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初二下册英语知识点归纳

发布时间:2014-04-05 12:46:38  

初二英语下册知识点归纳

一、单词

Robot 机器人, pollution污染, astronaut宇航员, apartment公寓 ,rocket火箭 space station太空站, moon月亮;月球, free time空闲时间 ,scientist科学家 housework 家务,will将;会 probably 可能地,possible 可能的impossible不可能的 seem 似乎more less fewer

二、重点短语

1. fewer people 更少的人(fewer修饰名词复数,表示否定)

2. less free time 更少的空闲时间(less修饰不可数名词,表示否定)

3. make predictions 做预测

4. study at home on computers 呆在家里通过电脑学习

5. on a piece of paper 在一张纸上(注意paper/information/news/work/homework/housework等常考到的不可数名词)

6. live to be 200 years old 活到200岁

7. in ten years 10年后(in的时间短语用于将来时,提问用How soon)

8. fall in love with sth./ sb. 爱上某物/某人 be in love with sth./ sb. 与某物/某人相恋

9. live alone独居

10. keep pets 养宠物

11. look smart 看上去聪明

12. be able to 能够

13.twenty years from now 从现在算起20年

14. come true 实现

15. see sb. do sth. 看见sb.做某事(全过程)

doing sth. 看见sb.正在做某事(片断)

16. help sb. with sth. / help sb. do sth. 帮助某人做某事

17. hundreds of+复数 数以百计的;数百/几百(概数,类似还有thousands of; millions of)

18. try to do sth. 尽力做某事

19. make sb do sth. 使...做...

20. the same as 和……相同 (A be different from B A与B不同)

21. wake up 醒来(wake sb. up表示 “唤醒某人”)

22. over and over again 一遍又一遍,反复

23. get/be bored (of…) 厌倦(...)

24. look for 寻找,强调动作的过程 find 强调动作的结果。

25. in the future 将来

三、重要句型

What do you think life will be like in 100 years?

Every home will have a robot.

Will kids go to school?

No, they won’t. They’ ll study at home.

There will be fewer trees.

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1. 一般将来时结构:

肯定式:主语 + will + 动词原形

否定式:主语 + won?t + 动词原形

一般疑问句:Will + 主语 + 动词原形

肯定回答:Yes, 主语+will. 否定回答: No, 主语+won?t.

一般将来时常见的标志词: 1).含tomorrow; next短语;

2). in+段时间 ;

3). how soon;

4). by+将来时间;

5).祈使句句型中:or/and sb. will do

eg. Be quick, or you will be late.=If you don’t be quick, you will be late.

6).在时间/条件状语从句中, 如果从句用一般现在时, 主句用将来时。

Unit 2 what should I do ?

一,单词

1. play v. 播放 2. loud adj. 高声的;大声的 3. argue v. 争论,争吵 4. wrong adj. 错误的;有毛病的;不适合的 5. could v. can的过去式 6. ticket n. 票,入场券 7. surprise v. 使惊奇;使意外 8. other adj. 任一的;(两方中的)每一方的 9. except prep. 除;把??除外 10. fail v. 失败 11. football n. 足球 12. until prep. 到??为止 13. fit v. 适合,适应 14. include v. 包括;包含 15. send v. 发送,寄 16. themselves pron. 他们自己(反身代词)

二,重点词组

1. keep out不让??进入

2. out of style不时髦的;过时的

3. call sb. up打电话给

4. pay for付款

5. ask for要求

6. the same as与??同样的

7. in style时髦的;流行的

8. get on相处;进展

9. as much as possible尽可能多

10. all kinds of各种;许多

11. on the one hand, ??. on the other hand,(在)一方面 ??另一方面,

三, 重点句型

1. What should I do? 我应该怎么做?

2. You could write him a letter. 你可以写信给他。

3. What should he do? 他应该怎么做?

4. Maybe he should say he’s sorry. 也许他应该说抱歉。

5. What should they do? 他们应该怎么做?

6. They shouldn’t argue. 他们不应该争吵。

四,重点语法

情态动词should的用法

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should是情态动词,它的基本用法是必须和其他动词一起构成谓语。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,意为“应该??”。

should(应当,应该)用于所有人称,表示劝告或建议。

eg. You should wait a little more. 你应该再多等一会儿。

--- I have a very bad cold.我感冒很厉害。

--- You should lie down and have a rest.你应该躺下,多喝水。

在这个单元中我们还学到用“could”表示建议,这时could不是can的过去式,而表示比should更加委婉的建议。

--- I need some money to pay for the summer camp.

---- You should/ could borrow some money from your brother.

【知识点讲解】 1. I don’t have enough money. 我没有足够的钱。

enough:adj.充足的、充分的,在句子中可作定语修饰名词,也可作表语。

eg. Do you have enough time? Six pieces of paper will be enough.

2. I argued with my best friend.我与我最好的朋友吵架了。

argue with sb.意为“与??争吵,争论”

eg. He often argue with his classmates.

3. My clothes are out of style. 我的衣服过时了。

be out of style / fashion表示“过时”“不合乎时尚” 反义词是“be in fashion”表示“合乎时尚”

eg. He is aways in fashion.

