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初中反意疑问句讲解

发布时间:2014-05-01 08:05:38  

中考语法专项讲解——反意疑问句

一、英文中的反意疑问句。

1、什么是反意疑问句

英语中,反意疑问句是由陈述句和附在其后的附加疑问句组成。其中附加疑问句是对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问,起证实作用,一般用于证实说话者所说的事实或观点。翻译为“是吗?”。

2、反意疑问句的回答,回答时,如果情况属实,用Yes加上反问句的倒装肯定句;若果情况不属实,则用No加上反问句的倒装否定句。例如:

You were moved by your students,

情况属实:Yes, I were.

情况不属实:No, I weren’t.

二、反意疑问句中问句部分的动词与陈述部分的动词在语气上成相反的对应关系,即:

肯定+否定? 否定+肯定?如:

?You can’t do it, can you?

你不能做它,是吗?

②They are very late for the meeting, aren’t they?

他们开会迟到了,是吗?

三、当陈述句中含有be动词,助动词,或是情态动词时,反问句部分由这些词加上主语人称代词构成, be动词包括:am, is, are, was, were

助动词有:do, does, did, have(用在完成时), has(用在完成时)等

情态动词有:can, could, may, might, must, will, would, shall, should

例如:

She is a lovely girl, 她是一个可爱的女孩,是吗?

He will go home, 他要回家了,是吗?

She doesn’t l她不喜欢吃爆米花,是吗?

The baby won’t小宝宝睡得不早,是吗?

注意:①He has supper at home every day, doesn’t’t he? (不能用hasn’t he?)

他每天在家吃晚饭,是吗?

?They have known the matter, haven’t they? (不能用don’t they?)

他们已经知道那事情了,是吗?

四、当陈述句中只含有行为动词时,若动词加了s, 就用does, 若动词为原形,就用do,动词为过去式,则用did,例如:

You cleaned your house last week, _你上周打扫了你的房间,是吗?

Your father plays the computer very well, __你父亲电脑技术很好,是吗?

They look so happy today, _你今天看起来很高兴,是吗?

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五、反意疑问句的陈述部分带有little, few, never, hardly, seldom,nobody, nothing, barely, scarcely等否定意义的词时,问句部分用肯定式。如:

①She never tells a lie, does she?(不用doesn’t she?)

她从不说谎,是吗?

②He was seldom late, was he?(不用wasn’t he?)

他几乎不迟到,是吗?

六、反意疑问句的陈述部分为I am……时,问句部分习惯上用aren’t I?表示。

如: I am a very honest man, aren’t I?

我是个很诚实的人,是吗?

七.陈述部分的主语为不定代词something, anything, nothing, everything时,问句部分的主语用it。如: ①Something is wrong with the computer, isn’t it?

电脑有问题了,是吗?

②Nothing has happened to them, has it?

他们什么事也没发生,是吗?

八、陈述部分的主语为不定代词somebody (someone), anybody (anyone), nobody (no one), everybody (everyone)时,问句部分的主语用he或 they,这时问句动词的数应和he或 they一致。如: ①Someone has taken the seat, hasn’t he?

有人已经坐了位置,是吗?

②Everyone has done their best in the game, haven’t they?

每个人在比赛中已经尽力了,是吗?

九.陈述部分为祈使句

1)若为let’s引导,反问句用shall we? 例如

Let’s go home together, shall we? 让我们一起回家,好吗?

2)若为let us引导 和其余的任何一般的否定祈使句,都用will you, 例如

Let us stop to rest, will you? 让我们停下休息,好吗?

Don’t make any noise, will you? 别弄出噪音,好吗?

3)一般的肯定祈使句则用will you 或won’t you 都行,例如:

Do sit down, won’t you?/ will you? 请坐,好吗?

You feed the bird today, will you? 今天你喂鸟,是吗?

Please open the window, will you? (won’t you?) 打开窗,好吗?

十、陈述部分为There (Here) + be + 主语时,问句部分用动词+there (here)?形式。

①There are two cakes on the plate, aren’t there?

碟子里有两块蛋糕,是吗?

②Here is a story about Mark Twain, isn’t here?

这是关于马克吐温的故事,是吗?

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注意一、反义疑问句是疑问句的一种,它对陈述部分的事实提出相反的疑问,形式上是一个省略问句,附加在陈述句后,即:

陈述句 + 逗号 + 省略问句 + 问号

You are from America, aren’t you?

注意二、遵循前否定后肯定或前肯定后否定的原则(但在祈使句等一些特殊句子中需注意,详细见注意七)

Jim isn’t in Class Four, is he?

注意三、附加疑问句必须前后两句主语相同

Mr Zhang has been here for four years, hasn’t he?

注意四、附加疑问句部分与主语不一致的若干情况如下(需牢记)

1. this 或that改it,无论是否指人

This is your brother, isn’t it?

