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初中英语词汇辨析

发布时间:2014-03-31 18:26:43  

初中英语词汇辨析

1 a bit/ a little

这两个词都意为“一点儿”有时可以互换,但有时不能。

Ⅰ.二者作程度副词修饰形容词、副词、动词或比较级时,意义相同,为“一点儿” “有些”。如:

① I am a bit / a little hungry. 我有点饿。

② He walked a bit / a little slowly. 他走路有点慢。

Ⅱ.二者都可以作名词词组,充当主语或宾语。如:

① A little / bit is enough for me. 我有一点儿就够了。

② I know only a little / a bit about her. 我对她的情况只了解一点。 Ⅲ。a little可直接修饰名词;a bit后须加of才可以。如:

①.There is a little water in the bottle. = There is a bit of water in the bottle.

[注意] a little of 后的名词通常特指,表“??中的一些”,如: ①May I have a little of your tea?

Ⅳ. 否定形式 not a little 作状语,相当于very/ quite, “很”, “非常”;作定语和宾语时,相当于much, 意为 “许多”。而not a bit 作状语时,相当于not at all, 意为“一点也不”,作宾语时则相当于not much. Eg: ① He is not a little (=very) hungry. 他饿极了。

② He is not a bit (=not at all) hungry.他一点也不饿。

③ She ate not a little (=much). 她吃得很多。

Ⅴ. Not a bit 中的not 可以分开使用;not a little中的not 则不能分开。Eg:

① He felt not a bit tired. = He didn’t feel a bit tired. 他觉得一点也不累。

② He felt not a little tired. 他觉得非常累。但不能说:He didn’t fell a little tired.

§2 a few/ few/ a little/ little

Ⅰ. a few和few修饰可数名词,a little和little修饰不可数名词;a few和a little表示肯定意义,few和little表示否定意义,可受only修饰。如: ① Few people will agree to the plan because it’s too dangerous. ②This text is easy to understand though there are a few new words in it.

③ There is little water left in glass. Will you please give me some ④ Don’t worry, we have a little time left.

§3 about/ on

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Ⅰ.about “关于”表示的内容较为普通或指人时用它。侧重于叙事,多用于叙述个人经历和事迹,故事内容涉及一些较浅的问题。是非正式用语。

Ⅱ.on “关于”侧重于论述政治理论,国际形势,学术报告等。也就是说,当表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的或学术性的可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读时用。eg:

This is a text book on African history. 这是一本关于非州历史的教科书。

[注]:它们有时可通用。

§4 above/over/on/upon

Ⅰ. 方位介词,“在??之上”

Ⅱ. above 着重指:在??上方,不一定含有垂直在上的意思。反义词为:below. ① The sun rose above the horizon. 太阳升到了地平线上。

② The aero plane flew above the clouds.飞机在云层上飞行。

Ⅲ.over 表盖在??上面,或铺在??上面。此时不能用above.代替。含有垂直在上的意思。反义词为under.

① Spread the tablecloth over the table.把桌布铺在桌子上。

Ⅳ. on 含有与表面相接触的意思。

① The book is on the desk.

② There is an oil painting on the wall. 墙上有一幅油画。

Ⅴ.upon 也含有和表面相接触的意思。与on没有多大的区别,但较正式,口语中较少用。

① He laid his hand upon the boy’s head. 他把手放在孩子的头上。

[注] up 与以上几个不同,它表示向上方或高处,含有由下而上,由低而高的意思。常和表示运动的动词连用。作副词时,表示在上方或高处。

① We run up a hill. 我们跑上山。

② The plane was high up in the air.飞机在高空中。

§5 accident/incident “事故”

Ⅰ. accident 可以表示事故,指不幸的意外事件。也表偶然的事件。 ① Twenty people were killed in the railway accident

② He met with an accident. 这完全是偶然的事。

Ⅱ. Incident 的意思是事件,尤指与较重大的事件相比,显得不重要的事件。它还可以表引起国际争端或战争的事件。

① It is a quite common incident.这是很普通的事。

② The Lugouqiao incident accrued on July 7th, 1937. 芦沟桥事件发生于1937年7月7日。

§6 accept/receive

Ⅰ. accept “接受”,表示其行为是由主观意愿决定的。

① I accepted it without question. 我毫无疑问地接受了它。

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② We have accepted his proposal. 我已接受了他的建议。

Ⅱ. receive “接到、收到、受到”表示其行为与主观意愿无关。如: ① I received a letter from him. 我收到了他的来信。

② He received the present, but he did not accept. 他收到了礼物,但没有接受下来。

③ He received a good education.他受到了良好的教育。

[注] 在表示接待、接见时,通常用 receive, 而不用 accept.

