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U1

发布时间:2013-09-26 15:59:37  

Unit One

Caring for Our Earth

What does our earth look like? How is our living environment?

? These are the ideal environment that we wish to live in

But actually, the environment in which we live is very bad

Pollution

What is Pollution?
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities

Can you list some types of pollution?

The White pollution

Water pollution caused by chemicals
Huai River in china Michigan Lake in USA

?Water pollution is the contamination of
water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.

Air pollution
We always can see heavy smoke piped from the tall chimneys.

Air pollution is becoming a severe problem, which mainly caused by transport action and factories production.

Noise pollution

Soil pollution Soil pollution

deforestation

A large number of forests have been sacrificed for urban development. As we all know, trees are able to help clean the air. Furthermore, we are killing animals while cutting down these trees. As a result, many animal species are dying out. Air pollution is getting worse, which can cause many diseases. people still go on cutting down trees.

What are the damages of pollution?

Air pollution is becoming a severe problem,which mainly caused by transport action and factories production. The air pollution changes the conditions that we depend on, such as the greenhouse effect and the acid rain. It causes many diseases,too.

The globle warming Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, including an expanse of the subtropical desert regions. Other likely effects include increases in the intensity of extreme weather events, changes in agricultural yields, modifications of trade routes, glacier retreat, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, lagoons[l?‘ɡu:n](咸水湖), and groundwater. All water pollution affects organisms and plants that live in these bodies of water and in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations but also to the natural biological communities. It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents.

A large number of forests have been sacrificed for urban development. As we all know, trees are able to help clean the air. Furthermore, we are killing animals while cutting down these trees. As a result, many animal species are dying out.

The impact on human beings

Many children suffer hunger.
Because of pollution many children were born abnormal.

And what should we do?

? Plant more trees; protect the forests and all the animals ? Use of renewable materials ? Restrict the use of private cars ? Implement of sustainable economic development

Throw

waste in dust bins. Recycle as much as possible. Use less wood. Plant more new trees. Try to make deserted areas become green. Treat the waste water before pouring it into rivers. Clean the water in the rivers/lakes. Save water in our daily life.

Make smoke harmless before it goes into the air. Limit the number of vehicles. Develop clean energy.

Produce less noises---

? We rely on the Earth for everything we need to survive, so let’s take care of it.

Lead-In

Passage A

Care for Our Mother Earth

1. Why should we treat the earth we live on as our Mother Earth?
Reference:

We are nurtured by the healthy condition of Mother Earth. In humans, if the mother is ailing, the child suffers. We are the cause of the ailing planet and we are the victims.

2.What is the root of the environmental problems?
Reference:

It is us human beings. We are sometimes ignorant of the disastrous consequences we are causing and driven by the greedy needs for more conveniences.

3. What should we do to take care of our Mother Earth?
Reference: We should have a correct attitude towards environment. Besides, we should develop strategies and act immediately to protect our Mother Earth.

Awareness Magazine

Awareness Magazine is a bimonthly magazine, which came into being in 1993, and claims to devote itself to making our planet a better place to live in. For more information, please check: http://www.awarenessmag.com/index.html

... see everything as independent from one another Paraphrase Key ? regard everything as a single and isolated being ... independent from/of — separate and not connected with Example ? The United States became independent from Britain in 1776.

isolate v. — to set apart or cut off from others Examples ? Presley’s early success isolated him from his friends. ? This policy could isolate the country from other members of the United Nations. Translate
洪水使这个村庄与外界隔离了两周。

Key The flood has isolated the village from outside for two weeks.

(be) blind to — to completely fail to notice or realize something Examples ? They seemed to be blind to the consequences of their decision. ? David’s good looks and impeccable manners had always made Rebecca blind to his faults. ? impeccable[?m‘pek?b?l] adj.无缺点的,无瑕疵的

consequence n. — something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions Examples ? The safety procedures had been ignored, with potentially tragic consequences. ? An economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security.