Unit3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?

一、单词

Barber shop,理发店, bathroom浴室, bedroom卧室, kitchen厨房, UFO不明飞行物, alien外星人, experience经历 ,accident事故, buy买, cut切, land陆地, experience昂贵的, strange奇怪的, around大约, follow跟随, climb爬, shout喊, run跑, happen发生, accident事故, modern现代化的,destroy破坏

二,词组

1.get out (of) 出去

2.in front of在......前面 / in the front of 在......前部分

3.take off 脱掉衣服,起飞

4.land on 登陆

5. shout to / at 朝......大喊

6.run away 跑掉

7.come in进来

8.hear about 听说

9 take place 发生

10.as... as和......一样

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三、重要句型

What were you doing when the UFO arrived?飞碟来的时候你在做什么?

I was sitting in the barber’s chair.我正坐在理发店的椅子上。

The barber was cutting my hair. 理发师正在剪我的头发。

While he was buying a souvenir, a girl called the police. 当他在买纪念品时,有个女孩报警了。

1.过去进行时:表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。

常见的时间标志词:at 4 yesterday ,at this/that time, when/while引导的时间状语从句。

结构:was /were + doing Lin Tao was reading the book at 8 yesterday.

过去进行时的一般疑问句:was /were + 主语 +doing + 其他

肯定回答: Yes, 主语+was /were

否定回答: NO,主语+wasn’t / weren’t

过去进行时的否定句:主语+was /were +not +doing +其他

He wasn’t playing chess with Tom at this time yesterday.

2. 过去进行时和一般过去式的区别: 过去进行时强调过去某一个时刻或某一段时间正在进

行的动作:一般过去式强调过去某一个时间发生过某一个动作或存在过某种状态。常见的时间

标 志词:yesterday last week the day before yesterday in +年份 just now , This morning

3. arrive get reach 这三个词都表示“到达”arrive是不及物动词,后接名词要加 in (大地

方) at(小地方)。 Get是不及物动词后接名词要用to 如果说“到了”,而不是“到了某一个

地方”只用arrive。 Reach是及物动词,后直接接地点名词。注:如果后接是地点副词(here there

home )去掉介词(in at to )

4. scared 的用法 be scared 恐惧的

be scared of sth. / doing sth. 害怕某事或害怕做某事

He is scared of snake .

5.happen = take place 发生

The important events happened three years ago. =The important events takes place three years

ago. Happen to sb. 某事发生在某人身上。

6. another /the other another 意思是“另一个”通常用于三个..以上或不确定数量中的一个。

Matthew Kane has bought another pen. (指不确定数量中的另一个)

The other 指两者中的另一个。有特定数量范围。不是指任意的另一个。

He has two sons. One is a doctor . The other is a teacher .

7. This was one of the most important events in modern American history. 其结构是:one of + 形

容词最高级 + 复数可数名词 表示:“……之一”。做主语谓语动词用单数。

In our class, one of the hardest students is Lily.

8. have fun doing sth, 高兴做某事。

9.although 引导让步状语从句不能与But联用。

Although the question is difficult , I will work on it.

10. as ……as 与。。。一样 中间用形容词和副词的原型。

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He is as old as me

Unit 4 He said I was hardworking.

一、单词

ever 曾经 mad 生气的 anymore(adv)再也(不) snack小吃,快餐 message信

息 suppose 假定 hard-working勤勉的 nervous紧张的 semester学期 worst最糟的 disappointing失望的 lucky 幸运的 copy 复制,抄袭 decision决定 start开始

influence影响 peace 平静的 border边境 danger危险

二、词组

first of all 首先

pass on 传递

be supposed to 被期望或被要求... ...

do better in 在......方面做得更好

be in good health 身体健康

report card 成绩单

get over 克服;恢复;原谅

open up 打开

care for 照料;照顾

have a party for sb. 为某人举行一次聚会

be mad at sb 对sb生气

三、重要句型

What did your math teacher say ? 你数学老师说了什么?

He said I was hard-working. 他说我很努力。

I can speak three languages. 我能说三门语言。

What did she said? 她说了什么?

She said she could speak three languages.她说她能说三门语言。

四、[重点难点释义]

1.I asked her why she wanted to do that, and she said that she had forgotten to do hers.我问她为什

么要那么做,她说她忘记做作业了。

forget to do sth. 忘记做某事 (还没有做)

forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事 (已经做过了)

e.g. When you leave the classroom, don’t forget to turn off the lights. 离开教室时,别忘记关灯。 I forgot meeting him before. 我不记得以前见过他了。

类似的还有: remember to do sth. 记得做某事 (还没有做)

remember doing sth. 记得做过某事 (已经做过了)

2. Nowadays, many students prefer using English names in a language classroom. 如今,许多学生

喜欢在上语言课的时候用英文名字。

prefer的用法: prefer v. 更喜欢;宁愿

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prefer sth. to sth. 喜欢?胜过?

prefer doing sth. to doing sth. 喜欢?而不喜欢?

prefer to do rather than do 宁愿?而不愿?

e.g. Do you prefer coffee or tea? 你喜欢咖啡还是茶?