2. these或those改they

Those are books ,aren’t they?

3. 不定代词one改one或he

One can’t be always young, can one / he?

4. something、anything、everything和nothing改it

Nothing is serious, is it? (注意为什么后面用is it而不是isn’t it?)

Everything seems all right, doesn’t it?

5. everybody、everyone、somebody、someone、anybody、anyone、nobody改they或he(任选,但选定后注意单复数形式)

Everyone knows this, don’t they / doesn’t he?

Nobody likes to lose money, does he? (这里最好用he)

6.each of改he或they

Each of the boys had an apple, didn’t he / they?

7. no one, none, neither, either改they 或he

No one came, did they?

8. some of…、none of …改it、they或you(联系上下文或句子)

None of the food was delicious, was it?

Some of the dustmen have come back, haven’t they?

9. 由neither…nor…、not only…but also、both…and…、either…or…、not…but…、…or…、…and…等连接的并列主语,改复数代词

Neither you nor I am wrong, are we?

Both Tom and Jack came, didn’t they?

10. 由动词不定式、动名词、从句或词组构成的主语,改it

To learn English well isn’t easy, is it?

Swimming is great fun, isn’t it?

11. the + 形容词表示一类人,改复数代词

The poor had no right (权力) to speak at the time, did they?

12. there 引起的句子(There be句型等),仍用there

There stands a house and a lot of trees, doesn’t there?

There are many children in the park, aren’t there?

注意五、附加疑问句部分与谓语不一致的若干情况如下(需牢记)(初中阶段14点18点和19点可以常识性了解)

1. have (有)改have或do

Mary has two brothers, doesn’t she / hasn’t she?

2. have (有)必须与陈述部分一致

He hasn’t a lot of time, has he?

3

Miss Green doesn’t have any money in her pocket, does she?

3. have不做“有”解释,必须用do

They all have a good time, don’t they?

4. have to用do或have

We have to get up early, don’t we / haven’t we?

5. have got to用have

We have got to answer all the questions, haven’t we?

6. had better用should或had

We had better go right now, shouldn’t we / hadn’t we?

7. can’t(不可能,表示推测)根据can’t或的动词选择相应的形式

He can’t be a doctor, is he?

The workers can’t have finished their work, have they?

8. may 用may + 主语 + not (英语中不用mayn’t)

They may be here next week, may they not?

9. must(必须)用needn’t

You must do it today, needn’t you?

10. must(应该)用mustn’t

I must study hard, mustn’t I?

11. mustn’t用must或may

You mustn’t talk like that, must you?

We mustn’t stay here any longer, must we?

12. “must be”对现在情况进行推测作一般现在时或现在进行时的附加疑问句进行处理 He must be happy, isn’t he?

He must be working hard at the office, isn’t he?

must表示推测时,也有用mustn’t的

He must have been working very hard, mustn’t he?

You must have told Mr Wang the secret, mustn’t you?

13. “must + 完成时”表示对过去情况的推测,作一般过去时附加疑问句处理

He must have come yesterday, didn’t he?

You must have seen the play last week, didn’t you?

14. “must + 完成时”用来推测过去的动作持续到现在按现在完成时的附加疑问句来处理 You must have studied English for years, haven’t you?

He must have lived here for at least ten years, hasn’t he?

14. 实义动词need和dear用do

He needs help, doesn’t he?

I have never dared to ask him, have I?

15. 情态动词need和dear用need和dear

He dare not say so, dare he?

We need not do it again, need we?

16. needn’t 用need或must

You needn’t go yet, need you?

He needn’t do that, must he?

17. “ would rather + 动词原形”和“would like to + 动词原形”用wouldn’t

He would rather read the text ten times than recite it, wouldn’t he?

You’d like to have some bananas, wouldn’t you?

18. “ought to + 动词原形”用oughtn’t 或shouldn’t

The child ought to be punished, oughtn’t he?

We ought to go there, shouldn’t we?

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19. “used to + 动词原形” 用“didn’t + 主语”或“usedn’t + 主语”或“used + 主语 + not”

He used to live in London, usedn’t he / didn’t he?

He used to play football when he was a child , used he not?

注意六、句子中有seldom, hardly, no, not, never, few, little, nothing, nobody, nowhere等是否定句,附加疑问部分必须采用肯定形式

Nobody phoned while I was out, did they?

He is hardly able to swim, is he?

There is little ink in your pen, is there?

no one, nobody, none, nothing, neither等作动词的宾语时,附加疑问部分一般采用肯定形式(也偶尔用否定形式)

He has nothing to say, does(n’t) he?

You got nothing from him, did(n’t) you?

注意七、一些特殊句型的附加疑问句

1. I am…改aren’t I

I am your friend, aren’t I?

