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八年级英语上期末知识点归纳

发布时间:2014-04-20 14:22:30  

第二部分 主要语法分析和例子

1. 一般将来时be going to/will+动词原形(包括be) 将来时

What are you going to be when you grow up? What do you want to be in the future?

I’m going to be a dancer.I want to be a dancer.

There be 的将来时There is going to be/There will be, 过去式There was/were, There used to be过去常常, 现在时There is/are

2. used to do sth肯定used to do sth过去习惯/常常做某事

否定 used not to do/ didn’t use to do sth 疑问句Did use to do? —What hobbies did you use to have? — I used to go roller skating. —What hobbies do you have now? —Well, I play the guitar.

Where did you use to go swimming? I used to swim in a small pond.

She used to enjoy listening to music, but now she doesn’t like it. She prefers to sing.

I used to be a student. But now I am an office worker.

I didn’t use to play sports, but now I like it.

3. 过去进行时:

时间状语at this time yesterday, from 7:00 to 9:00 yesterday evening过去某个时间段正

What were you doing at this time yesterday?I was taking a shower/bath. What was Michael doing from 7:00 to 9:00 yesterday evening?

He was reading.

4. 一般情况下,when+一般现在时/过去时,while+现在/过去进行时The telephone rings while Jane is practising the violin.=When the telephone rings, Jane is practising the violin.(while后接持续性动作,When接短暂性动作, 响铃只是瞬间的动作。)

What was the mouse doing when the cat knocked at the door?

What was the cat doing when the mouse came out of the bathroom? What was the mouse doing when the cat found him?

What were they doing when the sky was high?

Father was still sleeping when I got up yesterday morning.

While she was trying to call for help, he woke up.

Were you playing on the computer?Yes, I was./No, I wasn’t.

plan, want, hope, believe都没有进行时态,think做“认为”解时也没有进行时,做“思考”解时有进行时

5. 动名词短语表单件事情做主语,已经名词化相当于名词,不是动作,谓语用单数: Breakfast you energy for the morning. Water necessary for our health. 不只一件事情做主语,谓语用复数: 6使用动名词做宾语的动词practice/mind/enjoy/love/keep+doing sth/sth, 使用动词不定式做宾语的动词start/begin/like/prefer/hate/continue+to do/doing sth/sth

ask/want/would like/teach/encourage/order sb. to do sth请求/想/教/鼓励某人做某事I want /would like to drink a cup of coffee. I want/would like to be a scientist/musician/doctor/teacher/an artist.

最喜欢My favorite hobby is reading novels. I like reading novels best. 比较喜欢I prefer singing to dancing. I like to sing better than to dance. 有些喜欢I like reading a little. Fishing is very interesting. I am interested in reading. I love reading. I am fond of climbing the mountains. 不喜欢I don’t like listening to music. I dislike listening to music.

讨厌I don’t like rock music at all. I don’t like listening to rock music. I hate classical music/I hate listening to classical music/I hate to listen to classical music.

7. 形容词

1.名词前用形容词做定语a good boy, a beautiful girl

2.连系动词后接形容词feel/be/get tired感觉累,feel well, look fit/nice/handsome

1)变得grow/become/turn/get

2)be动词:am/is/are, was/were, will be

3)感官动词sound, look, feel, taste

3.不定代词something, nothing, anything 等后面的形容词做后置定语。

It’s nothing serious. I have something important to tell you.

There is something new in the newspaper.There is nothing special in this dress.

Is there anything wrong with your computer?

There is something wrong with my computer.Something is wrong with your computer. My computer doesn't work.

