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初中语法训练之名词(含练习题及答案)

发布时间:2014-05-05 13:51:53  

一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

优杰教育个性化辅导教案

教 师: 苏老师 学 生: 谭海风 日 期: 2014 年 4 月 13 日 时 段: 10:30 至 12:30 课 次: 第 1 次

初中语法之名词

掌握要点:

名词的分类(专有名词和普通名词)

名词的数 1)区分可数名词和不可数名词,区分方法

2)可数名词的复数变化,分为规则变化及不规则变化

名词所有格 含义、构成 两种形式:’s所有格及of所有格 知识点: 一、名词的分类

1.专有名词:名字(人名、地名、书名、机构名)、与国家有关的(国家、国民、语言)、日期(节日、星期、月份)

例句:My name is Lucy. I am a Chinese. I will go to the Great Wall on Monday. 2.普通名词: 包括可数名词和不可数名词

个体名词 表示个体的人或事物 例: sister、table、bike、window

可数名词 集体名词 表示一群人或一些事物 例: family、police、class、group

表示构成物体的物质或材料 例: water、air、wood 不可数名词 表示状态、品质、行为、感情等 例: danger、interest

区分方法:将物体分成两半,如果每半不能叫原名,则为可数名词,如果还可叫原名,则为不可数名词。 注:有些单词意义发生变化,单复数也发生变化,例:glass作玻璃杯时可数,作玻璃时不可数。 身兼二职的名词对照表

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一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

二、名词的单复数形式

(1) 规则变化: 名词的复数构成,通常是在单数形式后面加-s或-es

1、 一般情况在词尾直接加s , 例 bags。

2、 以s、x、sh、ch结尾的词加-es,例bus-buses box-boxes。

3、 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,y变成i加-es 例 city-cities;以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接加s。

4、以o结尾的除potato(马铃薯)、tomato(西红柿)、hero(英雄)加es,其余直接加s。

5、以f或fe结尾的词,多数变f或fe为v加es, roof、proof直接加-s,

例 life-lives wife-wives roof –roofs。

(2)不规则变化

1、单词拼写发生变化man-men woman-women policeman-policemen foot-feet tooth-teeth

mouse-mice child-children

2、某国人变复数,口诀:中日不变英法变,其余s加后面

例:an Englishman-Englishmen an American-Americans

(3)不可数名词一般只用单数,它不能与a/an及数次搭配使用。表示数量时用量词搭配。

例:a cup of coffee(一杯咖啡) two glasses of milk(两杯牛奶)

three pieces of paper(三张纸) four bottles of water(四杯水)

三、名词所有格

含义:名词所有格表示名词之间的所有关系。

表示形式:一种是’s所有格,一种是of所有格

Beijing is China’s capital.= Beijing is the captital of China.

This is Tom’s bike = This is the bike of Tom.

Lily is the key’s owner.= Lily is the owner of the key.

1、’s所有格构成 单数名词及不以s结尾的复数名词,只需在词尾加’s,如 Lucy’s pen路西的钢笔Children’s Day(儿童节);以s结尾的复数名词,只加 ’ , 如the students’ books 学生们的书。

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一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

2、几个人共有的东西,只需在最后一个人的名词后加’s, 如 Lucy and Lily’s bedroom(露西和莉莉的卧室)。表示各自所有,则每个名词都加’s, 如 Lucy’s and Lily’s desks(露西的桌子和莉莉的桌子)。

典型例题讲解

1. They got much _____ from those new books.

A. ideas B. photos C. news D. stories

解析: much 是用来修饰不可数名词的, A B D三个选项均是可是名词的复数形式, C项为不可数名词, 因此选C.