? 一场经济危机可能严重影响到全球安定。

purify v. — to remove the dirty or unwanted parts from something Examples ? Purify the water before drinking it. ? It is said that purified water has removed minerals useful to our health. ? 自来水 tap water ? 矿物质水 mineral water

? 开水 boiled water

evaporate v. — to (make) change into vapor ;disappear Exampl

es ? The water is evaporated by the sun. ? The police failed to find any witness; it seemed that they all evaporated.

result from — to happen or exist as a result of something Examples ? Those problems resulted from the poor management. ? Many hair problems result from what one eats. result in — to make something happen; cause Examples

? Fifty percent of road accidents result in head injuries.

all the way — to emphasize how long a distance is Examples ? Football fans came all the way from every corner of the world.

impact on — to have an important or noticeable effect on someone or something Examples ? How will this program impact on the local community?

? Falling export rates have impacted on the country’s economy quite considerably.

specific adj. — special, distinctive, or unique Examples ? Massage[’m?sɑ:?] may help to increase blood flow to specific areas of the body. ? This book gives specific instructions on how to make pizza at home.

priority n. — something that must be dealt with as soon as possible and before other less important things Examples ? Agriculture is still a high priority in most developing countries. ? Banks normally give priority to large businesses when deciding on loans. prior adj. — preceding in time, order, importance, or value Example ? She couldn’t go to the party because of a prior engagement.

inexhaustible adj. — existing in such large amounts that it can never be finished or used up Examples ? The terrorists seem to have an inexhaustible supply of ammunition(军火,弹药).

the point of no return — the point in a course of action beyond which reversal is not possible Examples

? Something must be done before the situation reached the point of no return.
? If he doesn’t have his heart operation very soon he’s in danger of reaching a point of no return.

addicted adj. — liking to do or have something so much you do not want to stop Examples

? Some students are so addicted to computer games that they neglect their studies.
? The girl is addicted to chocolate.

nurture v. — to feed or take care of a child or a plant while it is growing Examples

? Parents want to know the best way to nurture and raise their children.
? Nurture your mind with great thoughts. (Benjamin Disrael)

? 用伟大的思想去滋养你的头脑。

take action — to follow the process of doing in order to deal with a problem or difficult situation Examples

? The police took firm action to deal with the riots.
? The government is taking emergency action to deal with the power shortage.

sit back — to relax and make no effort to get involved in something Examples

? Can we just sit back and do nothing when there are so many homeless people on the streets.
? Don’t just sit back and wait for new business to come to you.

Difficult Sentences
1. Global warming results from the burning of fossil fuels, such as petroleum products, result

ing in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. ? The burning of fossil fuels, such as petroleum products, releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and this will cause global warming.

Difficult Sentences
2. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases then trap heat, resulting in the warming of our atmosphere. ? Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases then prevent heat from getting out of the atmosphere; as a result, the temperature of the atmosphere will rise.

Difficult Sentences
3. We have become addicted consumers, which causes industrial waste. ? We have become used to getting more and more connivances, comfort and possessions, which causes industrial waste.

Ex. 5

Pair each word in the left column with a word associated in meaning in the right column and then make a sentence with the paired words.

Model:

1. soda
2. deforest

a. flood
b. thirsty

1. I was so thirsty that I drank up the soda. 2. Floods will occur if the land is deforested.

Ex. 5

Pair each word in the left column with a word associated in meaning in the right column.

1. addicted
2. environment 3. expert 4. possession 5. resources

a. concern
b. greed c. inexhaustible d. wisdom e. smoking

Ex. 5

Make a sentence with the paired words.

1. addicted

e. smoking

1. Addicted smokers find it extremely difficult to give up smoking.

Ex. 5

Make a sentence with the paired words.

2. environment

a. concern

2. Now there are more concerns for the environment.

Ex. 5

Make a sentence with the paired words.

3. expert

d. wisdom

3. It is not enough to rely just on the wisdom of the experts for the solution; we have to do something ourselves about the pollution.

Ex. 5

Make a sentence with the paired words.

4. possession

b. greed

4. The problem of the environment partly lies in our greed for more conveniences, comfort and

possessions.

Ex. 5

Make a sentence with the paired words.

5. resources

c. inexhaustible

5. Natural resources can be divided into four groups, the inexhaustible, the renewable, the non-renewable, and the recyclable.

Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. isolate consumer specif consequence element release (v.) strategy convenience priority trap

Ex. 6

1. The company will spend $6 million on sales ______ as well as the development of new products. ? strategies 2. We all agreed on our basic aims, but when we got down to ______ items it became more complicated. ? specific

3. Nowadays, ______ not only demand the high quality of the products but also their after-sale services. ? consumers

4. He was caught in the act of shoplifting but was ______ after he left his ID to the supermarket. ? released

Ex. 6

Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary.

5. The soldiers pretended to run away and the enemy, in pursuing them, were finally ______. ? trapped 6. As a ______ of being in hospital, Shelly decided to become a nurse. ? consequence

Ex.

6

Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary.

7. The village ______ from the outside for three days because of the flood. ? was isolated 8. After the Second World War, millions of people were left homeless; so the government decided to give ______ to housing. ? priority

Ex. 6

Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary.

9. In many shops, shopping bags are provided for the customers’ ______. ? convenience 10. With a tearful love story and two famous stars, the movie has all the ______ for a success. ? elements

Ex. 7

Complete the following sentences with phases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

sit back share ... with

result from transform ... into

all the way

1. A few mirrors can instantly ______ this room ______ a much larger and lighter one. ? transform ... into 2. Because of a flat tire, he had to walk ______ to the gas station for help. ? all the way

Ex. 7

Complete the following sentences with phases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

sit back share ... with

result from transform ... into

all the way

3. Don’t worry about it, just ______ and let the machine do the work for you. ? sit back 4. Any damage to the books ______ carelessness must be paid for by the borrower. ? resulting from

Ex. 7

Complete the following sentences with phases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

sit back share ... with

result from transform ... into

all the way

5. He hated having to ______ the hotel room ______ a stranger.

? share ... with

Ex. 8

Translate the following sentences into English.

1. 这场给人类带来巨大灾难的战争对这样一个诗人产生了什
么影响呢?(impact on) impact on such a poet

brought terrible disasters to mankind

How did the war, which brought terrible disasters to mankind, impact on such a poet?

Ex. 8

Translate the following sentences into English.

2. 做母亲的有时候不能察觉她们所宠爱的孩子们的过错,这样
做的结果会使孩子们再次犯同样的过错。(be blind to) blind to the faults their beloved children

make the same mistake again

Mothers are sometimes blind to the faults of their beloved children, which will cause the children to make the same mistake again.

Ex. 8

Translate the following sentences into English.

3. 作为一个新移民(immigrant),在这个完全陌生的国度里,
她总是感觉到孤立无援。(isolate) feel isolated in this completely strange country

As a new immigrant in this completely strange country, she always felt isolated.

Ex. 8

Translate the following sentences into English.

4. 做事不先考虑周全常会导致失败,因此我们应该三思而后
行。(result in, act before thinking) acting before thinking result in failure

Acting before thinking often results in failure, so we should think before we leap.

Ex. 8

Translate the foll

owing sentences into English.

5. 奢谈的时候已经过去了,我们必须积极行动起来保护我们的
环境。(take ... action) the time for talking take a positive action to protect our environment

The time for talking is past; we must take a positive action to protect our environment.

Passage B

Frog story

Warm-up Activities
Can you mention some of the endangered species? Sun Bear

马来熊

?

Tibetan Antelope

? Flamingo ? (红鹳 (又名火烈鸟) ) ? Golden/Snub-nosed Monkey

Gingko

DawnRedwood (水杉)

Frog Story
A couple of odd things have happened lately. I have a log cabin in those woods of Northern Wisconsin. I built it by hand and also added a greenhouse to the front of it. It is a joy to live in. In fact, I work out of my home doing audio production and environmental work. As a tool of that trade I have a computer and a studio. I also have a tree frog that has taken up residence in my studio. How odd, I thought, last November when I first noticed him sitting atop my sound-board over my computer. I figured that he (and I say he, though I really don’t have a clue if she is a he or vice versa) would be more comfortable in the greenhouse. So I put him in the greenhouse. Back he came. And stayed. After a while I got quite used to the fact that as I would check my morning email and on-line news, he would be there with me surveying the world.

Then, last week, as he was climbing around looking like a small gray/green human, I started to wonder about him. So, there I was, working in my studio and my computer was humming along. I had to stop when Tree Frog went across my view. He stopped and turned around and just sat there looking at me. Well, I sat back and looked at him. For five months now he had been riding there with me and I was suddenly overtaken by an urge to know why he was there and not in the greenhouse, where I figured he’d live a happier frog life. “Why are you here,” I found myself asking him.

