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初中英语宾语从句专项语法讲解

发布时间:2014-05-07 13:45:42  

初中英语宾语从句专项语法讲解

在复合句中用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。

1.语序

无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序,即“主句+连词+宾语从句(主语+谓语+……)”句式。根据连接词在从句中所担任的不同成分,可分为以下四种:

1)连接词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语。常见的连接词有: who,what,which等。如:

Could you tell me who knows the answer,please?你能告诉我谁知道答案吗?

The small children don't know what is in their stockings.这些小孩子不知道袜子里有什么东西?

2)连接词+名词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语的定语。常见的连接词有:whose,what,which,how many,how much等。如:

He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。 The teacher asked us how many people there were in the room.老师问我们房间里有多少人。

3)连接词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语、状语或表语。常见的连接词有:who(m),what,which,how many,how much, when,why,how,where,if /whether(在句中不充当任何成分)等。如:

He hasn't decided if he'll go on a trip to Wuxi.他还没决定是否去无锡旅行。

Could you tell me what I should do with the money ?你能告诉我我如何处理这笔钱吗?

4)连接词+名词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语或表语的定语。常见的连接词有:what,which,how many,how much,how等。如:

Do you know which class he is in ?你知道他在哪个班吗?

She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔。

2.连接词

1)当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

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He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作。

2)当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

但在下列情况下只能用whether:

①在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。

I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。

②在介词之后用whether。如:

I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是否能按时完成这项工作。

I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.我担心是否伤了她的感情。

③在不定式前用whether。如:

He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。 I don't know whether to go.我不知去否。

He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

④whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

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The question is whether we can catch the bus.问题是我们能否赶上公共汽车。 ⑥若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:

a.Please let me know whether you like the book.请告诉我你是否喜欢这本书。 b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我。

3)如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的特殊疑问词引导。如:

Could you tell me why you were late for the meeting this morning?你能告诉我今天早上你为什么开会迟到吗?

3.时态

含宾语从句的复合句,主、从句谓语动词的时态呼应应包括以下三点内容:

1)如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词可根据需要,选用相应的任何时态。如:

I don't know when he will come back.我不知道他将何时回来。

He tells me that his sister came back yesterday.他告诉我他姐姐昨天回来了。

2)如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的谓语动词只可根据需要,选用过去时态即一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时或过去完成时的某一种形式。如:

①The children didn't know who he was.孩子们不知道他是谁。

②He asked his father how it happened.他问他父亲这件事是如何发生的。

3)如果宾语从句所表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句用什么时态,从句时态都用一般现在时。如:

The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说地球绕着太阳转。

4.注意: if和when既可以引导宾语从句,也可以引导状语从句,应注意它们在两种从句中的意思和用法的不同。if和when引导宾语从句时,分别意为“是否”和“何时”,其时态应和主句时态相呼应;它们引导状语从句时,意思分别为“如果,假如”和“当……时候”,当主句时态是一般将来时时,其时态用一般现在时。它们常常放在含有状语从句和宾语从句的题干中进行综合考查。如:

—Do you know when he will come back tomorrow ?你知道他明天什么时候回来吗? 3

—Sorry,I don't know.When he comes back,I'll tell you.对不起,不知道。当他回来了,我将告诉你。

—I don't know if he will come.我不知道他是否会来。

—He will come if it doesn't rain.如果不下雨,他会来的。

简化宾语从句常用六法

同学们常会遇到把含有宾语从句的复合句转化为简单句,使其与原句意思相同(或相近)的试题。下面就介绍几种常用的简化宾语从句的方法:

方法一:当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如:

Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon. We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him.

方法二:当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

She has forgotten how she can open the window. →She has forgotten how to open the window. 注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

Could you tell me how I can get to the station? →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

方法三:当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如:The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

方法四:某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如: He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us.

The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born. →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

方法五:某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如: Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground. → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

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方法六:动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如:

It seemed that the boys were going to win. →The boys seemed to win.

除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如:

I found that it was difficult to learn English well. →I found it difficult to learn English well. Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.

