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初中主谓一致_讲解+练习

发布时间:2014-05-27 14:10:13  

主谓一致的用法及专项练习题

一、主谓一致三原则

主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致,主谓一致必须遵循三原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则,就近一致原则。

1. 语法一致原则:指主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式,谓语也用复数形式。 Tom is a good student. 汤姆是个好学生。

They often play football on the playground. 他们经常在操场上踢足球。

2. 意义一致:指主语形式上为单数,但意义为复数,因此谓语动词用复数形式;或主语形式上为复数,但表示单数意义,这是谓语动词用单数形式。

My family are having lunch now.

我们一家人现在正吃午饭。

Twenty dollars is too expensive for the book.

这本书20美元太贵了。

3. 就近一致:指谓语动词用单数形式还是用复数形式,取决于最靠近他的主语。例如:

Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.

不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且他的学生也喜欢踢足球。

There is a pen and some books on the desk.

课桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。

二、 语法一致原则

1. 单数名词(代词),不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数形式,复数名词(代词)作主语,谓语用复数形式。

The desk is Tom’s. 这张桌子是汤姆的。

Some water is in the bottle. 一些水在瓶子里。

The students are playing football on the playground.

这些学生正在操场上踢足球。

2. many a+单数名词作主语,意义虽为“许多”,但谓语要用单数形式。

Many a student has been to Shanghai. 许多学生到过上海。

3. more than one+单数名词作主语,谓语用单数。

More than one student has ever been to Beijing. 不止一个学生曾经去过北京。

4. 不定代词somebody, someone, something, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything,

nobody, no one, nothing作主语,谓语动词用单数,

Is everyone here today. 今天大家到齐了吗?

Something is wrong with him. 他有毛病。

Nobody was in. 没有人在家。

5. 主语是each/every+单数名词+and(each/every)+单数名词时,谓语动词用单数。

Each boy and each girl has got a seat. 每个男孩和女孩都有一个座位。

Every man and every woman is at work. 每个男人和女人都在工作。

6. one and a half+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

One and a half hours is enough. 一个半小时足够了。

7. 动词不定式,动名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

To see is to believe 眼见为实。

Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes.

做眼睛保健操对你的眼睛十分有益。

8. a/an+单数名词+or two 作主语,谓语动词用单数。

A student or two has failed the exam. 一两个学生考试不及格。

9. 当主语部分含有with,together with,along with,as well as,besides,except,but,like 等介词或介词短语时,谓语动词用单数形式;但“名词+as well as+名词”时,谓语动词一般应与第一个名词一致。

Mike with his father has been to England. 迈克同他的父亲去过英格兰。

Mike, like his brother, enjoys playing football 迈克像他的哥哥一样喜欢踢足球。 The students as well as the teacher were present at the meeting.

10. 由and连接的两个单数名词作主语时,以及both…and…连接的两个或多个名词作主语时,谓语动词

一般用复数形式。

注:and所连接的并列主语是同一个人,事物,或概念时,谓语动词用单数。

这两种情况区分如下:a/the+单数名词+and+单数名词,指的是同一个人或物;

a/the+单数名词+and+ a/the+单数名词,指两个人或物。

The writer and teacher is coming. 那位作家兼教师来了。(作家和教师指同一个人)

The writer and the teacher are coming. 作家和老师来了。(作家和老师是两个人)

11. each, either, neither, another, the other 作主语,谓语动词用单数。

Each of them has an English dictionary. 他们每人都有一本英语词典。

Neither answer is correct. 两个答案都不正确。

12. 如果主语是由“a series of, a kind of, a portion of+等+名词”构成时,动词一般用单数形式。

A series of pre-recorded taps has been prepared for language laboratory use.

但a variety of, a number of +名词复数,动词要用复数形式;

而the number of +复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。

On exhibition there are a great variety of consumer goods.

The number of the students is over eight houndred

Exercise

1. Either Jane or Steven _____ watching TV now.

A. were B. is C. was D. are

2. Two days _______enough for me to finish the work, I need a third day.

A. isn’t B. is C. are’t D. are

3. —How many lessons do you usually have a day?

