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现在完成时的重点和难点

发布时间:2014-05-28 14:03:49  

(UNIT1)现在完成时的重点和难点

一、现在完成时的"完成用法"和"未完成用法"

1.现在完成时的"完成用法"

现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。例如:He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。

(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了。)

现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间状语(如:already,yet,before,recently等)、频度时间状语(如:never,ever,once等)、包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如:this morning / month /year...,today等)连用。

例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗?

2.现在完成时的"未完成用法"

现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去。 例如:He has lived here since 1978.自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)

I have been in the army for more than 5 years.我在部队已经呆了五年多了。(动作开始于5年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去。)

此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由since或for引导),或表示与现在时刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far到目前为止)等。

例如:I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何消息。

注意:(1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词。如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die等。

(2)现在完成时常见两种句型:

①主语+have / has been+for短语

②It is+一段时间+ since从句

例如:He has been in the League for three years.或It is three years since he joined the League. 他入团已三年了。

3、延续性动词和终止性动词的概念

英语中,动词按其动作发生的方式、动作发生过程的长短,可分为延续性动词和终止性动词。

延续性动词表示能够延续的动作,这种动作可以延续下去或产生持久影响。如:learn, work, stand, lie, know, walk, keep, have, wait, watch, sing, read, sleep, live, stay等。

终止性动词也称非延续性动词、瞬间动词或短暂性动词,表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即结束。如open, close, finish, begin, come, go, arrive, reach, get to, leave, move, borrow,buy等。

4、延续性动词的用法特征

1.延续性动词可以用于现在完成时,其完成时态可与表示"段时间"的状语连用。表示"段时间"的短语有:for two years, during the past three years, since last year, how long等。如:I have learned English since I came here.自从我来到这儿就学英语了。

2.延续性动词不能与表示短暂时间的"点时间"状语连用。如:It raind at eight yesterday

morning.(误) rain为延续性动词,而at eight表示"点时间",前后显然矛盾。如果用延续性动词表示一瞬间的动作,可以借助come, begin, get等终止性动词来表示。上句可改为:It began to rain at eight yesterday morning.(正)又如:

-When did you get to know Jack? -Two years ago.

-Then you've known each other for more than two years. -That's right.

5、终止性动词的用法特征

1.终止性动词可用来表示某一动作完成,因此可用于现在完成时。如:

The train has arrived.火车到了。

Have you joined the computer group? 你加入电脑小组了吗?

2.终止性动词表示的动作极其短暂,不能持续。因此,不可与表示一段时间的状语连用(只限肯定式)。如:

(1)他死了三年了。 误:He has died for three years.

正:He has been dead for three years. 正:He died three years ago.

正:It is three years since he died. 正:Three years has passed since he died.

(2)他来这儿五天了。 误:He has come here for five days.

正:He has been here for five days. 正:He came here five days ago.

正:It is five days since he came here. 正:Five days has passed since he came here.

(1)、(2)句中的die、come为终止性动词,不能与表示"段时间"的状语连用。那么,应如何正确表达呢?可以采用下面的四种方法:

(1)将句中终止性动词转换为相应的延续性动词,如上面两例中的第一种正确表达方式。下面列举几例:leave→be away, borrow→keep, buy→have, begin/start→be on, die→be dead, move to→live in, finish→be over, join→be in/be a member of, open sth.→keep sth. open, fall ill→be ill, get up→be up, catch a cold→have a cold。

(2)将句中表示"段时间"的状语改为表示过去确定时间的状语,如下面两例中的第二种正确表达方式。

(3)用句型"It is+段时间+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第三种正确表达方式。

(4)用句型"时间+has passed+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第四种正确表达方式。

3.终止性动词可用于现在完成时否定式中,成为可以延续的状态,因而可与表示一段时间的状语连用。如: He hasn't left here since 1986. I haven't heard from my father for two weeks.

4.终止性动词的否定式与until/till连用,构成"not+终止性动词+until/till ..."的句型,意为"直到......才......"。如:You can't leave here until I arrive.直到我到了,你才能离开这里。 I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight.