As I looked at him, dead on, his eyes looked directly at me and I heard a tone. The tone seemed to hit me right in the center of my mind. It sounded very nearly like the same one as my computer. In that tone I could hear him “say” to me, “Because I want you to understand”. Yo. That was weird. “Understand what?” my mind jumped in. Then, after a moment of feeling this communication, I felt I understood why he was there. I came to understand that frogs simply want to hear other frogs and to communicate. Possibly the tone of my computer sounded to him like other tree frogs. Interesting. I kept working. I was working on a story about global climate change and had just received a fax from a friend. The fax said that the earth was warming at 1.9 degrees each decade. At that rate I knew that the maple trees that I love to tap each spring for syrup would not survive for my children. My beautiful Wisconsin would become a prairie by the next generation.

At that moment Tree Frog lea

ped across my foot and sat on the floor in front of my computer. He then reached up his hand to his left ear and cupped it there. He sat before the computer and reached up his right hand to his other ear. He turned his head this way and that listening to that tone. Very focused. He then began to turn a very subtle, but brilliant shade of green and leaped full force onto the computer. And then I remembered the story about the frogs that I had heard last year on public radio. It said frogs were dying around the world. It said that because frog’s skin was like a lung turned inside out, their skin was being affected by pollution and global climate change. It said that frogs were being found whose skin was like paper. All dried up. It said that frogs were an “indicator species”. That frogs will die first because of the sensitivity. Then, I understood.

The frogs have a message for us and it is the same message that some sober folks have had for us. “There are no more choices.” We have reached the time when we must be the adults for the planet, for the sake of the future generations of human and for frogs. Because we are related. Then I understood that there are no boundaries, that there is no more time. That we, for the sake of our relatives, must act now. And then I understood, not only why frog was there, but, also why I am here.

tree frog Also known as tree toad, tree frog refers to a family of small to medium-sized frogs, found in temperate and tropical areas throughout the world. Most tree frogs have expanded disks on their toes that enable them to cling to surfaces. Body color ranges from brown and gray to green. They eat mainly insects. The gray tree frog is common throughout the eastern United States.

atop prep. — on top of something Examples ? Under the newspaper, atop a sheet of paper, lay an envelope. ? There is a seagull (海鸥)atop the mast(桅杆).

vice versa — used when the opposite of a situation that has been just described is also true Examples ? He doesn’t trust her, and vice versa.

? Teachers qualified to teach in England are not accepted in Scotland and vice versa.

overtake v. — to come upon unexpectedly; take by surprise Examples ? Something like panic overtook me in a flood. ? The people all over the world were overtaken by the 911 attack in New York.

urge n. — a strong wish or need Examples ? The people with a powerful urge to compete and succeed are more likely to have heart attacks. ? When I was young, I often felt an urge for chocolate.

tone n. — the quality of a sound, especially the sound of a musical instrument or someone’s voice Examples ? It wasn’t so much what she said that annoyed me ― it was her tone. ? He told the story to his parents in pleasant tones.

weird adj. — unusual and different from anything you have seen or heard before Examples ? Mike’s got a really weird sense of humor.

? Drugs can make one do all kinds of weird things.


communicate v. — to exchange information or conversation with other people Examples ? They communicate in sign language with ease. ? It’s cheap and efficient to use e-mail to communicate with your friends wherever they may be.

at this/that rate — if things continue to happen in the same way as now Examples ? At this rate, we shall soon be bankrupt. ? At this rate, we’ll never be home by midnight.

survive v. — to continue to exist in spite of many difficulties and dangers Examples ? When the market economy is introduced, many factories will have difficulties to survive. ? The chance of surviving an air crash always is slim if not nil.