如:We often receive foreign guests. 我们经常接待外宾。

§7 at hand/ in hand

Ⅰ. at hand“在手边;在附近;即将到来”如:

① When he writes, he always keeps a dictionary at hand. 他写东西时,手边总有一本字典。

② Spring is at hand. 春天就要来了。

Ⅱ. in hand “在手中的;现有的”引申为:“在掌握中;在处理中”。如: ① I have 100 yuan in hand. 我手头有100元钱。

② The police immediately had the situation in hand. 警方立即控制了局势。

§8 accurate/exact/correct

Ⅰ. accurate “准确、精确” 不仅表无错误,且表细心,谨慎地做到符合标准,符合事实或真象。如:

① Clocks in railway stations must be accurate. 火车站的钟必须准确。 ② The figures are not accurate.这些数字不精确。

Ⅱ. exact “精确、确切”强调完全符合标准,符合事实或真象,丝毫没有差错。它这三个中语意最强。如:

① His translation is exact to the letter. 他的翻译翻译确切。 ② Your description is not very exact.你的描述不很确切。

Ⅲ.correct. “正确”指按照一定的标准或规则,而没有错误。在这有一个词中,它的语意最弱。

① His answer is correct. 他的回答是正确的。

② The thing turned out to be correct. 事情结果是对的。

§9 ache/pain “痛”

Ⅰ. ache 通常指一种持续的隐痛。 它可以与表身体某部分的词,组成复合词。如:

① Where is the ache? 哪里痛?

② I have a headache (stomachache, toothache atc).

Ⅱ. pain 是普通用语。不含持续痛的意味,尤指一种突然的剧痛。除指肉体上的外,还指精神的痛苦。如:

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① I feel a great deal of pain. 我感到非常痛。

② He cried with pain. 他痛得直叫。

③ I have a pain in the arm. 我手臂痛。

④ I have pains all over. 我浑身痛。

⑤ It gave us much pain to learn of the sad news. 听到不幸的消息很悲痛。

§10 across/through/ over

Ⅰ. across “横过、穿过”,指从??的一边到另一边。含义与on有关。如: ① I swam across the river. 我游过这条河(指从此岸到彼岸)

② Let’s help push the cart across the bridge. 我们帮着把车子推过桥吧。

Ⅱ. through “穿过、通过”指穿过两边。是从空间较狭窄的一头穿到另一头。是从内部穿过,含义与in有关。如:

① We walked through the forest. 我们穿过森林。

② The river flows through the city from west to east. 这条河从西到东流过城市。

Ⅲ. over“横过、跨越”指横过道路、河流等“细长物”时,与across通用。Over 虽可指从表面的接触及跳(飞)越,但指渡过则不能用。从房间、原野、海洋等“平面延伸”的一端横越到另一端时也不能使用。而常用across. ① She went across / over the bridge.

② He jumped across / over the stream他跳过了小溪。

③ She swam across the straight of Dover. 她游过了多佛尔海峡。 ④ They drove across the desert. 他们驶过沙漠。

另外,over作介词还有“翻过??”的意思,如:climb the mountain 翻过那座山。

§11 affair/matter/business

Ⅰ. affair “事、事情、事务”它的涵义最广,可指已经发生或必须做的任何事情, 也可泛指事务(通常用算数,指重大或头绪较多的事务)。如: ① The railway accident was a terrible affair. 那次火车事故是件可怕的事。

② That’s my affair, not yours. 那是我的事, 不是你的。

③ We should concern ourselves with state affairs. 我们要关心国家大事。

Ⅱ. matter“事、事情” 是普通用语,常指我们所写到或谈到的事情,要考虑和处理的事情。如:

① This is a matter I know little about. 这件事我不大知道。

② I’ll ask some one about the matter.关于这件事我将去问问人。

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③ There are several matters to be considered. 有几件事情要考虑。 [注]:在口语中,be the matter 相当于 be wrong, 表发生了失常的事或出了毛病等意思。如:

① What’s the matter? 怎么啦?