今天晚上直到我画完画,我才上床睡觉。

5.终止性动词可以用于when引导的时间状语从句中,但不可以用于while引导的时间状语从句中。when表示的时间是"点时间"(从句谓语动词用终止性动词),也可以是"段时间"(从句谓语动词用延续性动词)。而while表示的是一个较长的时间或过程,从句谓语动词用延续性动词。如:When we reached London, it was twelve o'clock. (reach为终止性动词)

Please look after my daughter while/when we are away. (be away为延续性动词短语)

6.终止性动词完成时不可与how long连用(只限于肯定式)。如:

误:How long have you come here? 正:How long have you been here?

正:When did you come here?

二、现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

1. 一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作。说话的侧重点只在于陈述一件过去的事情,不强调对"现在"产生的影响。如:

He visited Guilin in 1998.他1998年参观过桂林。(只说明去桂林的时间)

2. 现在完成时表示动作发生在过去,对现在造成了影响或产生了结果。不与确定的过去时间状语连用。如:

Jill has bought a new computer.吉尔买了一台新电脑。(着重点是现在有了一台新电脑)

3. 两种时态的区分

(1)一般过去时的谓语动词用过去式,而现在完成时的谓语基本构成是"助动词have /has +过去分词"。如:The film started at 7 o'clock. He has been a teacher for many years.

(2)一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last week, two years ago, just now, in 2002等;而现在完成时则常与just, already, ever, never等副词和these days, this week, since..., for...等表示一段时间的状语连用。

看看以下的几组句子,有什么区别?① Have you seen the film?(A) Did you see the film?(B)

[说明] 你看过这部电影吗?(A)句强调的是被问者对剧情是否了解;(B)句强调的是看这部电影的动作是否发生过,并不强调是否知道其内容。

② How has he done it?(A) How did he do it?(B)

[说明]他是怎么做的这件事?(A)句强调的是他做这件事的方式对现在产生了某种影响;

(B)句单纯的询问做这件事的方式。

③ He has lived in Beijing for 8 years.(A) He lived in Beijing for 8 years.(B)

[说明]他在北京住了8年。(A)句讲的是到目前为止他在北京住了8年,可能还会继续在北京住下去。(B)句讲的是他在北京住过8年,现在不在北京了。

三、现在完成时考点例析

现在完成时是较难掌握、中考考查较多的时态。涉及的考点有:

一、考查其构成

"助动词have (has) +动词过去分词"构成现在完成时。如:

1. Kate's never seen Chinese films,____ ? A. hasn't she B. has she C. isn't she D. is she 析:陈述句部分含否定词never,简略问句部分要用肯定式,又因Kate's是Kate has的缩写,故选B。

2. His uncle has already posted the photos to him. (改为否定句)

His uncle ______ posted the photos to him ______.

析:already常用在肯定句中,yet常用在否定句、疑问句中,故填hasn't, yet。

3. -Ann has gone to Shanghai. -So ______her parents. A. has B. had C. did D. have

析:"so+助/系/情态动词+主语"结构中的动词形式应与前句结构中动词形式保持一致,又后句的主语为her parents是复数,故选D。

二、考查其用法与标志词

(一)当句中有never, ever, just, already, yet, before等时,常用现在完成时。如:

1. -Mum, may I go out and play basketball? -______you______ your homework yet?

A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finish D. Have; finished

2. -______ you ______anywhere before? -Yes, but I can't remember where I______

A. Did; surf; surfed B. Have; surfed; surfed

C. Did; surf; have surfed D. Have; surfed; have surfed

析:据yet和before可知,应用现在完成时,故1题选D,2题选D。

(二)当句中有"for +段时间"或"since +点时间"等时,主句常用现在完成时,谓语动词必须是延续性动词,若是非延续性动词,要改为延续性动词或表状态的词(短语)。如:

1. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice______he came to Yunnan.