—Six lessons a day. And each of them _____ 45 minutes.

A. last B. lasts C. have D. are

4. The number of the students in our school ____1200.

A. is B. are C. has D. have

5. Every one except Tom and John _____there when the meeting began.

A. are B. is C. were D. was

6. Nobody but Jane _____ the secret.

A. know B. knows C. have know D. is

7. This pair of glasses ______mine.

A. are B. be C. is D. will be

8. Both Lily and Lucy ______ to the party yesterday.

A. invited B. was invited

C. had invited D. were invited

9. The singer and the dancer _____come to Beijing.

A. has B. have C. are D. is

10. The children in this class each _____new school bag.

A. have B. has C. has got D. are having

to blame(责备) for the accident(交通事故).

A. are B. is C. have D. has

12. The boy with the two dogs _____ when the earthquake rocked the city.

A. were sleeping B. is sleeping

C. was sleeping D. are sleeping

13. Eating vegetables______ good for our health.

A. is B. are C. were D. was

14. More than one person _______ made the suggestion.

A. was B. has C. were D. have

15. The writer and teacher ______ coming now.

A. is B. are C. has D. have

16. Something _____ gone wrong with my TV set.

A. has B. have C. is D. are

17. Nothing but grass and trees _______ the hill.

A. covers B. cover C. covering D. are covering

18. The number of people invited _____ 50, but a number of them _____absent for different reasons.

A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were

19. A library with 5000 books _____ to the nation as a gift.

A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered

20. Many a writer of newspaper articles ________ to writing novels.

A. has turned B. have turned C. being turned D. are going to turn

三、意义一致原则

1. 表示时间,价格,重量,数目,长度,数学运算等的词或短语作主语时,这些通常作一个

整体概念,谓语用单数形式。例如:

Two months is a long holiday. 两个月是一个长假。

Twenty pounds isn’t so heavy. 2 0英镑并不太重。

Ten miles isn’t a long distance. 1 0英里并不是一段很长的距离。

Five minus four is one. 5减4等于1。

2. people, police等集体名词作主语,谓语动词用复数形式,family,class,group,team等集体名词作 主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式,若指一个具体成员时,谓语动词复数形式。

People here are very friendly. 这儿的人很友好。

His family isn’t large. 他家的人不多。

My family all like watching TV. 我们一家人都喜欢看电视。

3. 以—s 结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义,谓语通常用单数形式,如news, mathematics, physics

politics等,

No news is good news. 没有消息就是好消息。

Mathematics is very popular in our class 在我们班数学很受欢迎。

4. the+形容词表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式,表示抽象概念时,用单数形式.

The poor are very happy, but the rich are sad.

The beautiful lives forever. 美是永存的。

5. some, all, lots of, half, the rest of, most等后面接名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式应该与

名词或代词的单复数保持一致.

All the milk I bought yesterday has gone bad.

Most of the time is spent in playing the computer games.

6. 分数或百分数等做主语时,谓语动词要与它们所指代的名词的单复数保持一致. Two fifth of the land in that district is covered with trees and grass.

7. 单复数同形的名词作主语时,其谓语动词的形式应该根据其表达的意义来确定. Such a means is really unpleasant.

Exercise:

1. Maths _______ my favorite subject.

A. be B. is C. am D. are

2. —Two months ______quite a long time.

—Yes, I’m afraid that he will miss lots of his lessons.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

3. In the city the old _______.

A. take good care of B. are taken good care of

C. is taken good care of D. are been taken good care of

4. His family _____all very kind and friendly, His family ______a happy one.

A. are, is B. is, is C. are, are D. is, are

5. The Greens ____ France since the spring of 1990.

A. have been to B. have been in C. has been to D. had been in

6. – How many teachers are there in your school?

-- About 150. One third of them ____ men teachers.