② What’s the matter with you? 你怎么啦?

Ⅲ. business“生意、商业”产普通用语。它表“事情、事务”时,往往指一种任务、责任或必须去做的事。此外, 它有时还含有轻蔑的意味。如: ① We don’t do much business with them. 我们跟他们没有多少生意来

往。

② It is a teacher’s business to help his pupils. 帮助学生是教师

的责任。

③ He made it his business to fetch water for a granny. 他把为一位老

大娘挑水当作自己的事。

④ It’s not your business.这不是你的事。

[注]:这三个词有时可通用,但不能任意替换。如:

Mind your own business.少管闲事。这里的 business 可用affairs 替换,但不能用 matters.

§12 afraid/ fear/ frightened

Ⅰ. afraid “害怕”是形容词,只能作表语,而不能作定语,后接of 短语或不定式,构成 be afraid of sb. 和 be afraid to do sth

① She is afraid of a snake. 她害怕蛇。

② The little girl is afraid to go out at night.

afraid +that clause “恐怕”, 是婉转拒绝别人的一种表达方式。 如: ① I’m afraid (that) I can’t go to the party. My brother is sick. 恐怕我不能去参加聚会了。我弟弟病了。

Ⅱ. fear “害怕”是动词,与be afraid 往往通用,但不如它常用(特别是在口语中)。如:

① We fear no difficulty.我们不怕困难。

② He feared to speak his mind.他不敢说出自己的想法。

③ Fearing that he would catch cold, I went out to see him.因为怕他会受凉,我走去看他。

Ⅲ. frightened adj “受惊吓的、害怕的”可做表语,也可作定语。如: ① She is too frightened to move.她太害怕了不能动弹。

② A frightened girl is crying. 一个受惊的女孩正在哭。

§13 feel like / would like

Ⅰ.feel like 与would like 意思很相近,但feel like 后面常跟名词;动名词。构成:feel like (doing) sth. 而 would like 一般接名词;动词不

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定式。构成:would like (to do) sth.的句式。如:

① I feel like (having) a drink. = I would like (to have) a drink. 我想喝一杯。

② Do you feel like talking a walk. = Would you like to take a walk? 你要不要散步?

③ I don’t feel like eating. 我不想吃东西。

Ⅱ.feel like 还表示:“觉得好像,摸起来像”。如:

① It feels like silk. 它摸起来像绸缎。

§14. after/behind “在??之后”

Ⅰ. after “在??(时间)之后”;

“在??(地点)之后”,指次序。如:

① He came after ten o’clock. 他十点以后来的。

② Two days after his arrival, I called on him. 在他到达两天以后,我

拜访了他。

③ ‘Against’ comes after ‘again’ in this cictionary.在这本字典中

‘against’ 排在 ‘again’ 之后。

Ⅱ. behind 表地点时意为:在??后面、着重指位置的前后。偶尔也指时间,表按照一定的时刻而迟了的意思。

① The garden is behind the house.

② He stood behind me.

③ The train was behind time. 火车误点了。

④ You are two hours behind. 你迟了两个小时。

§15. ago/before

Ⅰ. ago adv. “??以前”指从此刻起,若干时间以前,通常与过去连用。如:

① It happened two days ago.这件事发生在两天以前。

② I met him a few minutes ago.我在几分钟以前碰到他。

Ⅱ. before adv, prep & conj “??以前”指从那时起若干时间以前。通常与完成时、过去时等连用。还可用作前置词或连接词表时间,而ago 则不能这样用。

① He said that he had seen her two days before.他说他两天前见到过她。(表从她说话那时起两天前)

② I had been fine the day before.(那天)前一天的天气很好。 ③ I’ve seen that film before.

④ I never met him before.