比较级的常用句式A+ be +形容词比较级+than +B.(A与B 必须是同类事物,相对称), 但有时be动词会变成其他连系动词做表语It sounds more beautiful,或者有时是have之后的形容词修饰名词做定语She has more money than me, 有时形容词修饰名词也位于句首A bigger car came一辆更大的车开过来了, 有时是I still have something more interesting to tell you next time。总之能用形容词的地方都能用其比较级和最高级,只是意思更进一级。 。( ( many/much 的比较级更多more food,

但是 more interestingpopular中的more+多音节形容词原级是构成比较级的形式,more本身不是many 或者much 的比较级。使用的时候不能用more+另一个形容词的比较级。

few 的比较级fewer接可数名词, fewer books, little的比较级接不可数名词less and less land, less money

most 只能用与多音节形容词原级前,如the most wonderful/beautiful/popular

much more interesting/important更有趣/重要;a little colder/warmer比较冷/暖一点

多于,超过:more than =over, over/ more than +可数名词复数/不可数名词 少于 less than +不可数名词, fewer than +可数名词复数

越来越more and more popular, bigger and bigger,higher and higher

8.反意疑问句 句式:1前肯,后否?2。前否,后肯?(顺序为“前主后谓,后谓前主?”)

反意部分不能有名词当主语,只能用代词指代。

几种特殊的:1.must当做“必须”解时,疑问部分用mustn’t +代词? must当做“必要”解时,疑问部分用needn’t +代词?

must当做猜测,“想必”解时,疑问部分用isn’t +代词?He must be tired, isn’t he?

2.陈述部分有few, little, no, not等表否定的词语,疑问部分用肯定.

3.祈使句,疑问部分用will you?Let us 也用will you? 但是Let’s, shall we?

I am your friend, aren’t I?(不能有aren’t you)

I don’t think he can swim, can he?(主句是think,疑问部分用临近句子的主谓)

There is a book on the desk, isn’t there?

Jim lived in London, didn’t he? lived的否定形式Jim didn’t live in London,

There is nobody in the room, is there? nobody 是否定

Everyone is here today, aren’t they?

9.介意句型Would you mind helping me ?你介意帮我个忙吗?

Would you mind not opening the window?你介意/可不可以不要开窗? Would you mind my opening the window/me smoking here?我开窗户可以吗?你介意我开窗户吗?

回答如果允许,表示不介意,那么就用Of course not/Certainly not/ Not at all.

不允许,介意,Sorry, you’d better not/ you’d better ask somebody else/smoke somewhere else.

miss a chance/ a goal/the bus错过机会/球门/班车

10.询问观点What do you think of the movie?How do you like the movie? 表达见解I think it’s interesting and exciting.

同意I agree with you/I think so/I have the same feeling.

不同意I don’t agree with you/ I disagree with you/I don’t think so/I’m afraid not.I think it’s boring.

Which kind of animal do you like better, the panda or the dog.

I like the dog better because it is more lovely.

Which animal do you like best, monkeys, tigers or the lions?I like monkeys best of all.

Which sport do you prefer?=Which sport do you like better?

What’s your favorite sport? =What sport do you like best?My favorite sport is soccer.

Who’s your favorite player?My favorite sport is Yaoming.

What do you usually do in your spare time?

What kind of music do you like best?

确定I’m quite sure there are UFOs.

不确定Even scientists aren’t sure whether/if there are UFOs

11.电话用语

call/phone sb=ring sb. up, make a phone call, phone one’s home/office

call me back回电话给我, extension 分机This is … speaking.这边是。。。

Who’s this/that?那边是谁?May I speak to …?我能跟某某人通话吗? I’m sorry she is not in/she is out/ she is not here.She is busy now. Wait a moment/ Just a moment/ Hold on/Hold the line.稍等

May I take a message for you?你能帮我捎个口信吗?

give him the message=give the message to him给他口信

Can you leave a message? 你能留言吗?=.I will take a message for you. What shall I take with me? You’d better take an umbrella with you.

When and where shall we meet? Let’s meet at the school gate at 6:30 tomorrow morning.

Shall we meet at the bus station? See you later/soon. See you.

12.感叹句

How exciting the concert was! What an exciting concert is!

How tall the boy is! What a tall boy he is! How popular his songs are!

13.以how 引导的特殊疑问句

How tall is he? =What’s his height?He is 2.26 meters tall.

How often do you go to the English corner? Twice a week.

How much is the dress? It’s 50 yuan.

How far is it from here to the park? It’s about two kilometers away. You need to take a bus.

How long is the bridge? It’s 300 meters long.

How long will you stay in Beijing? For two weeks.

