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新外研八年级下 Module 4 Seeing the doctor

发布时间:2014-03-12 19:04:52  

Module 4 Seeing the doctor

Unit 1 I haven’t done much exercise since I got my computer.

【热身训练】

1. 咳嗽 2. 发烧

3. 头疼 4. 胃疼

5. 感冒

I’ve got a stomachache and my head hurts. 我胃疼和头疼。

I have got a stomachache.意为“我胃疼”,是表示疾病的一种表达方式,还可以用“My stomach hurts/aches. 或I have a pain in my stomach. ”来表示“我胃疼。”例如:

I have got a toothache.

My tooth hurts/aches.

I have a pain in my tooth.

与 stomachache的构词法相同的单词有:toothache (牙疼);headache (头疼);backache (背疼)等。

How long have you been like this? 你像这样已经有多长时间了?

how long意为“多长时间”,用来询问一段时间。通常对“for + 一段时间”或since引导的时间状语从句提问。

—How long do you sleep every night? 你每晚睡多长时间?

—For about eight hours. 大约8个小时。

how long也可意为“多长”,用来提问物体的长度。

How long is the ruler? 这把直尺有多长?

【即学即练】

— will it take you from your school to the library?

—About half an hour. So I’ll be there by 9 o’clock.

A. How far B. How soon

C. How long D. How many

解析:本题考查特殊疑问短语。how far“多远”,对距离提问;how soon“多久以后”,对将来时的时间提问;how long“多长时间”,对时间段或长度提问;how many“多少”,对可数名词的数量提问;由此可知选C。

Since Friday. I’ve been ill for about three days! 自从星期五开始。我已经病了大约三天了。 since可作介词或连词,意为“自??以来”,后接表示过去的某个时间点的名词或短语,表示一段时间,常用于完成时态。

She has worked here since 1992. 自从 1992 年以来她就在这儿工作。

He has taught us since he came to our school. 自从他来到我们学校就一直教我们。

for+—段时间

for about three days“大约三天”。“for+—段时间”表示时间段,表示某种动作延续的时间,所以要与延续性动词连用。常用于 完成时态,但也可以和其他时态连用。注意for后接表示一段 时间的短语。

She has lived there for nine months.她住在那儿九个月 了。

He worked here for two years.他在这儿工作过2年。

【即学即练】

1. My uncle has taught in this school he was twenty years old.

A. since B. for C. until D. after

解析:本题考查连词。由于主句是现在完成时,从句是一般过去时,所以从句的引导词用since,故选A。

2. —He the English-Chinese dictionary for about twenty years, but it is still new. —What a careful man!

A. has bought B. has borrowed C. has had

解析:本题考查延续性动词的用法。

3. —How long have you written letters in English?

— .

A. Since six years B. For 1998

C. For six years D. Six years ago

解析:本题考查现在完成时的时间状语。由how long可知回答的是时间段。A和B项本身不对,可排除;D项与 一般过去时连用;只有C项意为“六年了 ”,可回答how long的提问,故选C。

That’s why you’ve got a stomachache. 那就是你为什么胃疼的原因。

That’s why ...是常用句型,意为“那就是??的原因;因此??”,why后面用陈述句语序。该句型通常用于针对前面已经说明过的原因进行总结。

I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. That’s why I got wet all through.

我既没穿雨衣,也没带雨伞,所以全身都淋湿了。

That’s why your father backed off, and that’s why you backed off.

那正是你爸爸后退的原因,也是你后退的原因。

【即学即练】

根据汉语意思完成句子

那就是我为什么上学迟到的原因。

It can be very harmful to your health. 那会对你的健康有害处。

be harmful to...意为“对.........有害处”,其同义短语是be harmful for/be bad for;其反义短语是be good for“对有好处”。

Eating junk food is harmful to you. 吃垃圾食品对你有害处。

Doing morning exercises is good for your health. 做早操对你的健康有好处。

health健康(状况)

health是名词,意为“健康(状况)”,是不可数名词。其形容词形式是healthy,反义词是unhealthy; 副词形式是healthily。

【即学即练】

1. 在太阳底下看书对我们的眼睛有害。

提示:注意本题是动名词短语作主语,谓语动词要用单数is。

2. 如果你想保持健康,你就得多做锻炼。

提示:注意keep之后接形容词,意为“保持一种状态”。

3. 老年人比青年人更注重健康。

提示:本题考查名词。在their之后,要用名词作look after的宾语。

1. Reading in the sun is harmful to our eyes.

2. If you want to keep healthy, you have to do more exercise.

3. The old look after their health better than the young.

Unit 2 We have played football for a year now.