§16. agree to/ agree with/ agree on(up on)

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Ⅰ. agree to “同意、应允”通常用于同意某件事情(我们可以同意我们自己有不同看法而并不赞同的事情)。如:

① Do you agree to this plan?

② He agreed to my proposal.他同意了我的提议。

③ I agreed to his terms. 我同意了他的条件。

Ⅱ. agree with “同意、赞同”常常表示同某人意见一致,也可表赞同某件事情。还有“(气候、食物等)适合”之意。如:

① I quite agree with you.我很同意你。

② Do you agree with me ?

③ I agree with all you say.我同意你所说的。

④ His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。

⑤ Too much meat doesn’t agree with her. 吃太多肉对她身体不合适。

[注]:agree with 不能用于被动语态。

Ⅲ. agree on /upon “对??取得一致意见”指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或达成了某种协议。如:

① After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire. 经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。

② They all agree on the plan.他们对这个计划意见一致。

[注]:此句型可转换成agree in doing sth.如:

① All of them agreed on / upon it. = All of them agreed in doing it. 他们对做这个问题达成了共识。

§17 at times / at all times / all the time

Ⅰ. at times “不时;偶尔”如:

① The tide is , at times, very high. 潮水有时涨得高。

② I make mistakes at times when I speak English. 我说英语偶尔会出错。

Ⅱ. at all times.“随时;任何时候;总是” 如:

He has a cool head at all times. 他随时都有清醒的头脑。

Ⅲ. all the time “一直;始终” 其中time用单数形式。如:

The baby cries all the time. 那婴儿一直哭。

§18. aim/ purpose/ object

Ⅰ. aim “目的”指抱有一种明确的目的,并意味着为之实现而竭尽全力。如: ① What’s your aim in life?你的人生目的是什么?

② The ultimate aim of the Party is the realization of communism.党的最终目的是实现共产主义。

Ⅱ. purpose “目的”指心中有打算,并意味着对所作的打算有较大的决心。

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如:

① It was done with a definite purpose. 做这件事具有一个明确的目的。

② For what purpose (purposes) do you want to go to Canada? 你要去加拿大的目的何在?

Ⅲ. object “目的” 含有比较具体的意味。往往指在我们的行为中,需要或希望直接达到的目的。如:

① The object of my visit is to consult you. 我访问的目的是来和你商量。

② What is your object in studying English? 你学英文的目的 何在?

[注]:以上这几个词的涵义虽有差别,但在语言实践中,常被毫无区别地使用着。

§19. alive/ living/ the living/ live/ dead

Ⅰ. alive adj“活着的”“在世的”,它既可修饰人也可修饰物。可作表语,定语。作定语时,应放在被修饰的名词之后。如:

① They were alive and as happy as ever. 他们都还活着,并跟以前一样快活。

② All the other comrades were killed in the battle. He was the only man alive. 所有的同志都还活着亡了,他是唯一的幸存者。

Ⅱ.living adj,“活着的”主要用着定语,常置于名词前,有时也可置于名词后。也可作表语。如:

① Every living person has a name. 每个活着的人都有一个名字。 ② No man living could do better. 当代人没有一个能做得比这更好。 Ⅲ. the living “活着的人”如:

The living are more important to us than the dead. 对我们来说活着的人比死了的人更重要。

Ⅳ. live adj. “活着的”读着[laiv],反义词为 dead, 可作定语,放在所修饰的名词之前,一般不用来修饰人。 还可以作动词,读着[liv], 意为“生活”、“生存”如:

① The cat was playing with a live mouse. 这只猫在玩弄一只活老鼠。 ② Pandas usually live in the south and the southeast of China. 熊猫通常生活在中国的南部和东南部。

Ⅴ. lively adj. [‘laivli](livelier, liveliest) “生动的”;“活泼的”;“充满生气的”用作表语或定语,可用来修饰人或物。如:

The sports ground is lively with all sorts of ball games. 运动场上进行着各种球类比赛,呈现出一派生气勃勃的景象。

§20. all/ every

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Ⅰ. all 和 every 意思十分相近,二者都可用来泛指人或物。但all可与算数的名词连用,而every 只能与单数的名词连用。如:

① All Mondays are horrible. 星期一总是可怕的。

② Every Monday is horrible. 每个星期一都是可怕的。

Ⅱ. all 和 every 也可用来指某一类东西中的个体。但all 后跟the 或其它“限定词”,而every后却不能。它往往强调无一例外的意思。

--She is eaten all the biscuits[‘biskit]. –What, every one? –Every single one! 她把饼干都吃光了。怎么,把每一块都吃光了吗?每一块全都吃了!