They found that the box was very heavy. →They found the box very heavy

初中英语宾语从句语法专项精选试题

习题(一)

1 The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them.

A. took B. take C. takes D. will take

2 Catherine said that she ___ to Guangzhou.

A. has never gone B. had never gone C. has never been D. had never been

3 The students want to know whether they___ dictation today.

A. had B. has . C. will have D. are

4 She asked Linda if___ go and get some.

A. could she B. she could C. she can D. she may

5 Linda said the moon___ round the earth.

A. travelled B. has travelled C. travells D. had travelled

答案:1-5 A D C B C

习题(二)

1 Can you tell me___ you were born, Betty

A. who B. what C. when D. that

2 I don't know ___ they have passed the exam.

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A. what B. if C. when D. where

3 I hardly understand. ___ he has told me.

A. that B. what C. which D. who

4 She didn't know___ back soon.

A. whether he would be B. if would he be C. he will be

5. I don't know _____ he still lives here after so many years.

A. whether B where C. what D. when

6. Do you know _____ they listened to yesterday evening

A. what B when C why D how

7. He asked me _____told me the accident.

A whom B which C who D whose

答案:1-7 C B B A A A C

习题(三)

1. They don't know their parents are.

A that B what C why D which

2. Please tell me ______what last year.

A. where does your sister work B where did your sister work C where your sister works D where your sister worked

3. She asked me if I knew ______.

A. whose pen is it B. whose pen it was C. whose pen it is D. whose pen was it

4. You must remember ________.

A. what your mother said B. what did your mother say

C. your mother said what D. what has your mother said

5 Did you know ____

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A. who he was looking after B. who was he looking for

C. who he is looking for D. who he is looking after

6 Could you tell me ___

A. when will they leave Beijing B. when would they leave Beijing

C. when they will leave Beijing D. when did they leave Beijing

答案:1-6 B D B A A C

习题(四)

1. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shop keeper _____ Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book. (北京市东城区)

A. that B. how C. whatD. if

2. —I don't know _____ Mr. Green will come to see us.

—He will help us with our English. (杭州市)

A. why B. when C. how D. where

3. —We never know _____ the old m an is. —They say he is a teacher. (鄂州市)

A. what B. who C. which D. where

4. I was told _____ Bill Gates was thirteen he began to play with computers. (重庆市)

A. that how B. how that C. when that D. that when

5. —Do you know _____ I'm going to see him.

—Sorry, I don't know. (北京市海淀区)

A. where does Mr. Li live B. where did Mr. Li live

C. where Mr. Li lives D. where Mr. Li lived

6. —W here do you think _____ he _____ the computer

—Sorry, I have no idea. (南京市)

A. /; bought B. has; bought C. did; buy D. does; buy

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7. I don't feel very well. Mum asked me _____ this morning. (重庆市)

A. what the matter is B. what is wrong

C. what the matter was D. what wrong was

8. —Where is Jack

—He is away to spend his holiday. He's gone either to Hangzhou or to Wuhan, but I'm not sure _____ . (南昌市) A. that B. which C. where D. there

答案:1—4 D A A D 5—8 C A C C

但在下列情况下只能用whether,不能用if:

①在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。

I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。

②在介词之后用whether。如:

I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是否能按时完成这项工作。

③在不定式前用whether。如:

He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。

He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

④whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

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⑥若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:

b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我

只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

1、 if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”

The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

2、 if引导否定概念的宾语从句时

He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.

3、 引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时

He talks as if he has known all about it.

【中考范例】

1 Miss Green didn’t tell us _______ in 2009.

A. where does she live B. Where she lives C. where did she live D. where she lived

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序和时态。宾语从句应用陈述句的语序和时态,所以应选D。

2.Would you please tell me ________?

A. when did he come home B. where he would play football

C. if he had seen the film D. why he didn’t watch the game

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序和时态。主句用的实际上是现在时,宾语从句在这个句子里应用陈述句的语序和一般过去时。

3.I don’t know when __________.

A. will the train leave B. the train will leave

C. would the train leave D. the train leave

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序和时态。只有B在语序和时态上符合。

4.---We don’t know _____________.

---It is said that he was born in Sweden.

A. what he is B. if he lives here

C. where he comes from D. which country is he from

【解析】答案: C。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序。按照他们谈论的话题可知:他们说的是某人是哪里人。A和B可以排除掉。D的语序不对,只有C正确。

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