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初中介词用法总结(提高型讲义)

发布时间:2014-03-01 19:17:07  

介 词

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What is preposition? (prep.)
● 介词是英语中很活跃的词, ● 位置:一般置于名词之前。它常和名词或 名词性词语构成介词短语。 ● 搭配:同一个介词常和不同的词语搭配形 成固定搭配,表示不同意义。 ● 介词的搭配和使用最重要!准确运用介词, 会让你的文章精准无误。
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at后常接几点几分,天明,中午,日出, 日落,开始等或泛指圣诞节,复活节等
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● at five o’clock (五点) at down (黎明) at daybreak (天亮) at sunrise (日出) at sunset (日落) at noon (中午) at midnight (半夜) at the beginning of the month (月初) at that time (那时) at Christmas

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in后常接年,月,日期,上午,下午, 晚上,白天,季节,世纪等
● in 2006(2006年) ● in May,2004 (2004年五月) ● in the morning (早晨/上午),in the afternoon (下 午),in the evening (晚上), ● in the night (夜晚),in the daytime (白天), ● in the 21st century (21世纪) ● in three days (weeks/month)三天(周/个月) ● in a week (一周) ● in spring (春季) ● 注意:在last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律 不用介词。如:We meet every day.

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on后常接某日,星期几,某日或某周 日的朝夕,节日,及有修饰语修饰的下 午、晚上等。
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● on Sunday (星期日) on a warm morning in April (四月的一个温暖的上午) on a December night (12月的一个夜晚) on that afternoon (那天下午) on the following night (下一个晚上) on Christmas afternoon (圣诞节下午) on October 1,1949 (1949年10月1日) on New Year’s Day (新年) on New Year’s Eve (除夕) on the morning of the 15th (15日的早上)

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before, after, for表示时间的介词
● After 在……之后,表示过去的一段时间以后 After three months, he achieved the goal. ● Before 在……之前 与 Before he goes to bed, he washes his face. ● For 在一段时间内 He lives here for a long time.

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时间名词前介词用法口诀
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
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年前周前要用in 具体日子要用on 遇到几号也用on 上午下午得是in 要说某日上下午 用on换in记清楚 午夜黄昏用at 黎明用它也不错 at用在时分前 说“差”可要用上to 说"过''要用past

Let’s have a try~~~
E

C
A

H B

G I D F

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地点介词in, at, on above, below,
over, under, among, between的用法及 区别
(1)in, at与on的用法及区别 ①in表示地点,意为“在…内”,用于内部。 There isn’t a cloud in the sky. 天空中没有 一片云。 He put his hands

in his pockets. 他把手放 入口袋。 What’s in the box? 盒子里有什么?

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②on意为“在…上面”,用于表面接触,指在 一个平面上。 What’s on the table? 桌子上有什么? There was a carpet on the floor. 地板上铺着 一块地毯。 ③表示“在某地”时,at后面接小地方,in后接 大地方。 at home在家 at the bus stop在汽车站 in China在中国 in the world在世界上

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(2) above与below的用法及区别
● above的意思是“在?之上”“高于?”, 表示相对高度,不一定是在正上方,它的 反义词是below。 ● The plane flew above the clouds. 飞机在 云层上面飞行。 ● The Dead Sea is below sea level. 死海的 海面低于海平面。

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(3)over与under的用法及区别
● over的意思是“在?之上”,表示垂直之 上,其反义词是under。 ● There is a bridge over the river. 河上有 座桥。 ● There is a boat under the bridge. 桥下有 只船。

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(4)among与between的用法及区别
● between一般指“两者之间”。among用 于三个或三个以上的人或物之间,或笼统 的一群人或一些物之中。 ● The house stands between two farms. 这座房子位于两个农场之间。 ● The house stands among farms. 这座房 子位于农场之间。

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(5)beside与near的用法及区别
● ①beside表示“近旁”“紧靠”,相当于 next to。 ● 如:Come and sit beside me. 来坐在我 的身旁。 ● ②near意为“在?附近”,可以表示空间、 时间关系等。 ● 如:He sits near the window. 他坐在窗户 附近。
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(6)in front of与in the front of的用法及 区别
● in front of表示“在?之前”。表示在某 一空间外部的前面,in the front of 表 示在某一空间内部的前面。 ● 如:There are some trees in front of the classroom. 教室前有一些树。 ● Don’t sit in the front of the car. 不要坐在小汽车的前部。

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(7)in与after的用法及区别
● “in +段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后; ● “after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后; ● “after+将来的时间点”表示将来的某一时刻 以后 (8) after与behind 在……之后 ● after主要用于表示时间; ● behind主要用于表示位置。

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方式介词
● like像… ● with用… ● in用… ● by用…