Ⅲ. all 还可和单数名词连用,表示every past of 而every却不能有此义。如:

She was here all day. 她在这呆了一整天。

§21. all/ whole

Ⅰ. 二者意义(“全部、都、整个”)相同,然而词序不同。

Ⅱ. all用于冠词,所有格或其它“限定词”之前。

whole 则用于冠词之后。如:

① all the time. ────→the whole time.全部时间

② all my life ────→the whole life.我的一生

③ all this confusion ─→ this whole confusion.整个混乱状况。 Ⅲ. 如果没有冠词,或其它限定词,whole不能与单数名词连用。可以说: ① The whole city was burning.但不能说:

Ⅳ.whole 和 all 与复数名词连用时意思不同。Whole 的意思为“全部”,而all的意思则近乎“每一个”如:

① All Indian tribes([traib]部首 ) suffered from white settlement in

America. 所有印第安人部首都因白人移民美洲而遭殃。

② Whole Indian tribes were killed off. 有些印第安人部落整个被杀光了。

Ⅴ. whole 一般不用来修饰不可数名词(包括物质名词)

① 可以说:all the money 或all the wine

② 不可以说:the whole money 或the whole wine.

③ The whole of = whole 与单数名词连用。它用于冠词、所有格之前。

the whole of the time.

the whole of my life

the whole of this confusion

§22 allow/ permit/ let/ promise

Ⅰ. allow“允许、许可”,一般指听任,或默许某人去做什么,含有消极地不

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反对的意味。如:

① We allowed him to depart.我们允许他离去。

② Who allowed you to leave the camp?谁允许你离开营地的?

③ I can’t allow you to do that.我不能允许你做那件事。

allow 也可表客气的请求。如

① Will you allow me to use your pen?我可以用你的钢笔吗?

Ⅱ. permit “允许、许可”但是正式地许可,含有比较积极地同意某人去做

什么的意味。如:

① I will permit him to do so. 我准备同意他这样做。

② The sentinel permitted the strangers to pass when they had given the countersign.当这群陌生人说出口令后,哨兵就允许他们通过了。

[注]:allow 与 permit 的涵义虽有差别,但在语言实践中,它们常常被通用着。如:

① Smoking is not allowed here.此处禁止吸烟。

② Smoking is not permitted in this theatre. 本戏院里禁止吸烟

Ⅲ. let.“允许、让”它可以指积极地允许,但更多的是着重指不予反对和阻止其后所跟的宾语要接不带to 的不定式用以表示客气的请求时,可与allow通用。且更具有口语色彩。如:

① Her father will not let her go.她父亲不会让她去。

② Don’t let this happen again. 不要让这种事发生了。

③ Please let me know what happens.请告诉我发生些什么事。

Ⅳ. promise “答应” “允诺”。与以上三个词的意义不同,用于主体答应自己要作什么的场合。如:

① He promised to begin at once.他答应立刻开始。

② I promised (him) to attend to the matter promptly. 我答应(他)立即处理这件事。

③ They promised an immediate reply.他们答应立即答复。

§23 almost/ nearly

Ⅰ. almost“差不多、几乎”有very, nearly 的意思。如:

① He has almost finished his work. 他差不多完成了他的工作。 ② Almost no one took any rest. 几乎没有一个人休息一下。

Ⅱ. nearly “差不多、几乎、将近”指一差距一般比almost 大。如: ① It’s nearly five o’clock.差不多五点钟了。

② Nearly everyone knows it. 几乎每个人都知道这个。

③ He’s nearly ready. 他快准备好了。

[注]:almost有时可与nearly通用,但当其与no, none, nothing, never连用时,不用nearly。如以上almost的例①可以互换,但例②则不能。

