 vt. 绞死 operate vi.动手术 vt. 操作

1. If you want to sell your product you must _____ it.
A. advertise C. advertise on B. advertise for D. advertise to

【分析】A。advertise 可用作及物和不及物 动词:用作及物动词时,其意为“为…… 做广告”、“登广告宣传”;用作不及物 动词时,通常后接介词 for,表示“做广告 征求”。

2. No matter how much you’ve learned and how high a standard of education you have had, you must _______ the people heart and soul. A. serve B. serve for

C. serve to

D. serve on

【分析】答案选A,serve 意为 “为……服务”,可直接用作及物动 词,其后不能按汉语意思误加介词 for。

3. I _____ you yesterday, but you weren’t in. A. rang C. rang with B. rang to D. rang to

答案选A,ring 可以用作及物动词,表 示“给……打电话”,故其后不用介词。

4. Neither of her parents wanted her to _____ her cousin. A. marry B. marry to

C. marry with

D. marry for

答案选A,marry 可用作及物或不及物

动词,用作及物动词时它的意思 “与…… 结婚”,而不仅仅是“结婚”,也就是 说,

5. How can I _____ you, Mr. Green? A. contact C. contact to B. contact with D. contact for

答案选A,contact 为及物动词,表示 “与……联系”,其后不接介词。


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