A. have B. has C. are D. is

7. How time flies! Three years ____ really a short time.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

8. My brother asked me ten questions. The first five were easy, but the rest ____ difficult.

A. were B. are C. was D. is

9. The poor ____ happy; but the rich ____ sad.

A. is; is B. are; are C. is; are D. are; is

10. No news ____ good news.

A. am B. are C. is D. be

11. I think ______ of the materials I listened to at the beginning of the exam ______ easy.

A. two thirds; is B. second three; are

C. two thirds; are D. two third; are

12. All that can be done ________.

A. has been done B. has done C. have done D. were done

13. I have finished a large part of the book; the rest ______ more difficult.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

14. The wounded(伤员) _______ by the hospital.

A. has taken in B. has been taken in C. have taken in D. have been taken in

15. The whole class _______ the teacher attentively(认真地).

A. are listening B. is listening to C. are listening to D. is listening

16. I don’t think one hundered dollars _______ a big sum of money to him.

A. will be B. would be C. is D. are

17. The third and last chapter(章节) _______ by Professor Chen.

A. are written B. are writing . is written D. is writing

18. The police _______ having a meeting in their office at ten yesterday.

A. is C. was D. were

19. The police ____the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre.

A. is searching for B. were searching for

C. are searching for D. were searching

20. Our team ______ the World Cup! B. have won C. are won D. is won

四、就近原则

1.由or, either?or?, neither?nor?, not only?but also?, not?but?,连接两个名词或代词作主语时,根据就近原则决定谓语动词形式。

Either my wife or I am going.

Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else knows the answer.

Not only you but also he is ready to leave.

2. 在here be,there be句型中,谓语动词通常与临近be的那个主语保持一致.

There is a book and three pens on the desk.

Here are some books and paper for you.

3. 肯定与否定一致

下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定句变成否定句时须作相应的变化。

We've had some (money).→ We haven't had any (money).

I was talking to someone.→ I wasn't talking to anyone.

They sometimes visit us.→ They rarely (never, seldom) visit us.

He has arrived already. → He hasn't arrived yet.

Li is coming too.→ Li isn't coming either.

Both of us are going.→ Neither of us are going.

He likes both of them.→ He doesn't like either of them.

注意:so/neither+助动词+名词/代词结构中须用倒装语序。

My wife like classic music very much and so do I.

She doesn't like jazz and neither do I.

Exercise:

1. Neither Liping nor I _______a basketball player.

A. am B. is C. be D. are

2. There ______ many new words in lesson one. It is very easy.

A. is B. aren’t C. isn’t D. are

3. —What’s on the plate? Some eggs and cakes on it?

—There _____some eggs and cakes on it.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

4. Not only the student but also Mr. Smiths ____ tired of having one examination.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

5. Either my friends or I ____ going to the library on Monday.

A. is B. be C. am D. are

主谓一致专项练习题

一、用所谓单词的正确形式填空。

1. Nine plus three ____ (make) twelve.

2. Very few ____ (know) his address in the town.

3. The students in our school ____ (have) an English dictionary.

4. In the country, the rich ____ (become) richer.

5. The pair of shoes ____ (was) worn out.

6. The environment here is better now and there ___ (is) less pollution.

7. The whole class ____ (was) greatly moved at his word.

8. There ___ (is) some police around here.

9. No one expect two students ____ (was) late for the meeting.

10. All but him and me ____ (is) going to the exhibition.

二、单句改错.

1. In China million of people have a car now.

2. ---What time is it now?

---It’s half to seven.

3. There are one thousand four hundred forty minutes in a day.

4. Who was the ninth to arrive this morning?

5. One and a half days are all I can spare.

6. Twenty years are a long time.

7. One of my close friends have been abroad for eight years.

8. Not only I but also he want to go swimming in the river.

9. Most of the water here are not fit for drinking.

10. The old lady with her two daughters go shopping every Sunday.

三、根据汉语提示完成句子.

1. About ____ (2/3) of the students in the school were born in the ________(20世纪90年代).

2. He became a super star ______ (在他30多岁时).

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. There is ____ (有一副太阳镜) lying on the table. The story happened on ___________ (在2013年3月9日). Mrs. Read lived on the _______ (12楼). The meeting will began at ____________ (8点40分). ________(50英里) not a long distance. Jane was _________(第八) in the line.

