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Unit 6定语从句练习3

发布时间:2014-04-26 14:05:25  

定语从句(The Attributive Clause)(三)

一、相同先行词使用不同的关系词:

我们前面讲过:

1)当先行词是表示时间的名词时,用关系副词when;

例如: I will remember the day when I joined the Party.

2)当先行词是表示地点的名词时,用关系副词where;

例如: This is the house where I was born.

3)当先行词是表示原因的名词时,用关系副词why;

例如: why he was late.

而事实上并非如此。我们看下面的一组句子:

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I will remember the day______ I joined the Party.

I will remember the day______ we spent together.

在第1组句子中,我们得到答案:

a) I will remember the day b) I will remember the day we spent together.

有的同学可能要问同样是表示时间的先行词the day,为什么第一句用关系副词when,而第二句关系代词that/which呢?

我们可以把a)句I will remember the day ______I joined the Party.拆开就得到两个句子:

① I will remember the day.

② I joined the Party on the day.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the day,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以我们得到: I will remember the day that/which I joined the Party on. 把介词on提前,即得: I will remember the day on which I joined the Party

而on which=when,亦即: I will remember the day when I joined the Party.

所以第a)句填when.

我们可以把b)句I will remember the day______ we spent together..拆开就得到两个句子:

① I will remember the day.

② we spent the day together.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the day,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以得到: I will remember the day that/which we spent together.

所以第b)句填that/which.

我们再看一组句子:

a)This is the house _______I was born.

b) This is the house ________I was born in.

我们可以把a)句This is the house _______I was born拆开就得到两个句子:

①This is the house.

②I was born in the house.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the house,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以我们得到:

This is the house I was born in.

把介词in提前,即得: This is the house in which I was born.

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而in which=where,亦即:This is the house where I was born..

所以第a)句填where.

我们可以把b)句This is the house _______I was born in.拆开就得到两个句子:

①This is the house.

②I was born in the house.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the house,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以我们得到: This is the house that/which I was born in.

所以第b)句填that/which.

我们看第三组句子:

a)This is the reason ________he was late.

b) This is the reason ________he gave.

我们可以把a)句This is the reason ________he was late.拆开就得到两个句子:

① This is the reason.

② He was late for the reason.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the reason,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以我们得到: This is the reason that/which he was late for.

把介词for提前,即得: This is the reason for which he was late.

而for which=why,亦即: This is the reason why he was late..

所以第a)句填why.

我们可以把b)句This is the reason ________he gave.拆开就得到两个句子:

① This is the reason.

②He gave the reason.

在这两个句子中先行词是物the reason,所以我们用关系代词that/which,根据句意可知第一句为主句,所以得到: This is the reason that/which he gave.

所以b)句填that/which.

从以上三组例子,我们可以看出,当先行词是表示时间、地点、原因的名词时并不一定用关系副词when, where, why;而可以用关系代词that/which。

那么在什么样的情况下用关系副词when, where, why;在什么样的情况下用关系代词that/which。

具体地说在以下三种情况中:

1、当先行词是表示时间的名词,在句中作状语,这时用关系副词when;在句中作主语,宾语,用关系代词that/which。例如:

a) I will remember the day I joined the Party

b) I will remember the day that/which we spent together.

2、当先行词是表示地点的名词,在句中作状语,这时用关系副词where;在句中作主语,宾语,用关系代词that/which。例如:

a)This is the house where I was born.

b) This is the house I was born in.

3、当先行词是表示原因的名词,在句中作状语,这时用关系副词why;在句中作主语,宾语,用关系代词that/which。例如:

a)This is the reason

b)This is the reason

二、我们再看两组例子:

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①The old man has two sons and both of_____ are doctors.

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② The old man has two sons , both of_____ are doctors.

在第一组句子中,①句中有个连词and,是并列句,故用人称代词them;②句中没有连词and,是个定语从句,又因先行词two sons是人,故用关系代词whom.即:

①The old man has two sons and both of them are doctors

② The old man has two sons , both of are doctors.

2. ①I have two pens, but neither of _______writes well.

②I have two pens, neither of _______writes well.

在第一组句子中,①句中有个连词but,是并列句,故用人称代词them;②句中没有连词but,是个定语从句,又因先行词two pens是物,故用关系代词which.即:

①I have two pens, but neither of them writes well.