2. I wish to do sth或I wish I …改may I

I wish to go home, may I?

I wish I were you, may I?

3. 主从复合句,与主句的主谓语保持一致

He says that I did it, doesn’t he?

David wouldn’t go there if it rained, would he?

4. 并列句,与邻近的分句保持一致

Mary is a nice girl, but she had one short-coming, hadn’t she?

5. 表示邀请,请求的祈使句,附加疑问部分用will you或won’t you或would you等,一般只要记住will you就可以了,不遵循前否定后肯定或前肯定后否定的原则

Come here, will you?

Turn off the light, will you?

Do sit down, will you?

6. 表示告诉别人做某事的祈使句,用will you、can you、would you或can’t you、won’t you Stop talking, can you?

Write down the new words, will you / won’t you?

7. 否定的祈使句用will you或can you

Don’t make a noise, will / can you?

8. Let me …用will you 或may I

Let me help you, may I?

Let me do it, will you?

9. Let’s …表示建议包括听话人在内,用shall we

Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

10. let us …表示允许,不包括听话人在内,用will you

Let us do it by ourselves, will you?

11. Let接第三人称宾语时用will you

Let him come in, will you?

12. Let’s not … 用OK或all right

Let’s not go to the party, OK / all right?

13. 感叹句用一般现在时be的形式(故事中用一般过去时be的形式)

What fine weather, isn’t it?

How clever the boy is, isn’t he?

How hard she works, isn’t she?

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中考英语复习专项练习题(反意疑问句)

1. Nobody says a word about the incident, ___________?

A. is he B. doesn’t he C. do they D. don’t they

2. You never told me why you were late for the class, ___________?

A. weren’t you B. didn’t you C. had you D. did you

3. They dare not call you a fool, ___________?

A. would they B. dared they C. dares they D. dare they

4. There is not much news in today’s paper, _____________?

A. isn’t it B. are there C. is there D. aren’t there

5. The manager came here in a car, ________?

A. was he B. did he C. wasn’t he D. didn’t he

6. She must have arrived there yesterday, _________?

A. have she B. must she C. didn’t she D. mustn’t she

7. Peter hardly ever goes to parties, _______?

A. doesn’t he B. do he C. does he D. is he

8. What a lovely day, _________?

A. doesn’t it B. isn’t it C. shan’t it D. hasn’t it

9. Let me do it, _______?

A. shall I B. shall we C. will you D. will I

10. Nothing he did was right, ___________?

A. did he B. was it C. didn’t it D. was he

11. There used to be a church behind the cemetery, ________?

A. didn’t there B. used there C. usedn’t it D. didn’t it

12. He must be in the library now, ________?

A. doesn’t he B. mustn’t he C. needn’t he D. isn’t he

13. You would rather not have fish, _________ you?

A. hadn’t B. wouldn’t C. would D. had

14. ----You are not a new member, are you?

---- _________. I joined only yesterday.

A. No, I’m not B. Yes, I’m not C. No, I am D. Yes, I am

15. My sister often needs help with her study, _______?

A. need she B. needn’t she C. does she D. doesn’t she

16. You’d better send for a doctor for your mother, ________ you?

A. had B. hadn’t C. would D. wouldn’t

17. Let’s go swimming, _________?

A. aren’t we B. shall we C. will you D. won’t we

18. Li Ming can’t be in the classroom, __________?

A. can he B. is he C. can’t he D. must he

19. He ought to have looked after his father, _________?

A. oughtn’t he B. ought he not to C. oughtn’t he to D. oughtn’t to he

20. I have nothing to do with the matter, ________?

A. have I B. has it C. do I D. does it

21. He was in good heath when I saw him last time, _________?

A. wasn’t he B. didn’t he C. hadn’t he D. hasn’t he

22. John had his hair cut yesterday afternoon, ________?

A. haven’t he B. didn’t he C. hadn’t he D. hasn’t he 6

23. None of the pupils attended the sports meet, ________?

A. did they B. do they C. didn’t they D. don’t they

24. I’d like to go with you, _______?

A. had I B. wouldn’t I C. hadn’t I D. would I

25. It is the third time that John has been late, ______?

A. hasn’t he B. isn’t he C. isn’t it D. hasn’t it

26. I suppose he is serious, ________?

A. do I B. don’t I C. is he D. isn’t he

27. She dislikes this skirt, _________?

A. doesn’t she B. does she C. isn’t she D. is she

28. You mustn’t tell it to your mother, ________?

A. must you B. do you C. need you D. will you

29. They have to face the difficulty, ________?

A. haven’t they B. don’t they C. do they

30. The man in blue must be your brother, _______?

A. mustn’t he B. needn’t he C. isn’t he

D. must they D. is he 7

答案与提示:

1.C 当陈述部分中的主语为everybody, everyone, someone, no one, nobody, somebody等不定代词时,反意疑问句部分中的主语常用they。且陈述部分为否定意义的词nobody, 反意疑问部分应用肯定形式。

2.D 当陈述部分是主从复合句时,反意疑问部分中的动词和主语代词通常应和主句中的动词和主语保持一致。

3.D 当陈述部分中含有情态动词dare 时,反意疑问部分也应用情态动词dare(没有人称和数的变化)

4.C 陈述句部分含有not,是否定式,所以反意疑问部分应用肯定式。而且当陈述部分是there be结构时, 反意疑问部分用there,省略主语代词。

5.D 当陈述部分的动词是行为动词时,而且前面又没有任何助动词时,这时的疑问部分要用do/does/did。

6.C 如果must have done句式中的时间状语为表示过去的时间的词,如last year, yesterday, the day before yesterday等,反意疑问部分常用didn’t + 主语。

7.C 如果陈述部分已有表示否定意义的副词,如never, nothing, seldom, rarely, hardly等时,反意疑问部分应用肯定形式。

8.B 当陈述句部分为感叹句时,反意疑问句部分常用否定形式,且问句部分的动词常用be。

9.C 当陈述部分是祈使句时,反意疑问部分常用will you。

10.B 当陈述部分的主语是everything, anything, nothing, something等表物的不定代词时,反意疑问部分的主语常用it。

11.A 当陈述部分是there be结构时, 反意疑问部分用there,省略主语代词。当陈述部分含有情态动词used to时,反意疑问部分可用used to形式或did形式。所以此空应填didn’t there 或usedn’t there。

12.D must/ may/ can’t + do 表示对现在情况的推测,反意疑问部分用一般现在时。He must be in the library now.相当于I think he is in the library now.

13.C 当陈述句部分含had better/best, would like to, would rather等约定俗成特殊短语时,反意疑问部分应保留第一个词。如此题中的陈述部分含有would rather的否定式,则反意疑问部分用would。

14.D 反意疑问句的答语应根据实际情况来回答,如果事实是肯定的,前面要用yes,否则用no。回答中的肯定否定关系可以用下面这个公式表示:(+表示肯定,-表示否定)

问句中:+,- 或-,+

回答中:+,+或-,-

15.D 陈述句部分含有实义动词needs, 所以反意疑问部分要用助动词doesn’t。

16.B 当陈述部分有had better时,反意疑问部分应用hadn’t。

17.B 当陈述部分是祈使句时,反意疑问部分常用will you. 但以Let’s 开头的祈使句,反意疑问部分常用shall we. 以Let us开头的祈使句,反意疑问部分常用will you。

18.B 当陈述部分含有情态动词must,may, can’t, 且表示推测时,反意疑问部分不能用must, may, can’t自身, 8

应和后面的实义动词保持一致. Ling Ming can’t be in the classroom.相当于:I don’t think Li Ming is in the classroom.

19.A 当陈述部分含有情态动词ought to时,反意疑问部分常用oughtn’t。

20.C 本题中的陈述部分中的have是实义动词,不作“有”解,所以反意疑问部分应需借助助动词do, does, did等来完成。

21.A 当陈述部分是主从复合句时,反意疑问部分中的动词和主语代词通常应和主句中的动词和主语保持一致。此题的主句是:He was in good health.

22.B 本题中的陈述部分中的had是实义动词,不作“有” 解,所以反意疑问部分应需借助助动词did来完成。

23.A 当陈述部分的主语是everybody, everyone, someone, none, nobody, somebody等不定代词时,反意疑问句部分中的主语常用they。本题中的陈述句部分用的一般过去时态。

24.B 当陈述部分中有would like时,反意疑问部分应用wouldn’t。

25.C 当陈述句部分是强调句或类似强调句的结构时,反意疑问部分常和句首的It is/was保持一致。

26.D 当陈述部分的主句是I suppose, I think, I believe, I imagine等结构时,反意疑问部分往往与从句保持一致,而且要注意否定转移。

27.A 当陈述部分中含有im, in, dis, un等否定前缀或less等否定后缀时,应把陈述部分看成是肯定的,反意疑问部分要用否定式。

28.A 当陈述部分含有情态动词mustn’t表示“禁止”时,反意疑问部分常用must。

29.B 当陈述部分含有have,而且have作“有”解时,反意疑问部分用have/has或借助助动词do, does, did等来完成;如果陈述部分中的have是实义动词,则反意疑问部分应需借助助动词do, does, did等来完成。本题陈述部分中的have to (不得不)为实义动词,所以反意疑问部分不能用haven’t。

30.C 当陈述部分含有must,may, can’t, 且表示推测时,反意疑问部分不能用must, may, can’t自身,应和后面的实义动词保持一致. 本题中的陈述部分The man in blue must be your brother相当于:I think the man in blue is your brother.

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