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方式介词:with, by, in的用法及区别
● with, by, in表示工具、手段和材料时, ? with多指用工具,用身体的某一部位或器官; ? by表示使用的方法、手段; ? in指使用某种语言、工具的具体类型等。 ● You can see it with your own eyes. 你可以亲 自去看看。 ● Why don’t we go there by car instead? 我们为 什么不坐小汽车去呢? ● She can

speak it in English. 她能用英语说。
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表示运动方向的介词
● across, through 通过,穿过 ● across表示横过,即从物体表面通过, 与on有关,为二维 ● through穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与in 有关,为三维。

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其他介词
● of具有…的性质 The cap of the pen 笔帽 ● with带有… without没有… The man with(without) an umbrella ● from来自于 come from来自于=be from ? From…to…从……到……
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● 1)on ,about 关于 ● on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的, 或学术性的,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读; ● about表示内容较为普通,不那么正式 2)except, besides 除了 ● except 除……之外,不包括在内; ● besides 除……之外,包括在内。 ● Except for Mr. Wang, we went to see the film.(王先生没去) ● Besides Mr. Wang, we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了) 。
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介词for
● 当作、作为;表示理由或原因,意为"因为、 由于" ;表示去向、目的,意为"向、往、取、 买 "等 ● I like some bread and milk for breakfast. 我喜欢把面包和牛奶作为早餐。 ● Thank you for helping me with my English. 谢谢你帮我学习英语。 ● I paid twenty yuan for the dictionary. 我 花了20元买这本词典。
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For的固定搭配
● ● Who are you waiting for? 你在等谁? For example, Mr Green is a kind teacher. 比如,格林先生是一位心地善良的 老师。

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看似相同,但意义有别的词组 英语中有一些介词词组和动词词组,它们从形式上看似 乎基本相同,但在意义上却截然不同。要是我们在记忆 上对这类词组不加以重视,使用时就很容易望文生义, 甚至张冠李戴。为此,把这类词组归纳如下:
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● (1) at table在进餐at the table在桌子旁(=beside the desk)  (2) at desk在读书或做作业at the desk在书桌旁  (3) at school在校上学(指学生)at the school在学校(指教职工)  (4) in front of the bus在公共汽车的前面(不在车上) in the front of the bus在公共汽车的前部(在车上)  (5) at sea在航海中at the sea在海边  (6) by day白天by the day按日,论日  (7) behind time误期behind the time落后于时代  (8) in class在上课,在课内in the class在这个班  (9) in bed 卧床,在睡觉in the bed在床上  (10) in prison坐牢in the prison在监狱  (11) in red穿着红色的衣服in the red负债,亏损  (12) in hospital住院(指病人)in the hospital(因事)在医院

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● (13) in office在办公,执政in the office在办公室  ● (14) in secret秘密,私下in the secret参入秘密,参入 阴谋  ● (15)

in place of 代替,而不是in the place of在……地 方 ● (16) in case of万一,如果in the case of就……来说, 至于  ● (17) of age成年人of an age同龄人  ● (18) out of office离职out of the office离开办公室  ● (19) out of prison(因犯罪)出狱out of the prison (因事)从监狱出来  ● (20) out of question毫无疑问out of the question不 可能,办不到

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有无冠词,意义无多大区别的介词词组
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● (1)at(the)most至多 (2)at(the)first起初 (3)all(the)day 整天 (4)catch(a)cold感冒 (5)in(the)future 将来 (6)in(the)memory of纪念 (7)go to(the)office 上班,去办公室 (8)go to(the)market 赶集,去市场 (9)on(a)holiday 在度假 (10)(the)day before yesterday 前天 (11)(the)most of 大多数 (12)with(a)smiling face 面带微笑

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● There are some apples the box. ● We don’t have classes Sunday. ● Let’s play games the afternoon. ● There are some clouds the sky. ● I get up six o’clock every day. ● Who is the girl pink? ● My bike is the tree. ● The blackboard is front of classroom. ● The present(礼物)is you. ● Look the picture, please.
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巩固练习-选词填空
1. Taiwan is _______ the southeast of China. (in, on, to) 2. Go ____ the bridge ________ the river, you’ll find the shop. (across, thro ugh; over, above) 3. I go to school __________7:30 every morning.(in, on, at) 4. He would like to meet her ____8:00 and 9:00 tomorrow morning.(betwe en, among ) 5. The Greens have lived in China _____ three years. (in, for, after) 6. We go to school every day _______ Saturday and Sunday. (except, besides) 7. He wrote the letter _________ ink.(by, with ,in) 8. She returned to her country ___five years.(in, after, for) 9. There is a big tree _______ our classroom.(after, behind) 10. I usually go to work _________ bike.(by, on, with)
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表示“在……之间”的介词
表示“在……之间”的介词在英语中属于方位 介词,如in front of ,behind ,on, in, near, under, up ? between, among between指在两个人或两个事物之间; among指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。
?

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