②I have two pens, neither of which writes well.

结论:在并列句中,我们用人称代词来代替前面的人或物;在定语从句中,我

们用关系代词来指代前面的人或物。

三、相似定语从句:

① Is this the factory_____ you worked in last year?

② Is this factory______ you worked in last year?

③ Is this the factory_____ you worked last year?

④ Is this factory______ you worked last year?

解析:乍一看这四个句子一样,细看它们是不一样的。做这四个句子的关键是把它们还原成

陈述句。

①This is the factory_____ you worked in last year?

②This factory is ______ you worked in last year?

③This is the factory_____ you worked last year?

④This factory is______ you worked last year?

①句先行词是the factory,是物,在从句中作worked in的宾语,故用that或which。所以①句填that/which。

②句中少了先行词the one,指代the factory,又因为one是不定代词,故只能用that。所以②句填the one that。

③句先行词是the factory,是物,在从句中作状语,故用where,所以③句填where。 ④句中少了先行词the one,指代the factory,是物,在从句中作状语,用where,所以④句填the one where。

四、定语从句和同位语从句的区别:

名词后既可跟定语从句,也可跟同位语从句,我们可以从以下三个方面加以区别:

1. 作用不同。定语从句是修饰和限定某一名词或代词的从句;同位语从句是补充说明某

一名词,表述该名词的具体内容的从句。

①The news that we heard was true.

我们听到的消息是真的。 (定语从句,修饰The news。)

②The news that we won the game was true.

我们赢得比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句,补充说明The news的内容。)

2. 功能不同。定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,引导词在从句中充当成分(主,宾

或状);同位语从句则由连词that引导,引导词在从句中不充当任何句子成分。

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①The news that we heard was true.

我们听到的消息是真的。 (定语从句,that作宾语。)

②The news that we won the game was true.

我们赢得比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句,that不作句子成分。)

3. 将“名词+that”结构取出,能在名词和that之间加上be动词构成一个表语从句的,就

是同位语从句,否则就是定语从句。

上面的第一句前半部分可改为:

The news was that we heard.

(消息是我们听到。不是个完整的句子,故为定语从句)

上面的第二句前半部分可改为:

The news was that we won the game.

(消息是我们赢得了比赛。是个完整的句子,故为同位语从句)

练习:

1.I will never forget the day ________ we spent on the farm. A. when B. where C. why D. that

2. I will never forget the day ______ we first came to Yunnan. A. when B. where C. why D. that

3.This is the room _______ he used to live. A. when B. where C. why D. which

4. This is the room _____he used to live in. A. when B. where C. why D. which.

5.This is the reason _________ he gave for his being late. A. why B. that C. which D. B&C

6. This is the reason _______ he was late.. A. why B. that C. which D. B&C

7.The old lady has three daughters and __________ are pretty.

A. both of them B. both of whom C. all of them D. all of whom

8.The old lady has three daughters, __________ are pretty.

A. both of them B. both of whom C. all of them D. all of whom

9.Those ________ to take part in the game write down your name, please ?

A. who B. who want C. that wants D. want

10.I, ________ your good friend, will try my best to help you out.

A. who is B. what is C. what am D. who am

11.His walking stick, ________ he can’t walk, was lost yesterday.

A. that B. with which C. which D. without which

12.There are three libraries in our school, ________ were built five years ago.

A. all of them B. either of them C. all of which D. both of that

13.The reason _______ he can’t come is that he has to work late.

A. because B. that C. why D.for

14.He is not the man _____ he used to be. A. what B. that C. which D. as

15.This is the only thing ____I can do now. A. what B. which C. that D. all

16.I don’t like the way ___he spoke to me. A. by that B. what C. by which D. /

17.They have decided to finish the work in time, ________, I think, is a wise choice.

A. that B. what C. which D. whether

18.The family ________ I stayed with in New York are coming to Beijing.

A. which B. whom C. what D. whose

19._____is known to us all, the earth moves around the sun. A. Which B. That C. What D. As

20.________ is known to us all that the earth moves around the sun. A. Which B. That C. It D. As

21.I’ve never seen such a tall tree _____ it is. A. what B. which C. that D. as

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