四、选择题.

1. Nobody expect you ______ late for the meeting yesterday.

A. was B. were C. is D. are

2. Physics ____ more interesting than math, I think.

A. are B. is C. was D. were

3. Because of Project Hope, ____ children have better lives.

A. thousand B. thousands C. thousand of D. thousands of

4. I got a beautiful bike on ____ birthday. I like it very much.

A. fifteenth B. fifteen C. my fifteen D. my fifteenth

5. ----Which is the biggest number of the four?

----_____.

A. One-third B. Two-thirds C. A half D. A quarter

6. One of the books is written in Chinese, and ____ in English.

A. the rest is B. the rest are C. rest is D. rest are

7. Now, everybody, please turn to page _____ and look at the ____ picture.

A. Fifth; five B. Five; fifth C. Fifth; fifth D. Five; five

8. I think ____ of the materials I listened to at the beginning of the exam _____ easy.

A. three fourths; is B. third four; are C. three fourths; are D. three fourth; are

9. ----It’s 7:45.

----Yes, it’s ____.

A. a quarter past ten B. a quarter to eight

C. fifteen past seven o’clock D. seven forty-five o’clock

10. I’m sorry to hear more than ____ people lost their lives in the earthquake.

A. two thousand B. two thousands C. two thousands of D. two thousand of

11. His family now ____ in the country.

A. live B. living C. lived D. lives

12. ____ Tom ____ Mary speaks good Chinese, so they can communicate with these Chinese students very well.

A. Neither; nor B. Not only; but also C. Both; and D. Either; or

13. ______ the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of then are _____ teachers.

A. A number of; women B. A number of; woman

C. The number of; women D. The number of; woman

14. _____ the students play QQ farm games on the Internet.

A. 70 percents of B. 70 percent C. 70 percent of D. 70 percents

15. It took me _____ to find the key to the drawer.

A. one and half hours B. one and a half hours

C. one and half hour D. one and half hour

16. Every man and every woman ____ at work.

A. be B. are C. is D. am

17. The writer and teacher ____ coming.

A. are B. am C. is D. be

18. Every year a number of tourists _____ attracted to the beach. The number of tourists ____ about 50,000.

A. are; are B. have; is C. are; is D. have; are

19. _____, Coca-cola began to enter china’s market.

A. In 1970’s B. In 1970s C. In the 1970’s D. In the 1970s

20. The river is more than _____.

A. twenty meter wide B. twenty meters wide

C. twenty meter of wide D. wide of twenty meter

21. We all think that the ____ century will bring us more hopes.

A. twenty-first B. twentieth-first C. twenty-one D. twentieth-one

22. Good news! There ____ fewer people catching this kind of illness now.

A. are B. is C. was D. were

23. More than one student ____ ever been to Beijing.

A. has B. have C. had D. having

24. This pair of shoes _____ nice on you.

A. look B. looks C. is look D. looking

25. Both of the students _____ from England.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

26. News _____ easy for us to know.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

27. The people in Shenyang ______ very friendly.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

28. Five minus four _____ one.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

29. It seems to me that Lucy and Lily _____ your classmates.

A. are B. is C. has D. have

30. Bread and butter ____ their daily food.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

易错练习

1. Our summer holiday is coming. Two ____ the students in our school will go to the beach.

A. hundred B. hundreds of C. hundred of D. hundreds

2. She went down to the village which was _____ miles away from her house.

A. three hundred B. several hundreds C. three hundreds D. three hundreds of

3. In the coming summer holidays, my family ____ going to take a one-week trip to Qindao.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

4. She is the only one among the ____ writers who _____ stories for children.

A. woman; writes B. women; write C. women; writes D. woman; write

5. ----David, there ____ a dictionary and some books on your desk. Please put them away. ----Ok, Mum. I’ll do it right now.

