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人教版新目标(2014春)八年级下册U8 现在完成时讲解及练习题(含答案)

发布时间:2014-05-19 13:48:33  

现在完成时讲解(含习题有答案) 第一部分:概念与结构

现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,也可表示过去已经开始,一直延续到现在的动作或状态。

构成:主语 + have / has + 过去分词 + 其他

(当主语是第三人称单数时用has,其余人称用have。过去分词:规则动词的过去分词构成与动词过去式相同;不规则动词需要特殊记忆。)

否定式:主语 + haven’t / hasn’t + 过去分词 + 其他

疑问式:Have / Has + 主语 + 过去分词 + 其他?

简略答语:Yes, 主语 + have / has.(肯定) No, 主语 + haven’t / hasn’t.(否定) 第二部分:动词过去式的构成

一、规则变化(过去式和过去分词的变化相同)

1. 一般在动词词尾直接加ed。如:pick → picked → picked; wish → wished → wished; stay → stayed → stayed

2. 以不发音的e结尾的动词后面加d。如:like → liked → liked; hope → hoped → hoped; phone → phoned → phoned

3. 以“辅音字母 + y”结尾的动词,变y为i,再加-ed。如:study → studied → studied; hurry → hurried → hurried; reply → replied → replied

4. 词尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节动词,要双写辅音字母,再加-ed。如:stop → stopped → stopped; clap → clapped → clapped

二、不规则变化:

1. 以不变应万变。如:let → let → let; put → put → put; read → read → read

2. 若中间有双写e,则去掉一个e,单词末尾再加t。如:feel → felt → felt; keep → kept → kept; sleep → slept → slept

3. 结尾的字母d变t。如:lend → lent → lent; build → built → built; send → sent → sent

4. 变为以-ought或-aught结尾。如:buy → bought → bought; bring → brought → brought; catch → caught → caught; teach → taught → taught 第三部分:用法

1.现在完成时的"完成用法"

现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。本时态标志词:

already(“已经”,用于肯定句中,放在have /has之后或句尾); recently近来 ; yet(“仍然”“还”,用于疑问句或否定句的句尾); before(“以前”,放在句尾); in the past/last+段时间 ( 在过去的几年中 );never(“从没有”,在have /has之后) just(“刚刚”,放在have /has之后); ever(“曾经”,放在have /has之后); 例句: 1.Our teacher has just left.

2.We have studied english already.

3.I have not finished the homework yet.

4.He has never been to Beijing before.

第 一 页

现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间状语(如:already,yet,before,recently等)、频度时间状语(如:never,ever,once等)、包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如:this morning / month /year...,today等)连用。

例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗?

2.现在完成时的"未完成用法"

现在完成时的"未完成用法是指某个动作从过去已经开始,一直持续到现在,还有可能持续到将来.动作的持续性要通过一段时间来表示一段时间的表达方法有两种:

for: +一段时间 for a year ;for two weeks ;for three years

since +过去的某一时刻, since nine ;since last week

since +一般过去时态的时间状语从句 since you came ; since you got home.

或与表示现在时刻的时间状语相连(如:up to now,so far到目前为止)等。

例如:I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何消息。

注意:此用法中不能用非延续性动词,因为非延续性动词不能和表示一段时间的时间状语连用,但是它们可以转换成相应的延续性动词.

1.直接用延续性动词

buy– have;catch(get) a cold –have a cold;borrow—keep;become—be;put on-- wear

2.转换成be+名词

join the army – be a soldier;join the party –be a party member;

go to school– be a student

3转换成be+形容词或副词

die—be dead;finish – be over;begin—be on;leave—be away (from); fall asleep – be asleep ;close /open– be close/open ;get married -be married ;come to/ go to/arrive at(in)+某地—be in(at) +某地

4.转换成 be+介词短语 go to school– be in school ; get up-be up; 第四部分:现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

1. 现在完成时表示动作发生在过去,对现在造成了影响或产生了结果。一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作。说话的侧重点只在于陈述一件过去的事情,不强调对"现在"产生的影响。如:

He studied English for five years . 他曾学过五年英语(他学过五年英语,现在不学了) He has studied English for five years . 他已经学英语五年了。(说明他还继续学下去)

2. 两种时态各自都有明显的时间状语。遇到yesterday,last year,just now等就用一班过去时;当有so far,last few days 等就用现在完成时态。Since后接过去时间状语或过去时的句子等常用现在完成时,when不能用于现在完成时态中。

第五部分:“have /has been to + 地点” 与 “have/has gone to +地点”的区别

“have/has been to + 地点”是表示曾去过某地,但此刻不在那儿(即在说话的地方)而

“have/has gone to +地点”表示去了某地了,此刻在路上或已经到达那个地方了(即不在说话的地方)询问某人是否去过某地一般用:“Have you ever been to + 地点?”