A. after B. before C. since D. for

析:主句用的是现在完成时,而从句用的是一般过去时,故选C。

2. Tom______the CD player for two weeks.

A. has lent B. has borrowed C. has bought D. has had

析:A、B、C均为非延续性动词,在肯定句中不与表"段时间"的短语连用,故选D。

3. I______a letter from him since he left.

A. didn't receive B. haven't got C. didn't have D. haven't heard

析:据since可知,应排除A、C,"hear from sb.=receive/get/have a letter from sb."意为"收到某人的来信",故选B。

三、考查have/has been (to, in)/have/has gone (to)的区别。如:

1. -Have you ever______Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors? -Yes, I have.

A. went to B. gone to C. been in D. been to

析:据句中的have,排除A,B项意为"去某地了",C项意为"一直呆在某地",D项意为"去过某地",符合题意,故选D。

2. My parents ______ Shangdong for ten years.

A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

析:本题句中有"for+段时间"结构,据此可排除C,B项意为"去过某地",不合题意,D项缺介词,故选A。

四、考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别。如:

1. Sun's aunt has gone there for ten years.(改成正确的句子)

析:非延续性动词与"段时间"连用时,除了把非延续性动词改成延续性动词外,还可把动词改为一般过去时或借助句型"It's +段时间+since+从句"进行句子转换。故答案为:Sun's aunt has been there for ten years. /Sun's aunt went there ten years ago. /It's ten years since Sun's aunt went there.

2. Susan has been in this city for more than ten years.(改为同义句)

________more than ten years ____Susan ______to this city.

析:据上题分析,且since引导的从句要用一般过去时,故填It is, since, came。

3. I won't go to the concert because I ____my ticket.

A. lost B. don't lose C. have lost D. is coming

析:因我丢了票的动作发生在过去,而且对现在造成了我不能参加音乐会的结果,符合现在完成时所表示的含意,故选C。

(UNIT2)过去进行时

(注意when while as引导的时间状语从句。)

(UNIT3)被动语态复习"三步曲"

被动语态是动词语态的一种形式,表示主语是动作的承受者。在历年的中考题中,都有一定数量的考查被动语态的题目。因此,有必要对被动语态进行系统复习。

第一曲:掌握被动语态的结构

被动语态由"助动词+及物动词的过去分词"构成。不同时态的被动语态的差异主要体现在助动词be的变化上,同时助动词be还要在人称和数上与主语保持一致。现将初中阶段常见的几种时态的被动语态总结如下:

1.一般现在时的被动语态:am/is/are+done(指及物动词的过去分词,下同)如:

English is used all over the world.

2.一般过去时的被动语态:was/were+done如: The picture was painted two years ago.

3.现在进行时的被动语态:am/is/are+being+done如: The flowers are being watered by them now.

4.现在完成时的被动语态:have(has)+been+done如:The room has been cleaned.

5.一般将来时的被动语态:will/be going to+be+done如: The work will be finished tomorrow.

6.含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be+done如:Your homework must be handed in today. 其它几种特殊句型:

It is said that ........ It is well known that ....... It is reported that........ have sth done

第二曲:掌握主动语态变被动语态的方法

把主动语态变为被动语态时,应走好以下三步:1)主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语; 2)主动语态的谓语动词由主动语态形式变为被动语态形式; 3)主动结构的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语,放在被动结构的谓语动词之后。在无须说明动作的执行者或只强调动作的承受者时,by短语可以省略。请看示范: 主动语态:My brother repaired that bike yesterday.

主语 谓语动词 宾语其余部分

被动语态:That bike was repaired (by my brother) yesterday.

主语 谓语动词 by+宾语其余部分

对于主动语态变为被动语态方法的考查,主要在句型转换题目中出现。只要能够按照上面介绍的方法去做,一般是能够做对的。

第三曲:注意主动语态变为被动语态的几种特殊句型

1.含有短语动词的被动语态

一般来说,只有及物动词才有被动语态。另外,许多不及物动词加上介词或副词构成的短语动词,相当于及物动词,后面也可加宾语。在变被动语态时,注意不可丢掉后面的介词或副词,常见的这类短语动词有:take care of, look after, take off, look at, send for, look up等。如:

The old people should be taken good care of.