He prefers talking to doing. 他喜欢说,却不喜欢做。

They prefer to die rather than surrender. 他们宁死不屈。

3.直接引语(Direct Speech)是指原封不动的引用原话,把它放在引号内,例如:

Mother told me, “You should finish your homework first, then you can go out and play with your friends.”

They said, “We want to have a rest.”

间接引语(Reported Speech,又叫Indirect Speech)即用自己的话加以转述,被转述的话不放在引号内。上面两个例句变成间接引语应该是:

Mother told me that I should finish my homework first and then I could go out and play with my friends.

They said they wanted to have a rest.

2.当我们把直接引语变成间接引语时,由于引述动词(said,told等)一般都是过去时形式,因此间接引语中的动词时态、人称代词、限定词、时间状语、地点状语等一般都要做相应的变化。

Unit 5 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time!

一、单词

Jeans 牛仔裤,organize 组织 agent代理人 chance机会 charity慈善团体(事业)injured受伤的 against反对 tonight今晚

二、词组

Have a great time 玩得高兴

take away 运走,取走

all the time 一直,始终

make a living 谋生

in order to 为了

have a party 举行聚会 go to college 上大学 be famous for 因……而著称 make money 挣钱 in fact 事实上 laugh at 嘲笑 too much 太多 get exercise 锻炼 travel around the world 周游世界 6

work hard 努力工作

wear jeans 穿牛仔裤

let in 允许……进入,嵌入

get an education 获得教育

三、重要句型

I’m going to the dance with Karen and Ann.

If you do ,you’ll have a great time.

Are you going to the party?

Yes, I am. I’m going to wear my new jeans.

You should wear your cool pants.

四、重难点分析

if条件句

1. if条件句:条件句用于陈述语气,表示假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是“如果”的意思。 构成 条件从句 主 句

时态 If+一般现在时 主语+shall/will+动词原形

例句 If he comes, he will take us to the zoo.

2. 用法:

(1)条件状语从句通常由连词if引导,意为“如果、假如”,主句不能用be going to表示将来,而应该用shall,will。

If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (错误)

If you leave now, you will never regret it. (正确)

(2)if “如果”,引导条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时,如: If it rains tomorrow, I shan’t climb the hills.

注意宾语从句中的if与条件状语从句if的区别。宾语从句中的if“是否”相当于 whether,引导宾语从句,时态需根据语境确定。

I don't know if it will rain tomorrow. 我不知道明天是否会下雨。

现在进行时表示将来的时间

1. 用be doing表示将来:主要意义是表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作,常用于位置转移的动词,如:go,come,leave,arrive等, 也可用于其他动作动词,如:

We are having fish for dinner. 我们晚饭吃鱼。

We are moving to a different hotel the day after tomorrow. 后天我们会去另外一个旅馆。 这种用法通常带有表示将来的时间状语,如果不带时间状语,则根据上下文可表示最近即将发生的动作。

A: Where are you going?

B: I am going for a walk. Are you coming with me?

A: Yes, I am just coming. Wait for me.

2. 现在进行时表示将来和用be going to 表示将来意思比较接近,但是现在进行时更强调事先已安排好,即将去做的事情, 而be going to 一般只表示打算做某事,有做某事的意图。我们来看两个例子:

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She is having a meeting at 9 tomorrow. 她明天早晨9点有个会。

We are leaving for London next week.我们下周出发去伦敦。

这两个句子里就是用现在进行时表示将来已经安排好要做的事情。

too much 和 much too

too much 后接不可数名词,用来表示数量太多,意思是“……太多了(数量多)”;much too后接形容词,用来说明程度的,意思是“太……(程度深)”如:

much too heavy 太重了 (表程度)

错误:He has drunk much too water.

正确:He has drunk too much water. 他喝了太多的水。(修饰不可数名词,表数量) be famous for 和 be famous as

be famous for表示“因……而出名”, for后接表示出名的原因;be famous as则表示“以……身份而著名”,as 后接职业、身份或地位,表示作为……职业、身份或地位是著名的,如: France is famous for its fine food and wine. 法国以其佳肴和美酒著名。

France is famous as a romantic country. 法国作为一个浪漫的国家而出名。

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?

一、单词

collect v. 收集, 聚集, 集中, 搜集 shell n. 贝壳, 壳, 外形, 炮弹

marathon n. [体]马拉松赛跑 (全长42,1954米) raise v. 募集;筹措

several adj. 几个的,数个的 stamp n. 邮票, 印花, 印, 图章 monster n. 怪物, 妖怪 probably adv. 大概, 或许 缺乏 store vt. 贮藏, 贮备, 存储

polar adj. 北极的;南极的;近极点的

collector n. 收藏家,收集者;搜集者

二、词组

a pair of 一对;一双;一副

run out of (储存物、供应品等)用尽;

be interested in 对……感应趣

by the way 顺便说一句

let know 告知;使知晓

raise money for 筹钱

collect stamps 集邮

on the way to.. 在?的路上

more than=over 超过

fly kites 放风筝

start class 开始上课

三、重要句型

How long have you been skating?

I’ve been skating since nine o’clock.

When did you start skating?

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