A. are B. is C. has D. have

6. Not you but I ____ to answer for it.

A. are B. am C. is D. be

7. Open your book, and write down the answers in the form on _____.

A. the 101th page B. 101 page C. page 101st D. the page 101

8. When he was _____, Joe went to the United States.

A. on his twenties B. in the twenties C. in his twenties D. in his twenty

9. How time flies! Ten years ____ passed.

A. have B. has C. is D. are

10. ----A number of students ____ in the dinning hall.

----Let me count. The number of the students ___ about 400.

A. are; is B. is; are C. are; are D. is; is

中考链接

1. I’m____, and I have a ____ sister.

A. 15 year old; 16-year-old B. 15 years old; 16-year-old

C. 15-year-old; 16 years old D. 15 years old; 16-year-old

2. Between the two hills ____ a deep river.

A. are B. have C. has D. is

3. It is said that _____ young people may lose their abilities to hear after five years if they listen to MP4 players which are too loud for more than five hour a week.

A. thousand of B. six thousand C. thousands of

4. ----How soon can you finish this job?

----Two days ____ enough for me to finish the work I need a week.

A. isn’t B. aren’t C. is

5. If a=3 and b=4, what’s the answer to the problem: a+b+1=? The answer is _____.

A. twelve B. nine C. eight D. seven

6. About ____ of the students in Grade Nine this year were born in the _____.

A. three five; 1996s B. three fifth; 1990s

C. third fifth; 1997 D. third fifths; 1990s

7. There ____ some flowers on the teacher’s desk just now, but now there ____ nothing on it.

A. have; has B. were; was C. were; is D. has; has

8. ----Both Li lei and Han Meimei ____ fond of the TV program a Bite of China.

----I am also deeply moved by its stories.

A. is B. am C. was D. are

9. ----What’s on the desk?

----There ___ some books.

A. be B. are C. is

10. Tony with his parents often ____ to the movies at weekends.

A. go B. goes C. has gone D. have gone

11. There ____ many students on the playground at the moment.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

12. ----How was your weekend?

----Great! It was my grandfather’s ____ birthday. We enjoyed ourselves.

A. seventy B. seventieth C. the seventieth D. seventeenth

13. Now, everyone, please turn to Page ____ and look at the ____ picture.

A. Twelve; fifth B. Twelfth; fifth C. Twelve; five D. Twelfth; five

14. ----Do you enjoy My Heart will Go on?

----No, I prefer songs ____ loud.

A. that is B. which is C. that are D. What are

15. Did you know that the earth is home to _____ animals?

A. million B. millions C. million of D. millions of

16. Not only my father but also my grandpa _____ flying to Singapore this weekend.

A. is B. are C. was

17. ----A number of volunteers ____ willing to teach in China’s rural areas.

----Yes, the number is getting _____.

A. is; bigger and bigger B. are; bigger and bigger

C. is; more and more D. are; more and more

18. I’m 13 years old and my sister is 15 years old. So my sister is ____ years older than me.

A. one B. two C. three D. four

19. Six percent of the work _____ been done.

A. have B. is C. has

20. Everyone expect Tom and John ____ there when the meeting began.

A. is B. was C. were D. are

21. He wrote his ____ novel when he was _____.

A. five; fifties B. fifth; fifty C. fifth; fiftieth

22. This new pair of socks _____ nice.

A. are B. looks C. look

23. Either Bob or Peter ____ watching the World Cup now.

A. is B. are C. am D. be

24. There _____ lots of people at the restaurant when I got there.

A. is B. was C. are D. were

25. ----Jackie Chan has donated ____ dollars to charity.

----He is an example to us all.

A. thousand B. thousands C. thousand of D. thousands of

26. There are over ____ students in their school.

A. hundreds B. nine hundreds C. hundreds of D. nine hundred

27. More than _____ children took part in activities last month.

A. two thirds B. thirds second C. second three D. two third

28. Each of the girls here ____ to the West Lake twice.

A. has gone B. have gone C. has gone D. has been

29. The number of teachers in our school ____ greatly increased last term. A number of teachers in this school ____ from the countryside.

A. was; is B. was; are C. were; are D. were; is

30. One of my friends ____ moved to America.

I miss her so much.

A. has B. have C. is D. are

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