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9连词

发布时间:2014-03-08 11:02:01  

9连词

连词是用来连接词与词、词组与词组或句子与句子、表示某种逻辑关系的虚词。连词可以表并列、承接、转折、因果、选择、假设、比较、让步等关系。 3英语连词

连词(conj conjunction)是一种虚词, 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为4类:并列连词.转折连词.选择连词和因果连词。连词也可以分为2类:并列连词和从属连词 并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句、句子。如: and(和,与;而且;于是,然后;因此)

but(但是;通常用not...but...不是...而是...;可是,然而;表示惊讶,不同意等--喔,哇;用来加强语句重复部分的语气--一定;用来引入新话题--那就;常用于否定句--而不,若不;用于含doubt,question等字的否定句中相当于that--对于),

or(或者,还是;用于否定句--也不;否则,要不然;也就是说,换言之), nor(用在neither之后--也不;用在no,not,never之后--也不;用在句首,句子需倒装--也不),

so(因此,所以;因而,从而),

therefore(因此,因而,所以),

yet(可是,却,然而),

however(然而,可是,不过;无论如何,不管怎样;不管用什么方法;究竟怎样,到底如何),

for(因为,由于),

hence(因此,由此),

as well as(不但,而且;和...一样,和,也),

both…and(既...又...;不但...而且),

not only…but also(不但,而且),

either…or(不是...就是;要么...要么),

neither…nor(既不...也不...),

(and)then(那么)等等。

并列连词与并列结构

并列连词引导两个并列的句子。

1)and 与or

判断改错:

(错) They sat down and talk about something. (错) They started to dance and sang.

(错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there. (对) They sat down and talked about something. (对) They started to dance and sing.

(对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.

解析:

第一句:and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。

第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang 应改为 sing。

第三句:and 连接感观动词saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此whisper应改为whispering。

注意:and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法) Make up your mind,and you'll get the chance.

= If you make up your mind,you'll get the chance.

One more effort,and you'll succeed.

= If you make one more effort,you'll succeed.

2)both …and两者都

She plays (both) the piano and the guitar.

3)not only…but ...as well as=not only...but also不但…而且 She plays not only the piano,but (also) the guitar.

注意:not only… but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not 而必须倒装

Not only does he like reading stories,but also he can even write some.

4)neither…nor意思为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。

Neither you nor he is to blame.

表示选择的并列结构

1)or意思为"否则"。

I must work hard,or I'll fail in the exam.

我必须努力学习,否则我的考试成绩将要下降.

2)either…or意思为"或者……或者……"。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。 Either you or I am right.

或者是你对,或者是我对.

表示转折或对比

1) but表示转折,while表示对比。

Some people love cats,while others hate them.

典型例题

Would you like to come to dinner tonight

I'd like to,___ I'm too busy.

A. and B. so C. as D. but

答案D。but与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的and, 结果的so,原因的as都不符合句意。

2)not…but…意思为"不是……而是……"

not 和but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则。

They were not the bones of an animal,but (the bones) of a human being.

表示让步

however表让步,译为"无论如何"

However we adopt healthcare reform, it isn't going to save major amounts of money.

不管我们采取何种医疗改革措施,都省不下太多钱。

误区提示:however可以表示转折,译为"然而;不过;仍然"但是这时为副词词性,而并非连词。[1]

例句:

This was not an easy decision. It is, however, a decision that we feel is dictated by our duty...

这很难抉择。不过,我们觉得自己有义务作出决定。

表原因关系

1)for

判断改错:

(错) For he is ill,he is absent today.

(对) He is absent today,for he is ill.

for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间。

2)so,therefore

He hurt his leg,so he couldn't play in the game.

3)because

I cannot sleep because I am too excited.

注意:

这两个词的意思很相近,通常是可以互换使用的。为了安全起见,最好用because引导从句,因为同 because引导的从句相比,for引导的从句的用法要受到某些限制:

①for引导的从句不能位于它所解释的动词之前:

Because it was wet be took a taxi.

因为下雨,他叫了一辆出租车。(这里不能用for)

②for引导的从句不能位于not,but或任何连词之后

③for引导的从句不能用于回答问题:

—Why did you do it? 你为什么这么做?