2. I have two _______ and three bottles of _________ here.

A. orange, orange B. oranges, oranges

C. oranges, orange D. orange, oranges

解析: orange 有两种含义, 一种可数名词橘子, 另一种是不可数名词橘汁, 此题第一空应填可数名词, 第二空填不可数名词, 因此选 C。

3. Every evening M r. King takes a _________ to his home .

A. 25 minutes’ walk B. 25 minute’s walk

C. 25 minute walk D. 25 minutes walk

解析: 句中的 minute应该用其复数的所有格形式,只+’,而不能+s,因此选A。

4. An old _______ wants to see you.

A. people B. person C. the people D. the person

解析: person 与people 都有”人” 的意思, 但用法不同. “一个人”用 “a person”,

“两个人” 用 “two persons”; people 泛指 “人们”是集合名词,表示复数, the people 指 “人民”, a people 指 “一个民族”. 应选B。

5. Help yourself to __________.

A. chickens and apples B. chickens and apple

C. chicken and apple D. chicken and apples

解析: chicken 可用作可数名词指小鸡,用作不可数名词指鸡肉,根据词题意应理解为鸡肉;apple为可数名词, 故应+s, 因此选D。

6. Oh, dear. I forgot the two _________.

A. room’s number B. rooms’ number C. room numbers D. rooms’ numbers

解析: room number 房间号码. room可直接用作定语修饰后面的名词 . 类似的还有my phsics teacher, two bus drivers 等. 应选C。

7. She has been in Tianjin for ten years. Tianjin has become her second _________.

A. family B. house C. home D. room

解析: family指的是家庭或是家庭成员; house指的是房子(住所); room 指的是房间;而home 指的是家, 因此选C.

8. ________ mothers couldn’t go to the meeting, because they have gone to Shanghai .

A. Mary and Peter’s B. Mary and Peter

C. Mary’s and Peter D. Mary’s and Peter’s

解析: 此句中 “mothers”是复数,表示两个人各自的母亲,因此应选D。

9. Li Lei has been to __________ many times this month.

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一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

A. her uncle B. her uncle’s C. her uncles D. aunt’s

解析: 此句意为 “李雷这个去她舅舅家多次”. 表示具体场所时, 可省去所有格后面的名词.

因此选B。

10. He is a success as a leader but he hasn’t ________ in teaching.

A. many experiences B. much experience

C. an experience D. a lot experience

解析: experience 作 “经验” 讲时是不可数名词, 作 “经历”讲时是可数名词. 本句中应理解为 “经验”,因此是不可数名词,排除 A C. 又因 a lot of , lots of, plenty of 只用于肯定句, 不用于否定句, 因此选B。

11. A classmate of _________ was here ten minutes ago.

A. you B. your C. your sister D. your sister’s

解析: 此题考查名词的双重所有格.应选D。

12. A group of _________ are talking with two ___________.

A. Frenchmen, Germans B. Germans ,Frenchmans

C. Frenchmans , Germen D. Germen , Frenchmen

解析: Frenchman 是复合词,其复数形式为 Frenchmen; German 的复数为直接在单词末尾+S, 应选A.

13.The team ________ having a meeting .

A. is B. are C. am D. be

解析: team 是一个集合名词,即可表示复数意义(指整个小组) , 也可指小组中的成员(表示复数), 此题意为后者, 因此选B。

14. “Would you like _________?” “________, please.”

A. drink, Three coffees B. a cup of drink, Coffees

C. a drink, A coffee D. a drink, Three cups of coffees

解析: drink 和coffee是不可数名词, 可以用…of来表示数量, eg, three cups of coffee,

当前面加a 时,则表示 “一杯”.因此选C。

15. The Great Wall was made not only by _______, but also the flesh and blood of ________ men.

A.earth and stone, millions of B. earths and stones, millions

C. the earth and stone, million of D. the earths and stones, millions

解析:earth 是不可数名词,因此删除B D,数以百万的应为millions of .

因此选A。

名词练习题

1. This is ___ reading-room.

A. the teacher’s B. teacher’s C. teacher’s D. the teachers’

2. Nothing was found but ___ broken.

A. the room window B. the room’s window C. the room of the window D. the window of room

3. How many___ would you like?

A. paper B. bread C. pieces of papers D. pieces of bread

4. He was praised for his ___.

A. brave B. bravery C. bravely D. great brave

5. Please get me a new ___ when you go to town.

知 识 丰 富 人 生 4 学 习 赢 得 未 来!