【热身训练】

1. take him for a walk 2. the first member of the team

3. 在过去的几年里

4. 脸上带着微笑

Now I get exercise by taking him for a walk every day. 现在,我通过每天带他散步来做锻炼。

by doing sth. 通过做某事

短语中by是介词,意为“通过;以??方式”,其后接动词的-ing形式。对它提问时用特殊疑问词how。

—How do you study for a test? 你是怎么备考的?

—I study for a test by working in groups. 我是通过小组合作学习的方式备考的。

【即学即练】

按要求完成句子 对画线部分提问)

解析:本题考查对表示方式的短语的提问。对方式提问用 特殊疑问词how。本题是一般现在时,主语是the students,所以用助动词do。

I have had him for three months now. 现在我已经拥有他有三个月了。

had在句中是动词的过去分词,与助动词have构成现在完成 时。又因为had是延续性动词,可以和表示一段时间的时间状语连用。

Tony bought the car two years ago. 托尼两年前买的这辆车。

= Tony has had the car for two years. 托尼拥有这辆车已经有两年了。

动词按其动作发生的方式、发生过程的长短可分为延续性动词与非延续性动词。延续性动词表示能够延续的动作,可以与表示时间段的状语连用。非延续性动词也称终止性动词、瞬间动 词,表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即结束。但是延续性动词与非延续性动词之间可以转换,常用且常考的有:

leave—be away borrow—keep buy—have begin/start—be on die—be dead join—be in catch a cold—have a cold come here—be here go there—be there become—be come back—be back get to know—know The old man died 4 years ago. 这个老人四年前去世了。

The old man has been dead for 4 years. 这个老人已经去世四年了。

He joined the Party 2 years ago. 他两年前入党了。

He has been in the Party for 2 years. 他入党已经有两年了。

【即学即练】

1. —How long have you this book?

—For three days.

A. borrowed B. kept C. lent D. bought

解析:本题考查延续性动词的用法。由句中的how long可知本题要用延续性动词;borrow,lend和buy都是非延续性动词,keep意为“借了之后的保存”。故本题选B。

2. When he arrives at the bus stop, the bus for 20 minutes.

A. has left B. had left

C. has been away D. had been away

解析:本题考查时态。由于从句是一般现在时,所以主句也应用相应的现在时态,故排除B和D项;而A项中left是非延续性动词,不能和for 20 minutes连用,所以本题选C。

...... and she also takes part in the same training with us. ......, 她也和我们一起参加同样的训练。

take part in意为“参加”,指参加群众性活动、会议、劳动、游行等,往往指参加者持有积极的态度,起一份作用,有时与join in可互换。

Will you take part in the English evening party? 你同我们一'起参加英语晚会好吗?

All the students took an active part in the thorough cleaning. 所有的学生都积极参加了大扫除。 join也意为“参加”,多指参加某组织,成为其中的一个成员,如加入某党派、某组织或某社会团体,以及参军等,还可表示参与某种活动。

I will never forget the day when I joined the Party. 我永远也忘不了入党的那一天。 Will you join us for dinner? 请你和我们一起吃晚饭好吗

I arrive at work with a smile on my face. 我面带微笑着到达工作地点。

with a smile on my face意为“面带微笑”,其结构是“with +宾语+介词短语”,在句中作状语。 The man left the meeting with a book in his hand.

这个男人手里拿着书离开了会议。

The woman with a diamond necklace around the neck must be wealthy.

那个脖子上带钻石项链的女人一定很有钱。

【小结】with/without其他复合结构的用法

(1) with或without+名词/代词+形容词;

She came into the room with her nose red because of cold.

由于天冷她红着鼻子进了房间。

(2) with或without+名词/代词+副词;

With the meal over, we all went home.

吃完饭后,我们都回家了。

(3) with或without+名词/代词+动词不定式;

He could not finish it without me to help him.

