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定语从句讲解与练习1

发布时间:2014-04-26 14:05:08  

定语从句

1.什么是定语从句

定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

2.关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that

这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.

那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.

请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that

它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等, 例如:A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.

农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

3.关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1)when, where, why

关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield.

任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

3.如何判断关系代词与关系副词

方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: 1

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。) (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

4.限制性和非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如: This is the house which we bought last month.

这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.

这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

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2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:

Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year.

查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.

我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching.

这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.

他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation.

液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。 5. which 与 that 的区别

1、只能用which 不能用that的情况:

1)引导非限制性定语从句时,通常只用which:例如;

He changed his mind, which made me very angry.

2)直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常只用which:在定语从句中当关系代词that作介词的宾语,介词必须放在它的后面。

The car that we came in ran over a dog.

This is the kind of life that he is used to.

3)当先行词是that, this等不定代词时,定语从句的引导词只能用which:

2、只能用that,不能用which的情况:

1)当关系代词既修饰物又修饰人时,通常用关系代词that。

The train ran over a boy and a dog that were crossing the track.

I like the writers and books that you remind me the other day.

He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited.

2)当先行词被形容词或副词的最高级所修饰时,我们通常用关系代词that。

This is the best novel that I have ever read.

Beijing is the most beautiful city that has many places of interest.

It was the finest industrial exhibition that we ever saw.

3)当先行词被形容词the same修饰且定语从句是限制性的,我们通常用that。

She is the same teacher that was praised the other day.

She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding.

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He is doing the same job that he did last year.

但下面两句要注意辨析:①This is the same watch that I lost the other day. (that关系代词表示同一块手表即原手表)

②This is the same watch as I lost the other day.

(as关系代词表示相类似的手表,不是原来的那块手表)

4)当定语从句的先行词是all,everything,nothing,anything,little,much,few,none或由any,no,every,same将构成的合成词时,我们通常用that。 Everything that can be done must be done.

Is there anything that I can do for you?

He talked much that was important.

5)当先行词被the only,the very,the last,the most,the any,the next等修

饰时我们通常用that.

This is the very book that you are interested in。

Mary is the only woman that we can safely depend on.

That is the last place that I want to visit.

6)当先行词被序数词所修饰时,我们通常用关系代词that。

Jack was the first one that reached the top of the mountain that day.

The first thing that we should do is to work out a plan.

He is the third student who came to school this morning.

7)在定语从句中关系代词that可指人而which不能指人。

There is somebody that wants to see you.

I was the only person in my office that was invited.

A new master wi1l come tomorrow that will teach you German.

8) 在定语从句中,(当要避免重复时)当主句是特殊疑问词who,which等开

头的问句,我们通常用关系代词that。

Which of us that is always 38 years old has been to Beijing?

Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

Who that has common sense will do such a thing?

9) 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的样子了

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1. The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace.

A. Which B. where C. what D. in which

2. Do you know the man _______?

A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke

C. I spoke to D. that I spoke

3. This is the hotel _______last month.

A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed

C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed

4. Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

A. which B. that C. when D. on which

5. That is the day ______I'll never forget.

A. which B. on which C. in which D. when

6. The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here.

A. where B. to which C. which D. in which

7. Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

A. where B. that C. which D. there

8. This is one of the best films _______.

A. that have been shown this year

B. that have shown

C. that has been shown this year

D. that you talked

9. Can you lend me the book ___the other day?

A. about which you talked

B. which you talked

C. about that you talked

D. that you talked

10.The pen ______he is writing is mine.

A. with which B. in which

C. on which D. by which

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11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy.

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old.

A. to whom B. on whom

C. with which D. with whom

13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country?

A. who B. who's C. which D. whose

14.I'm interested in ______you have said.

A. all that B. all what C. that D. which

15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday.

A. which B. who C. what D. as

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