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§24 alone/ lonely

Ⅰ. alone adj. “单独的”只能作表语。如:

① I’m alone but I don’t fell lonely. 我单身一人但我从不觉得孤独。

② 此外alone 还可作副词。相当于by oneself,“单独地”“独自” ③ I’ll go there alone.我将独自去那儿。

Ⅱ. lonely adj. “孤独的”“寂寞的”有时还可表示“荒凉的”“无人烟的”意思,与deserted意思相同。含有较浓的情感色彩。既可作定语也可作表语。如:

① We’re together most of the time, so we never feel lonely. ② a lonely / deserted island

§25 aloud/ loud/ loudly

Ⅰ. aloud adv. “出声地”有使能听得到的意味。如:

① Please read the story aloud. 请朗读这个故事。

② They were shouting aloud.他们在高声地呼喊。

Ⅱ. loud. adv “高声地、大声地、响亮地”常指在说笑等方面。如: ① Don’t talk so loud. 不要如此高声地谈话。

② Speak louder. 说得大声点。

Ⅲ. loudly adv. “高声地”有时与loud 通用,但含有喧闹的意味。如: ① Someone knocked loudly at the door. 有人大声敲门。

② Don’t talk so loudly(loud). 不要如此高声地谈话。

§26 already/ yet /still

Ⅰ. already. adv. “已经”多用于肯定句中,通常与动词的完成时或进行时连用。也可用于疑问句,但不表真心的疑问,而表“惊奇”。它多置于句中。有时为了强调而置于句末。如:

① I’ve seen the film already.

② The train has already left. 火车已经开走了。

③ Have you already had breakfast? 难道你已经吃过早餐了?

Ⅱ. yet adv “已经、仍然、还”一般只用于否定句或疑问句,且常常置于句末。如:

① He hasn’t found his bike yet他还没有找到他的自行车。

Ⅲ. still adv “仍然、还”可用于各种句中,且一般只用于句中。如: ① Do you still teach in that school? 你还在那所学校教书?

[注]:still在句中的位置不同,其意义也不同。如:

① He is still(还)standing there.

② He is standing there still(adj.不动的、静止的)他站在那儿一动也不动。

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§27 also/ as well/ too/ either “也”

Ⅰ. also较正式,位置通常靠近动词,用于句中;且用于肯定句中。如: ① He also plays football. 他也踢足球。

② I was also there.我也在那儿。

Ⅱ. too 多用于口语,通常置于句末,前边须用逗号隔开,也可用于句中,且前后均须用逗号隔开,;用于肯定句中。如:

① He is a worker, too.

② The two cows, too, are white.那两头奶牛也全都是白的。

Ⅲ. as well 是副词短语,多用于口语,只用于句末。如:

① She not only taught us English but taught us maths as well.她不但教过我们英语,还教过我们数学。

② He is a teacher and a writer as well.他是位教师,也是一位作家。 Ⅳ. either 用于否定句中,常置于句末。在肯定句变否定句时,其中的also, too, as well都要改为either.

① Yesterday I didn’t watch TV and I didn’t see the film, either .昨天我没有看电视,也没有看电影。

§28 for / from / since

Ⅰ. 三者都能用来表示时间,但用法不同。

since “自从”,所表示的是一个时间点。可用作介词,也可用作连词,后接时间名词或短语,或引导时间状语从句;要求前面的谓语动词或主句的谓语动词必须用完成时态,要用延续性动词。而since引导的从句中的谓语动词通常应是短暂性的动词。若接时间,则应为点时间。如:

① He has worked there since1989.

② She has lived here since she moved here.

Ⅱ. from “自从” 只用作介词,表一个事情的开始点,可用于过去、现在或将来的时态。如:

① They worked from 7:00 to 12:00 this morning.

② We have been good friends from childhood.

Ⅲ. for 作为介词,后面接段时间,用于完成时、现在时、过去时和将来时,句中要用延续性动词。如:

① We’ll stay here for ten minutes.我们将在这儿呆10分钟。 ② They have studied English for three yeas.