—I did it because I was angry. 因为我生气才这么做的。(这里不能用for) ④for引导的从句不能单单用来复述已讲过的话,而必须包括新的内容: He spoke in French. 他讲法语。

She was angry because he had spoken in French. 因为他讲法语,她生气了。

[2]

误用

因为连词的种类非常多,有并列连词(连接并列句),有从属连词(引导复合句),而从属连词引导的从句又可分为三类:名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。尤其

应注意的是有些连词可引导不止一种从句,具有多重功能,这往往是学习的难点,也是易混点。

难点回顾:

1 as可引导多种从句,如时间状语从句、原因状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句、比较状语从句以及定语从句。

[误] Which you can see,he is always ready to help others.

[正] As you can see,he is always ready to help others.

[析]as引导非限制性定语从句,当"正像"讲。

[误] Do like I told you.

[正] Do as I told you.

[析]like是介词; as是连词,在这里作"按照"讲,引导方式状语从句。

[误] He was reading then he was walking.

[正] He was reading as he was walking.

[析]as强调两个动作同时进行,作"一边……一边……"讲。

[误] As he is young,he knows a lot.

[正] Young as he is,he knows a lot.

[析]as引导的让步状语从句应用倒装语序,应把表语提前。

2.that可引导多种从句,如定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句等。

[误] You don’t like him is none of my business.

[正] That you don’t like him is none of my business.

[析]that引导主语从句,本身无实际意义,但不能省略。

[误] The thief handed everything which he had stolen to the police.

[正] The thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.

[析]everything是不定代词,因此后面的定语从句只能由that引导。

[误] I am happy as you passed the exam.

[正] I am happy that you passed the exam.

[析]that在形容词后面引导原因状语从句,不能用as。

3.where可引导多种从句,如定语从句、状语从句以及名词性从句。

[误] Go to find your watch. It’s there where you left it.

[正] Go to find your watch. It’s where you left it.

[析]where引导表语从句,相当于at the place where。

[误] The place where there is water,there is life.

[正] Where there is water,there is life.

[析]where引导地点状语从句,可以放在主句的前面,也可以放在主句的后面。

[误] I can’t remember in which place I met him.

[正] I can’t remember where I met him.

[析]where引导宾语从句,不能用in which。

4.what可引导感叹句、特殊疑问句、名词性从句等。

[误] How an interesting story he told us!

[正] What an interesting story he told us!

[析]What an interesting story!=How interesting a story!

[误] I can’t remember the thing what he told me.

[正] I can’t remember what he told me.

[析]what引导宾语从句,相当于the thing that。

5 no matter+what/who...与whatever/whoever...的区别:前者只能引导让步状语从句,而后者既可引导让步状语从句,也可引导名词性从句。

[误] I will make friends with no matter who shares my interest.

[正] I will make friends with whoever shares my interest.

[析]引导名词性从句时只能用whoever。

[误] You must hand in no matter what you’ve found.

[正] You must hand in whatever you’ve found.

[析] 引导名词性从句时只能用whatever。

6.whether和if的区别:两者引导名词性从句时都是从属连词,作"是否"讲,本身不作成分,此时句子中往往出现表示"不肯定"意义的一些短语,如not sure/certain,not known/decided,...is still question,depend on等。 whether 和if 引导动词后的宾语从句时可互换,但下列情况一般只能用whether:

(1) 引导介词后的宾语从句;(2)引导主语从句; (3) 引导表语从句;(4)引导同位语从句;(5)后面出现or not。

[误] If you can pass the exam depends on how hard you work.

[正] Whether you can pass the exam depends on how hard you work.

[析]引导主语从句只能用whether。

7.while,when,as 引导时间状语从句时的区别:

while只能表示"在一段时间或过程中",即只能表示时间的"一段",后面一般用进行时或表示状态的结构;

when常与一般时态连用,用于表示一个动作与另一个动作在同一时间发生,或一个动作在另一动作所延续的时间范围内发生。可以表示一段时间,也可表示时间的"一点";

When it is wet the buses are crowded.

天下雨时公共汽车就很拥挤。

When she pressde the button the lift stopped.

她按了按键,电梯停住了。

as引导时间状语从句时,表示两个动作同时进行,作"一边……一边……"讲。还可表示第二个动作发生在第一个动作结束之前。

[误] I picked up some French words as I was having a holiday in Paris.