Wisconsin Wisconsin is a state in the north central United States. Its total area is 169,642 sq km. The name of the state comes from an Indian word that may mean “gathering of the waters” or “place of the beaver”. The capital is Madison. Wisconsin ranks 18th in population (5,169,677 by 1997 estimate) among the 50 states and is an important state in terms of the value of its manufacturing. Wisconsin remains a leading dairy state, accounting for about 14% (1999) of U.S. milk and 27% (1999) of the nation’s output of cheese. Despite Wisconsin’s many lakes, ponds, and rivers, drought ― especially in summer ― can be a serious problem.

focus v. — to pay special attention to a particular person or thing instead of others Examples ? I cannot focus my attention on my study with such a noise. ? The TV program focuses on the cause why people take drugs.

subtle adj. — not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention Examples ? The two pictures are similar, but there are subtle differences between them. ? The slow and subtle changes are taking place in all living things.

brilliant adj. — bright, shining Examples ? The woman had brilliant green eyes. ? The sky was a brilliant, cloudless blue.

species n. — to continue to exist in spite of many difficulties and a group of animals or plants which are all similar and can breed together to produce young animals or plants of the same kind as them Examples ? Panda has been declared an endangered species.

? Some people believe that the Internet is the greatest tool our species has invented.

sober adj. — serious and thoughtful; not affected by drug or alcoholic liquors Examples ? Halloween is never a day to be sober.

? The party was in a sober mood, people just standing there chatting politely.

boundary n. — the official line that marks the edge of town, country etc. Examples ? Terrorists operate across national boundaries.

? Conquering any difficulty always gives one a secret joy, for it means pushing back a boundary-line and adding to one’s liberty.

for the sake of — because of, or for the purpose of

Examples
? Let’s not disagree for the sake of some small details. ? For the sake of historical accuracy, please permit me to state the true facts.

Ex. 13 Fill in the

blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

1. The essayist’s language expresses rich and ______ meanings. ? subtle 2. The stockbrokers ______ by the sharp drop in the stock market last Tuesday. ? were overtaken

Ex. 13 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

3. Biologists have estimated that there are around one million animal and plant ______ living in the rainforests. ? species 4. In the United States the cost of living has been steadily rising in the past few ______. ? decades

Ex. 13 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

5. The quickly growing company has ambitious plans to expand beyond national ______. ? boundaries 6. That computer store is having a sale of ______ software; let’s go and have a look. ? audio

Ex. 13 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

7. To be safe, you may put on your dark glasses to avoid the sun shining ______ in your eyes. ? directly 8. When the kitchen is finished, I’m going to ______ my attention on the garden shed. ? focus

Ex. 13 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

9. In a serious ______ of voice, the doctor warned him to keep off sugar. ? tone 10. She ______ her hands around the mug of hot coffee to warm them. ? cupped

Ex. 14 Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

1. I didn’t expect you to be so efficient; ______, the task will be finished ahead of schedule. ? at that rate
2. ______ safety, you must keep all medicines away from children. ? For the sake of

Ex. 14 Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

3. When we ______ know these new employees better, we will assign more suitable tasks to each of them. ? come to
4. This evening dress is rather expensive since it is made ______. ? by hand

Ex. 14 Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

5. In the World Cup, England tried to beat long-term rival Argentina and qualify from the “Group of Death” and ______.
? vice versa

Ex. 15 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. 年轻人有时会抱怨无法和父母沟通。(to communicate with) complain of
communicate with their parents

Young people sometimes complain of not being able to communicate with their parents.

Ex. 15 Translate the following sentences into English.

2. 玛丽从小就盼望着能在

中国云南的一个村庄住上几年,现在
她终于梦想成真了。(to take up residence) long to Her dream has come true. take up residence in a village

Ever since childhood, Mary has been longing to take up residence in a Chinese village in Yunnan for a few years. Now her dream has come true.

Ex. 15 Translate the following sentences into English.

3. 家养的动物习惯于依赖人,因此很难在野外继续生存。(to
survive)

be used to depending on humans survive in the wild

Domestic animals are used to depending on humans, so it is difficult for them to survive in the wild.

Ex. 15 Translate the following sentences into English.

4. 他突然有种恐惧感,觉得自己会因为经济不景气而被公
司裁员。(to overtake) be suddenly overtaken by a fear lay off because of bad economy

He was suddenly overtaken by a fear that he would be laid off by the company because of bad economy.

Ex. 15 Translate the following sentences into English.

5. 我想他很快就会回来,因为他答应和我一起吃晚饭。(to
figure) I figure he’ll be back soon.

I figure he’ll be back soon since he promised to have dinner with me.


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