2.含有双宾语的动词的被动语态

含有双宾语的主动句改为被动句时,应将其中一个宾语改为被动结构的主语,另一个宾语仍保留在原处。一种情况是把间接宾语(指人)变为主语,直接宾语(指物)不变。另一种情况是把直接宾语(指物)变为主语,间接宾语(指人)不变,这时,间接宾语前通常加介词to,有时加for。如:

My father gave me a new book on my birthday.→

I was given a new book (by my father) on my birthday. (间接宾语作了主语)

A new book was given to me (by my father) on my birthday. (直接宾语作了主语)

3.带有复合宾语的动词的被动语态

带有复合宾语(宾语和宾语补足语)的主动语态变为被动语态时,只把宾语变为被动语态的主语,原来的宾语补足语不动。同时,如果宾语补足语是省略to的动词不定式,变为被动语态时,必须加上不定式符号to,这类动词有make, let, see, hear, watch等。如:

We find English very useful.→ English is found very useful.

宾语 宾补

I often hear him sing in his room.→ He is often heard to sing in his room.

宾语 宾补

4.有的动词的主动形式可以表示被动意义,这类动词有: wash, sell, smell, taste, sound, feel等。如:

The books sell well. The food tastes good.

以上四种情况在中考题目中经常出现,同学们在碰到类似题目时,应首先分析属于哪种情况,然后再根据掌握的知识来做题。

二、被动语态考点归纳

1. 主动语态改为被动语态时,被动语态应和主动语态的时态保持一致。如:

We speak English . (改为被动语态) English ________ _______ by us.

[分析]此句主动语态为一般现在时态,被动语态也应用一般现在时态,因此,答案应是is spoken。

2. 注意被动语态的谓语结构。

一般现在时是:am / is / are + p.p ;一般过去时是:was / were + p.p ;现在完成时是:have / has / been + p.p;现在进行时是:am / is / are / + being + p.p;含有情态动词的是:情态动词+be + p.p。 有诗曰:被动语态须注意,谓语不离"be""p.p"。主谓一致别忘记,"进行"易丢一个"be"。

(注:p.p过去分词)。如:

We must take good care of our eyes. (改为被动语态) Our eyes must ____ _______ good care of. [分析]此句中含有情态动词must,那么,我们根据"情态动词+be+p.p."的公式可知,答案应是be taken。

3. 注意句中主谓语的一致关系。如:

Tea ______ (grow)in southeast of China and India.

[分析]此句中主语tea是不可数名词,作主语时谓语动词应用单数形式。而此句说明的又是一自然现象,因此就应用一般现在时态。所以,答案应是is grown。

4. 注意复合宾语的变化。如:

They couldn"t make the cow go. (改为被动语态)

[分析]the cow go 在句中作make的复合宾语。一般情况下,变为被动语态后,宾语补足语的结构形式、所处位置原封不动地保存下来,但make / have / let / see / watch / hear 等后原可省的to要还原回来。显然,此句中,the cow go 中省去的to应还原回来,因此答案应是The cow couldn"t be made to go.

5. 注意双宾语的变化。如:

Mr Smith showed the students two pictures yesterday . (改为被动语态)

Two pictures _____ ______ _____ the students by Mr Smith.

[分析]变为被动语态时,双宾语中的任何一个皆可变为主语,一般变直接宾语,但间接宾语前必须加上介词to或for。此句中显然是把直接宾语变为被动语态的主语,那么,间接宾语前须加上介词to,所以答案应是were shown to。

6. 注意短语动词中的"小词"。如:

The old men and the children ____ in our country.

A. must take good care B. must be taken good care

C. must be taken good care of D. must take good care of

[分析]短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,应当做一个词来看待,变成被动语态后,"小词"不能丢弃。因此,此题答案应是C。

(UNIT5)直接引语变间接引语

一、句式的变化

1.陈述句变为以that引导的宾语从句。〔that在口语中常省略〕

She said,"Our train will arrive in five minutes."

She said (that) their train would arrive in five minutes.

He said,"I'm very busy." He said (that) he was very busy.

2. 一般疑问句变成if/whether引导的宾语从句。

He said,"Can you swim,John?" He asked John if he could swim.

The teacher said,"Have you all understood me?" The teacher asked if we had all understood him. If/whether的用法主要区别点:

a. whether可与or (not)连用I don't know whether he will come or not.

b.与介词连用:We are talking about whether he will win.

c.与不定式连用:I can't decide whether to go with you.