[正] I picked up some French words while I was having a holiday in Paris.

[析]while强调在……过程中;as说明两个动作同时进行。

[误] We were having classes while someone knocked at the door.

[正] We were having classes when someone knocked at the door.

[析]when可表示时间的"一点",而while不能。

8.because,as,since(now that)引导原因状语从句时的区别:

because引导原因状语从句时,表示直接的原因,可以回答why的提问;as只能是一种"附加的"理由,不能回答why的提问;since(now that)多表示双方都已很清楚的事实,作"既然"讲。

[误] Because we’ve finished most of the work,let’s have a rest.

[正] Since(Now that) we’ve finished most of the work,let’s have a rest.

[析]表示大家都清楚的理由用since(now that)。

9.however和as 引导让步状语从句时的区别:

however引导让步状语从句时,相当于no matter how,后面跟形容词或副词;as引导让步状语从句时,用倒装语序,即把作状语的副词或作表语的形容词或名词提前,而且如果作表语的是单数名词,前面不加冠词,也可以把谓语动词部分的实义动词提前。

[误] As hard he works,he can’t catch up with his classmates.

[正] However hard he works,he can’t catch up with his classmates.

[析]见上述说明。

[误] A model worker he is,he remains modest.

[正] Model worker as he is,he remains modest.

[析]as 引导让步状语从句,前面的单数名词前不加冠词。

典例调研

[例1] You must put things there you can find them.

there→where。此处应由where引导地点状语从句。

[例2] I remember the time as my grandmother was telling stories to me. as→when。when引导名词性从句,表示"……的时候"。

[例3] A child as he was,he looked quite calm in that difficult situation. 去掉A,child的首字母大写。as引导让步状语从句时,前面作表语的单数名词前不加冠词。

[例4] Don’t make friends with such people that you think are dishonest. that→as。such...as...搭配在一起用,as引导定语从句。

[例5] He had been admitted by Beijing University made us very happy. 句首加That,把He改为he。that引导名词性从句,本身无实际意义,也不作成分,但不能省略。

10. 两个并列连词不能连用,但therefore,then,yet.可以和并列连词连用。 You can watch TV,and or you can go to bed.

He hurt his leg,and so / and therefore he couldn't play in the game.

11. although… yet…,但although不与 but 连用。

(错)Although he was weak,but he tried his best to do the work.. (对)Although he was weak,yet he tried his best to do the work. 指导借鉴

对这些有着多重作用的引导词,大家应通过类比找出它们的异同点,深刻体会它们在不同从句中的作用,然后灵活运用。

强化闯关

1. Anyone leaves the room last should remember to lock the door.

2. He is willing to help no matter who is in trouble.

3. Who breaks the law should be punished.

4. The place he has gone is not known yet.

5. I will buy the dictionary as it is expensive.

6. He said that he would do all what he could to help us.

7. The thing what he had done surprised everybody.

8. As everybody is here,let’s begin our discussion.

9. We will finish the work on time,however difficulties we meet.

答案及解析:

1. Anyone→Whoever或Anyone who。whoever可以直接用来引导名词性从句,相当于anyone who。

2. no matter who→whoever。引导宾语从句应用whoever。

3. Who→Whoever。who和whoever都可引导名词性从句,但whoever泛指任何人,具有强调语气,who往往指一定的对象。

4. The place→Where。where可以直接用来引导主语从句。

5. as→although。此处让步状语从句是正常语序,因此应用although。

6. what→that或去掉what。what不能引导定语从句。

7. 去掉The thing,把what的首字母大写。what可以直接引导主语从句。

8. As→Since。since引导原因状语从句,表示大家都清楚的原因。

9. however→whatever。however引导让步状语从句时相当于no matter how,后面跟形容词或副词;whatever引导让步状语从句时,相当于no matter what,后面跟名词。

比较so和 such

其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much, little连用,形成固定搭配。

so + adj. such + a(n) + n.

so + adj. + a(n) + n. such + n. (pl.)

so + adj. + n. (pl.) such +n. (pl.)

so + adj. + n. [不可数] such +n. [不可数]

so foolish such a fool

so nice a flower such a nice flower

so many/ few flowers such nice flowers

so much/little money. such rapid progress

so many people such a lot of people

so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。

so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。

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