没有我帮助他,

他是不可能完成的。

(4) with或without+名词/代词+分词。

She fell asleep with the light burning. (with+名词+现在分词)

她点着灯睡着了。

Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something to eat. (without+名词+过去分词)

橱柜里什么都没剩下,她出去找吃的了。

【即学即练】

根据汉语意思完成句子

1. 她开着灯睡着了。

She fell asleep the light on.

2. 校长胳膊底下夹着尺子在到处走动。

The headmaster was walking up and down ruler under his arm.

Unit 3 Language use

【热身训练】

一、英译汉。

1. have a healthy diet

2. this type of exercise 3. ride a bike to school 4. from time to time 二、用since或for完成句子。

1. He has had this pair of shoes three months.

2. The Greens have lived here they moved here two years ago.

3. Sandy has been a member of the Party 1999.

4. We have studied the Chinese history many years.

I haven’t done much exercise since I got my computer last year.

自从去年我买了电脑之后,我就没做多少锻炼。

I haven’t done“我没做”是现在完成时的否定句形式,其构成是在助动词have或has之后加not。

We haven’t studied the project. 我们还没有研究这个课题。

非延续性动词表示动作发生后立刻结束,不能和一段时间连用。有趣的是,非延续性动词的肯定式不能“延续”,但是它的否定式可以“延续”,因为这个动作根本没有发生过。 He hasn’t come here for two days.

他两天没来这儿了。

I haven’t received her letter for half a month.

我有半个月没收到她的信了。

So last month I decided to take more exercise and started walking to school.

所以上个月我决定多做锻炼,并开始走着去学校。

decide作动词,意为“决定”,后面接动词不定式,即decide to do sth.,相当于 make up one’s mind to do sth.。其否定形式为 decide not to do sth.,意为“决定不做某事”。

I decided to stay at home and play with the computer.

我决定待在家里玩电脑。

He decided not to give up smoking.

他决定不戒烟。

decision是decide的名词形式,意为“决定,决心”。make a decision to do sth. “下决心做

某事”。

His parents were surprised at his decision.

他的父母对他的决定感到很吃惊。

At last, we made a decision to buy a new car.

最后我们决定买辆新车。

【即学即练】

1. (2013河北中考)The children decide their school yard this Friday afternoon.

A. clean B. to clean C. cleaning D. cleaned

2. —It’s a pity that Jerry didn’t go to yesterday’s meeting.

—Yes, he missed a good of being chairperson of the Students’ Union.

A. chance B. choice C. decision D. conclusion

现在完成时的用法 III

一、现在完成时的延续性用法

现在完成时表示从过去就已经开始,一直持续到现在的动作或 状态,且常和for与since连用。因为表示的是持续的动作或状 态,所以使用的动词通常是延续性动词,如:be, stay, study, wait, keep, have等。

He has had/kept the book for two months.他买这本书已经有 两个月了。

He has been here for 2 years.他待在这儿已经有两年了。

二、非延续性动词想要表达延续的意义时,我们可以用相应的延续性动词或动词短语来替换部分短暂性动词或与之对应的延续性动词

短暂性动词 延续性动词/短语

die be dead

borrow keep

buy/catch have

get up be up

come be in

leave be away

open be open

close be closed

begin be on

become interested in be interested in

三、for与since 二者后接的词有所不同

(1) for后常跟一个时间段,如for two years。

Mary has learned Chinese for three years. 玛丽学习汉语已经有三年了。

(2) since后跟一个时间点,如since 1980;也可以接 “一段时间+ ago”,如 since three years ago, since two months ago; 还可接一般过去时的从句,如 since he came here。

She has been heartbroken since her boyfriend left her.

自从她的男朋友离开她,她就心碎了。

四、对以上表示时间段的状语进行提问要用特殊疑问短语how long。

How long have you played soccer on the playground?

你在操场上踢足球踢了多长时间了?

【即学即练】

1. (2013上海中考)一 have you been in the sports club?

—Since the first month I came to the school.

A. How old B. How long

C. How much D. How soon

解析:本题考查特殊疑问词组的辨析。结合答语可知上句问的应是“你在运动俱乐部多长时间了?”故how long 符合题意。

2. (2013山东济南中考)一How long has Robert —Since 2004.

A. been to Beijing B. become a policeman

C. joined the art club D. studied in this school

解析:本题考查现在完成时的用法。本题是现在完成时,

只有D项属于延续性的动作,所以选D。 而且和时间段搭配,四个选项中,

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