3. 特殊疑问句变为由who/what/when等疑问词引导的宾语从句。

George said,"When will you get back from Shanghai,Mike?"

George asked Mike when he would get back from Shanghai

He said,"Where are you going?" He asked where I was going.

4. 祈使句变为动词不定式。〔表示命令时常用tell;表示请求时常用ask。Don't变为not〕

The teacher said to the boy,"Open the window ." The teacher told the boy to open the window. His father said to him,"Don't leave the door open." His father told him not to leave the door open.

5 .反意疑问句,变为由if/whether引导的宾语从句。

She asked me,"You have seen the film, haven't you?" She asked me if/whether I had seen the film.

6. 选择问句,变为whether...or...

I asked him,"Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"

I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.

7. 直接引语是感叹句时,变间接引语时可用what或how引导,有时也可用that引导。

She said,"What a lovely day it is!" She said what a lovely day it was.

She said that it was a lovely day.

二、时态的变化

附:时态不变的几种情况:

1. 如主句谓语动词为一般现在时或一般将来时,则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语的原来时态。 He says,"I'm very busy today." He says (that) he is very busy today.

He will say,"I have watered the flowers." He will say (that)he has watered the flowers.

2. 直接引语如果是客观真理,事实,格言等内容时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

例:He said: "Light travels much faster than sound." 他说:"光传播的速度要比声音快得多。" He said that light travels much faster than sound

3. 直接引语是书信、新闻报道等相关内容时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

4. 直接引语说的是一个人习惯的动作时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

5. 转述正在进行的对话时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

6. 直接引语有具体的表示过去的时间时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

7. when 和 since 引导的时间状语从句时,变间接引语时,时态不变。

否则:如主句谓语动词为过去时,则间接引语中的动词应由现在时变为过去时

一般现在时→一般过去时 一般将来时→过去将来时

现在进行时→过去进行时 一般过去时→过去完成时

现在完成时→过去完成时

三、时间状语的变化

now →then last month→the month before toight→that night today→that day

three days ago → three days before tomorrow→ the next day this week→that week

next month→the next month yesterday→the day before the day after tomorrow→in two days 例:She said, "I went there yesterday." 她说,"我昨天去那儿了。"

She said that she had gone there the day before. 她说她前一天去那儿了。

四、人称的变化

直接引语变为间接引语相当于把直接引语变为宾语从句。因此直接引语的人称要做相应的变化。 ①直接引语的主语为第一人称时,变为间接引语要和主句的主语保持一致。

He said: "I will go to Beijing tomorrow." He said that he would go to Beijing the next day. ②直接引语的主语为第二人称时,要和主句的宾语保持一致。

例:He said to me: "You will leave tomorrow." He told me that I would leave the next day. ③直接引语是第三人称为主语时,变间接引语时不变。

例:He said to me: "My sister will leave tomorrow." He told me that his sister would leave tomorrow. He said to us: "They want to come." He told us that they wanted to go.

五、其它变化

指示代词的变化 this→that these→those

She said: "I will come this morning."她说,"我今天上午来。"

She said that she would go that morning. 她说她那天上午去。

地点状语的变化 here→there

He said, "My sister was here three days ago.他说:"我姐姐三天前在这儿。"

He said that his sister had been there three days before. 他说他姐姐三天前去那儿。

谓语动词的变化 come →go

She said, "I will come here tomorrow." 她说,"我明天来这。"

She said that she would go there the next day. 她说她第二天去那儿。

中考宾语从句常见错误例析

宾语从句是中考的考点,也是英语学习中的难点。现将宾语从句的常见错误作一归纳、分析。

一、连接词的错误例1:He asked ___ there was a bookshop in the street? A. that B. what C. how D. whether

错解:A剖析:ask 表明了宾语部分含有询问意思。而that不能引导疑问语气的句子。引导一般疑问句通常用whether或if。 正解:D

例2:Tell me ___ you will go with us or stay at home. A. if B. whether C. that D. how 错解:A剖析:在引导宾语从句时,if和whether通常可以互换。但有些情况是不能互换的。如果从句中提出了两种选择,或从句中有or not结构的时候,只能用whether。正解:B

二、语序的错误例1:He wanted to know ___.