§29 although/ though

Ⅰ. although conj. “尽管、虽然”引导让步状语从句,相当于 though. 只是比though稍微正式些。多用于句首。though 用于非正式文体中,较普遍,但以下几种用法,不能用although. 如:

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① 表强调时,要用even though,如:

Even though I didn’t understand a word, I kept smiling.尽管我一字不识,我还是一直微笑着。

②. Though可用在倒装句中,如:

Young though he is, he is quite experienced. 他虽然年轻,但很有经验。 ③ though 可作副词,表示“然而”放在句末或其它位置。如:He said he would come, he didn’t though.他说他要来,结果他却没来。

[此外],although不用着副词。在英语中如果用了although 或 though, 就不能再有but,但可以用yet 或still; 反之,如果用了but , 就不能用although 和 though. 如:

① Although he is in poor health, (yet) he works hard. = He is in poor health, but he works hard. 虽然他身体不好,但他工作仍努力。 ②Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.虽然天气很冷,他未穿外衣就出去了。

③ He is quite strong, although very old. 他虽然很老了,但还是十分健壮。

Ⅱ. though 常用作连词,“虽然”。在口语中还用着副词,一般放在句末,意为“可是、然而”等。如:

① He didn’t light the fire, though it was cold. 天气虽很冷,他却还没生火。

② Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,他还是继续工作。

③ He said he would come, he didn’t, though. 他说他来,可是结果他没有来。

§30 always / yet

Ⅰ. always “总是;一直”常与一般现在时连用。有时也与进行时连用, 但并不强调动作正在进行,而是表示“赞叹、厌烦、不满”等情绪。常用于肯定句中,放在“三类词”(情态动词、助动词、系动词本书称为“三类词”)之后,行为动词之前。如:

① We always get up before six o’clock. 我们总是六点前起床。 ② He is always thinking of others. 他总是想着别人。

Ⅱ. yet. “仍然;还”常与not连用。用于否定结构中。如:

①He hasn’t finished the work yet. 他还没完成这项工作。

§31 always/ often/ frequently/ often/

usually/ sometimes/ never

Ⅰ. 这几个词都是表频度的副词,它们之间的区别可用百分比来区分: (0%)→(20%)→ 70%)→(75%)→(100%)

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从不 —→ 有时 —→ 时常 —→ 通常 —→ 总是

即:never(0%)→sometimes(20%)→often/frequently(70%)→usually(75%)→always(100%)

Ⅱ always “永远、总是”。与进行时连用时,表“再三地、老是”等意思。有时还表“生气或不耐烦”等盛情色彩。如:

① The sun always rises in the east.太阳总是从东方升起。

② I always get up at seven o’clock. 我总是在七点钟起身。 ③ The boy is always asking whys.这男孩老是问这问那没个完。 Ⅲ often “时常、常常”强调经常性。如:

① He often comes here to see me. 他时常到这儿来看我。

② We have often been there.

Ⅲ frequently “时常、屡次”常与often 通用。但它强调次数频繁。如: ① Business frequently brings him to Shanghai.他时常因事到上海去。 ② He frequently comes here to see her.他时常到这儿来看她。

Ⅳ usually “经常”其动作频率仅次于always.常常与一般过时,一般现在时连用。

① I usually get up at six in the morning.

Ⅴ never “从不”是否定副词。常常与完成时连用。

① I have never been to the Great Wall.

② She said she had never gone there.

§32 edge / side

Ⅰ.edge侧重于指很窄的 “边缘”, 如刀刃或沿边的一部分.如:

Put some salt on the edge of your plate. 在你的盘子边上放些盐.

Ⅱ.side “边, 旁边” 有时与edge同义,有时指 “(东西的)侧面”, “(一个)方面”, “(身体的)侧边”,如:

§33 among/ between/ in the middle of

Ⅰ. among “在??之中/中间” 指三者或三者以上。通常表某个范围。如: ① Someone is wrong among us. 我们中间有人错了。

② There is a small village among the mountains. 大山之间有座小村庄。

Ⅱ. between “在?之间”指在二者之间,有时与and 连用。如: ① There is a river between us. 在我们两人之间有一条河。

② I’m standing between a house and a big tree. 我站在一座房子和一棵大树中间。

Ⅲ. in the middle of “在??中间”指在某事物中间,强调事物的两端的中间。如:

There is a bus stop in the middle of the road. 在这条公路中间有个车

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站。

§34 animal/ beast

Ⅰ. animal “动物” 是区别于植物而言,是动物的总称,通常指兽、鸟、虫、鱼等。如:

① It’s an animal of monkey kind. 这是一种属于猴类的动物。 ② The animal is hungry. 这个动物饿了。

Ⅱ. beast “四足动物”通常指不包括爬行动物的较大的四足动物。如: ① The camel is a beast of burden. 骆驼是负重的动物。

② The tiger is a beast of prey. 老虎是猛兽。

§35 another/ other/ more

Ⅰ. 名词前表示具有增加意义的“还、再”,一般用 more 和 another. more放在数词之后,而 another 放在数词之前;有时也可以用 other, 但other具有“不同”之意。保留它本意“别的”。如:

① one more thing, one other thing, another thing都表示“还有一件事”之意,如:

② I want three more / other books. = I want another three books.我还要三本书。

③ I stayed there three more days. = I stayed there another three days. 我在那儿又呆了三天。(这里不用other, 因day与day没有不同之意。 ④ We need three more / another three hands to do the job.我们还需要三个人做这项工作。 (这里不用other , 因不强调人与人的不同。) ⑤ He works on the Great Green Wall with many other people. 他与别的许多人一块在绿色长城上工作。( other 没有增加之意,表除自己以外的别的人。)

§36 another/ the other/ other/ others/ the others

Ⅰ. another 指不定数目中的“另一个、又一个” (三个以上)用来代替或修饰可数名词。如:

I don’t think the coat is good enough. Can you show me another? Ⅱ. other 泛指“另外的”修饰复数名词。如:

We study Chinese, maths, English and other subjects.

Ⅲ. others 泛指“另外的人或物”, 但不指其余的人或物的全部。如: Some like swimming, others like boating.

Ⅳ. the other 指两个中的“另一个”如:

He has two sons, one is in Shanghai, the other is in Beijing. Ⅴ. the others 特指某一范围内的“其余全部的人或物”如:

There are thirty books on the bookshelf. Five are mine, the others are

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my father’s.

§37 answer/ reply

Ⅰ. answer “回答、答复”。是最普通的用语,包括用口头、书面或行动回答。它可以用作及物动词或不及物动词。如:

① He answered my question.

② It is a difficult question to answer. 这是一个难以回答的问题。 ③ Please answer my letter as soon as possible.

④ They left a boy to answer the bell. 他们留下一个孩子应门。

Ⅱ.reply “回答、答复”。 但比answer 正式些。它指用口头或书面回答。严格地讲,是指有针对性地详细地回答。 它也指用行动回答。 Reply 常用作不及物动词,回答某人或某事。后接to; 当它与直接引语或从句连用时,才用作及物动词。如:

① I didn’t reply to him.我没有答复他。

② He replied that he might go. 他回答说他可能去。

§38 any/ either

二者所指的相关名词或代词的数量不同。

Ⅰ. any 指二个以上的“任意一个”人/物。如:

When can you go with me to the city? Any day of this week will do. 什么时候你能陪我去城里? 这个星期的哪天都行。

Ⅱ. either 一般指两个中的“任意一个”且其后不能接不可数名词。如: Can you come on Friday or Saturday? Either will do .你能在星期五还是星期六来吗? 哪天都行。

§39 any/ some

Ⅰ.any “一些、一点、(有时不宜译出)” 一般用于疑问句、否定句。 如: ① Have you any new books? 你有(什么)新书吗?No, I have not any new books. 我没什么新书。

② Have you any money with you? 你身边带了一些钱吗?

Ⅱ.some “一些、一点” 一般用于肯定句。如:

① I have some new books. 我有一些新书。

[注]:① any用于肯定句中时,表“任何??、随便??”等意思。 如You may come at any time. 你随便什么时候来都可以。

②some 用于疑问句时,表“期望得到肯定的回答”或“邀请”或“请求”等意思。通常用在带情态动词的问句是。如:

1. Aren’t there some envelops in that drawer? 那个抽屉不是有些信封吗?

2. Would you have some tea?您喝点茶吗?

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