How many sheep/apples are there? There are fifty.

have a good time=enjoy oneself

14.表示建议,请求许可

Why not go shopping tomorrow?

Let’s go shopping tomorrow.

Shall we go shopping tomorrow?

How about going shopping tomorrow?

You’d better stay in bed/go to see a doctor.You’d better not go to school today.

You should drink lots of boiled water./You shouldn’t watch TV so long. 祈使句否定Don’t move your leg too much. 肯定Stay in bed and have a good rest.

15.可以接反身代词做宾语的动词:

hurt/enjoy/wash/teach/help oneself, build oneself up.

可接反身代词做宾语的介词by oneself(由),take care of oneself, look after oneself

16.名词所有格women’s table tennis, boys’ 100--meter race,China’s national team

17. show, say, know, believe, tell定式作宾语。 health. time. 第三部分.词语辨析

1.参加take part in/be in/ join in+活动 参加活动 take part in the long jump

join the school rowing club加入组织

be/play for/against sth支持/反对某人 /某事

效力They both play for the Houston Rockets in the NBA. 反义词play againt对阵

2.花费

人+spend some time/money on sth/in doing sth

花费时间或者金钱在某事上/做某事

人+pay some money for sth

物+cost/ take help sb (to) do something=do sb. a favor=give sb a hand

3.到达reach/ get to/arrive in/at+地点, in为大地点,in Beijing, at为小地点 at home

4.著名be famous for China is famous for the Great Wall. 因。。。而闻名 be famous as Chongqing is famous as the Moutain City.称之为,美誉

5.like动词喜欢feel like doing sth 喜欢做某事

like介词像look like看起来像 sound like听起来像 smell like闻起来像, taste like尝起来像.

6.看look look up a word in a dictionary查单词

look like看起来像, look at看一看, look for寻找, look over检查, look after

7.借I can lend you some tapes of her songs. 主语借出

We often borrow books from the library.主语借进

Can I borrow your bike?我能借你的自行车吗?=Can you lend me your bike?=Can you lend your bike to me? 你可以借你的车给我吗?

8.照顾动词care for the patients 照顾病人,名词take care of sb/oneself, 形容词Be careful当心(反)careless

9. 猜测Collecting stamps must be great fun. 收集邮票想必很有趣。 类似事实Collecting stamps is fun. 收集邮票很有趣.

10.能够be able to+ 动词原形 can+动词原形

11. close形容词亲密的朋友.动词关门 cover 名词盖子,动词覆盖

12. enough have enough food/rice/money/books(名词)

He is not tall(形容词)enough to reach the fan.=He is too short to reach the fan(够得着风扇). cold/warm/big/small+enough足够冷/暖/大/小

13.介词for 与to(有不定式就用for, 无则用to)

Rainforests/Plants and animals are important/usful/necessaryto us. Water is important to us. Water is very important for us to live. Water is necessary to us. It’s necessary for us to learn English.

be helpful in doing sth在某方面有帮助, be helpful to do sth

抽象名词

Some stamps are of great value=Some stamps are very valuable. This meeting is of great importance=This meeting is very important. Computers are of great use=Computers are very useful.

14live 动词居住,第三人称单数lives

live 形容词, 活的, live models 真人模特

life 名词, 生命, 复数lives

15keep him active/healthy, keep the classroom clean, keep the thief waiting and standing outside,keep trying

16.help sb with sth在某方面帮助某人The Internet can help us to do a lot of things.

help名词with the help of Jane=with Jane’s help 反义词without

17. plan名词the plans for this year/next week

动词How do you plan to celebrate it?=How are you going to celebrate it?

18.exciting, excited, interesting, interested, tiring, tired(说人用ing, 形容物用ed)

The movie was very exciting. People are excited.an exciting movie

The stories are very interesting. He is very interested in it.an interesting story

The job is tiring. She is very tired of it. You have a tiring job.

19.change my clothes换我的衣服, 名词a change in the old city walls,need a change

let me out/in(副词)让我出去/进来,let me sing/cry(动词)让我唱/哭

20.代替 instead of+n./pron.宾格/Ving代替,而不是

instead 副词, 可以单独使用位于句首和句末做状语

take the place of +名词/代词

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