A. when would the holiday begin B. that he had come back from Beijing

C. which one did I like best D. how he could get to the station

错解:A或C剖析:宾语从句的从句部分必须用陈述句语序,而A、C为疑问句语序。正解:D例2:I wonder ___. A. who broke the window B. who the window broke

C. whose coat is this D. what is the population of China 错解:B、C或D剖析:C、D都是疑问句语序,此处需使用陈述句语序。B貌似陈述句语序,但实际上连接词who同时是从句的主语,而the window则应是broke的宾语。正解:A

例3:I don't know ___.

A. which room I can live B. which room can I live

C. which room I can live in D. which room can I live in

错解:A剖析:如果连接词在宾语从句中充当不及物动词后介词的宾语,并被放到从句句首时,不及物动词后面的介词不能少。正解:C

三、时态运用的错误例1:Long long ago, people didn't know the earth ___ round the sun.

A. moving B. moved C. moves D. went

错解:B或D剖析:在学习宾语从句时,我们知道有一个规则:就是一般情况下主从句的时态要考虑"一致性"原则。但当宾语从句表示的是科学真理、格言、客观事实或其他不受时间限制、影响,客观存在的事物时,宾语从句的动词时态不受主句时态的限制,仍可用一般现在时。正解:C

例2:Could you tell me ___? A. when he will come back B. when will he come back

C. when would he come back D. when he would come back

错解:D剖析:Could在这里不表示过去时态,而是表示语气的委婉,是客气的请求。正解:A

以上例析,基本涵盖了中考宾语从句的不同考点,希望它能给你的学习带来些许帮助。

(UNIT6)It 句型归纳:

1.It+is/was+形容词+(for/of sb.)+动词不定式短语。

对于这个句型中究竟用 for还是用of,一般遵循这样的规则:如果形容词仅仅是描述事物的形容词,如:difficult, easy,hard,important,dangerous等用for;如果形容词是描述不定式行为者的性格、品质的,如:kind,good,nice,clever等则用of。如:

It is interesting to play with snow in winter.冬季里玩雪是很有趣的。

It's important for us to keep the water clean.保持水质清洁对我们来说是很重要的。

It's very kind of you to say so.你这样说真是太好了。

注意:这一句式中的形容词位置也可换用名词;连系动词be也可换用其它连系动词,如feel等。如: It's a good habit to get up early and go to bed early.早睡早起是好习惯。

It must be great fun to fly to the moon in a spaceship.乘宇宙飞船飞往月球一定很有趣。

It feels strange to have a twin sister.有个孪生姐妹感觉很奇怪。

2. It+is/was+形容词+从句。如:

It is certain that he will come.他一定会来。

It's true that he may fall behind the other students.他真的可能落后于其他同学。

It is strange that he should say so.他居然这么说,真是奇怪。

3. It +is /was +one's turn(duty,pleasure) +to do sth.意为"该轮到某人做某事(做某事是某人的责任、愉悦的事)"。如: It's your turn to be on duty tomorrow.明天轮到你值日了。

4. It takes(sb.)some time to do sth.意为"(某人)花......时间做某事"。如:

It took me a week to finish reading the book.我花了一周时间看完这本书。

5.It +cost/costs +sb.+some money +to do sth.译为"某人花多少钱做某事"。如: It cost me 260 yuan to buy the new watch.我买这块新手表花了260元。

6.It seems /seemed +从句。译为"看起来好像......",此结构可以转换成"seem +动词不定式"形式。如: It seems that he is ill.=He seems to be ill.看起来他好像病了。

7. 主语+谓语+it+宾语补足语+动词不定式/动名词/从句。

该句型中宾语补足语可由形容词、名词等充当。如:

He found it not easy to learn a foreign language well.他发现学好一门外语是不容易的。 We think it no good reading in bed.我们认为躺在床上看书无益处。

I think it necessary that we have the meeting.我认为开这个会是必要的。

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