试比较:Linda has been to Chengdu . 琳达去过成都

Linda has gone to Chengdu . 琳达去了成都

第 二 页

英语现在完成时复习专题

一、 单项选择。

1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they what's happened to him .

A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know

2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? A. already B.never C.ever D.still

3、Have you met Mr Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago

4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .

A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written

5、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .

A.has changed ; well B.changed ; good C.has changed ; better D.changed ; better

6、Zhao Lan ______already in this school for two years .

A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

7、We ______ Lily since she was a little girl .

A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I______ it twice .

A.will see B.have seen C.saw D.see

9、—These farmers have been to the United States .

—Really ? When _____ there ?

A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone

10、—______ you your homework yet ? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .

A.Did ; do ; finished B.Have ; done ; finished

C.Have ; done ; have finished D.will ; do ; finish

11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 .

A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

12、—Do you know him well ?

— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

13、—How long have you here ?

—About two months . A. been B. gone C. come D. Arrived

14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .

A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began

15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army .

A. is B. has C. will D. was

16、 Miss Green isn’t in the office . she_______ to the library .

A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been

17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ?

A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they

19、 has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China? 第 三 页

A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived

20、 His uncle for more than 9 years.

A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university

21.When he arrived at the bus stop, the bus _____ for 20 minutes.

A. has left B. had left C. has been away D. had been away

22. I ______ the League for 5 years so far. A. joined B. have joined C. have been in

23.The factory ____ since the February of 1988.

A . has been open B. has opened C. was open D. opened

24.Mary and Rose ____friends since they met in 2000.

A. have made B. have been C. made D. have become

25.You mustn't_____ until he comes back. A. be away B. leave C. be left

26.The meeting _____ for a week now. A. has finished B. has ended C. has been over

27.Miss Gao ______ this school for nearly 5 years. A. has been in B. has come to C. has taught

28.Ben ______ a teacher for 4 years . A. has been B. has become C. was D. became

29. I ______ home for a week. A. have returned B. have been back C. returned

30. How long _______ he ________ ? A. died B. has, died C. has, been dead

31. He ______ at eight yesterday afternoon. A. slept B. was sleeping C. has sleep D. had slept

32.He ________ the car for a week. A. bought B. has bought C. has had

33.-----How long _____ you _____ ill ? -----Two weeks. A. did fall B. have, fell C. have, been

34.Since 2000, he _____ his hometown. A. has left B. has moved away C. has been away from

35.I'll lend you the book , but you can only _____ it for 2 days. A. borrow B. keep C. take

36.The bus ______ on the road for 2 hours so far. A. has stopped B. stopped C. has been

37.Are you _____ the jacket these days? A. wearing B. putting on C. dressing D. on

38.He ________ for 2 hours. A. got up B. has got up C. has been up

39. Tom is ill in hospital. He ______ a cold for several days.

A. is B. catches C. has caught D. has had

40.----- How long can I ______ the book?

------ Two weeks. A. borrow B. lend C. get D. keep

二、 句型转换。

1、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子)

_________________________________

2、They have been here since 2000. (对划线部分提问) have they been here?

3、The old man _______ last year. He for a year. (die) (动词填空)

4、This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换)

This factory ________ for twenty years.

5、Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao _____ ____ _____ _____ an hour ago.

6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句)

Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ .

7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换)

_______ two years ________ the Green family moved to France.

第 四 页

答案:

一、单项选择。

1——5、B B C D C 6——10、C C B B B 11——15、D B A C A 16——20、A A D C C 21——25、C C A B B 26——30、C A A B C 31——35、B C C C B 36——40、C A C D D

二、句型转换。

1、The bus has been here for ten minutes.

2、How long 3、died, has been dead 4、has been open

5、has been away

6、joined;ago 7、It is, since 第 五 页

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