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一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

A. clothes B. dress C. clothing D. trousers

6. There are 34___ doctors in the hospital.

A. woman B. women C. woman’s D. women’s

7. Some___ are even thinner than your little finger.

A. bamboo B. bamboos C. kinds of bamboo D. kinds of bamboos

8. He was born in this town and now he lives in ___.

A. Building second B. Building Two C. the Building Two D. Building the Second

9. Old as he is, he has ___to do every day.

A. a lot of work B. much works C. lots of homeworks D. quite a lot of homeworks

10. Jack’s room is furnished with ___.

A. new furnitures B. many new furnitures

C. many new pieces of furnitures D. many new pieces of furniture

11. Have you read ___newspaper yet?

A. today’s B. Today’s C. the today’s D. your today’s

12. It’s not far, only ___walk from here to our school.

A. a ten minutes B. ten minutes C. a ten minutes’ D. ten minutes’

13. Last month, he wrote me ___letter.

A. a 1000-word B. 1000 words C. a 1000-words D. 1000 words’

14. He had a ___sleep yesterday.

A. a good night B. a good-night C. a good night’s D. good-night’s

15. ___is not a long way to drive.

A. Three miles distance B. Three-mile distance

C. Three miles’ distance D. A three-mile-distance

16. His isn’t fit for the work. Please get me ___.

A. something else B. somebody else C. someone else’s D. somebody’s else

17. Do you know how large ___ is?

A. population of China B. Chinese population

C. China population D. China’s population

18. ___ is too much for the boy to carry.

A. The box weight B. The box’s weight

C. The weight of the box D. The box of the weight

19. Excuse me, how can I get to the nearest ___ shop?

A. shoes B. shoe C. shoes’ D. shoe’s

20. What ___ weather we’re having these days!

A. nice B. a nice C. a bad D. worse

21. They say that the meeting will be ___.

A. of very important B. great importance

C. of great importance D. great important

22. I’m going to call at ___ this evening.

知 识 丰 富 人 生 5 学 习 赢 得 未 来!

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一切为了学生的未来发展而存在

A. Mr Black B. the Blacks C. Mr Black’s D. Blacks’

23. What Darwin said was an attack on people’s religious ___.

A. belief B. beliefs C. beliefs D. believs

24. There are some ___waiting for you outside.

A. German B. American C. grown-up D. Japanese

25. Their factory has developed a kind of ___ to help people walk.

A. machine B. machines C. a machine D. the machine

26. There’re many ___ in my brother’s album.

A. leafs B. toys C. books D. stamps

27. Yesterday I went to the super market and bought a lot of ___.

A. tomatoes B. potatos C. vegetable D. meats

28. Upon hearing what I said, his ___ rose.

A. anger B. angry C. angrily D. angriness

29. Excuse me, can you change this ___ for me?

A. five-pound note B. five pounds note

C. five-pound notes D. five pounds notes

30. You have to make ___ for your journey

A. preparing B. preparation C. a preparation D. preparations

31. While washing up, she broke a ___.

A. glass wine B. wine glass C. glass of wine D. wine of glass

32. You have worked out the plan and now we must put it into ___.

A. fall B. reality C. practice D. deed

33. Here’s my card, Let’s keep in ___.

A. touch B. relation C. connection D. friendship

34. I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible, just have a little ___.

A. wait B. time C. patience D. rest

35. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask him or her to leave a ___.

A. message B. letter C. sentence D. notice

36. We walked all the ___ to the museum.

A. trip B. road C. way D. journey

37. Scientists are watching for the earliest ___ of harmful ___ on the world’s weather.

A. signs; effects B. marks; affect

C. tracks; affections D. instance; effections

38. These young people are now making an active ___ to save the old temple.

A. part B. effort C. decision D. plan

39. Don’t push to the front; you have to wait your ___.

A. chance B. duty C. line D. turn

40. You need more ___ to keep fit.

A. practice B. train C. exercises D.exercise

知 识 丰 富 人 生 6 学 习 赢 得 未 来!

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