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语法点七

发布时间:2014-05-30 14:46:27  

动词开头无非三种:不定式、-ing分词或-ed分词

1. 如果选择三个中的一个,首先要动词前加in order to, 如果句意正确,这个动词就是以不定式开头。

2. 加in order to不正确,就是-ing分词或者-ed分词。

3. 如果主语是动作的执行者,用-ing分词。

如果主语是动作的接受者(对象),用-ed分词。

4. 用简单式或完成时,如果是两个动作同时发生或者几乎同时发生,用简单式。

5. 如果分句的动作在主句的动作之前已经完成,用完成时。 doing / being done / having been done做状语时,无较大区别。 做后置定语时,要慎重,有很大的区别。

Regret

接-ing分词表示对做过或发生过的事而感到遗憾、懊悔等意思,接不定式仅限于几个动词:I / We regret to say, I/We regret to tell you, I / We regret to inform you等,指遗憾/抱歉地告诉你/通知你,用于告知坏消息。

We’ve always regretted selling the farm.

I regret (his) ever having raised the matter.

I don’t regret leaving/ having left town.

We regret to inform you that you are dismissed next week.

I regret to say the job has been filled.

I regret to tell you that John stole my watch.

Try 接-ing分词指“试一试做某事,看看会发生什么情况或结果”;接不定式指“尽力或设法做某(困难)事”

Let’s try to do the work well.

Let’s try doing the work some other day.

I tried to send him information but failed.

I tried sending him information but it didn’t have any effect.

He tried to stand on his head but couldn’t.

He tried standing on his head but it gave me a headache.

-ing 分词和-ed 分词

1. –ing分词:主动

-ed分词:被动

The student singing are from the First Middle School.

The student questioned are from the First Middle School.

例外:有时-ed分词(多为不及物动词)含有主动的意思,表示已完成的动作。

a retired teacher/ engineer/ driver

a fallen tree/ house

2. –ing分词:正在进行的动作

-ed分词:已经完成的动作

a developing country

a developed country

boiling water

boiled water

the rising sun

the risen sun

-ing 分词的行为动作已经完成,传统语法要求用完成式(having done)。而现代英语倾向用分词一般式代替完成式,

He denied having broken/ breaking the window.

Don’t mention having seen/ seeing me there.

I admitted having made / making the mistake.

但是,-ing分词时状动词,用完成式或一般式意思不相等。 I admitted/ denied having known him.

不等于:I admitted/ denied knowing him.

有些动词通常只接-ing分词一般式而不用完成式,指业已完成的动作。

I’ve enjoyed seeing you and talking about old times.

I’ve finished typing the document last night.

-ing分词被动式(being done/ having been done)和-ed分词

1). 两者都可以做时间或原因的状语,相当于一个表示时间或原因的状语分句。语义上没有明显的区别。

Hit by a bullet

Being hit by a bullet(少用)

Having been hit by a bullet

When he was hit by a bullet

-------, the prisoner fell down.

Written

Being written

Having been written

As/ Since/ Because it was written

-------in simple English, the book was recommended to all.

2) 在独立结构中,用-ing分词被动式和-ed分词在语义上也无明显的差别,都可以用表示时间或原因的状语分句代替。

The work done

The work being done (少用)

The work having been done

When / After the work was / had been done

------, we went home.

3) –ing分词被动式和-ed分词都可以做后置定语,但是所表达的意思有很大的差别。

The question discussed (=which / that has been discussed) is very important. (讨论过的问题)

The question being discussed (=which/ that is being discussed) is very important. (正在讨论的问题)

The question to be discussed (= which/ that will be/ is to be discussed) is very important. (将要讨论的问题)

-ing分词完成被动式通常不能作后置定语。但可以用不定式完成被动式。

4)-ing分词被动式和-ed分词都可以作宾语补足语,语义的差别与作后置定语时的差别相同。

We saw the house built. (建好)

We saw the house being built. (还在建)

I heard the song sung in English. (用英语唱)

I heard the song being sung in English. (正在用英语唱)

5)-ing分词的被动式可以作主语、宾语或介词宾语,而-ed分词不能这样用。

Being attacked by the enemy is not a bad thing.

(*Attacked)

I remember being asked / having been asked /*asked to go to the party.

He came here without being invited / *invited.

The problem is far from being solved/ *solved.

-ing分词完成被动式和一般被动式都可以做及物动词的宾语,但作介词宾语时,通常用分词被动式。

He did it without being asked /? Having been asked/ *asked.

After being instructed/ ? having been instructed/ *instructed he began to drive.

6) –ed分词可以作前置定语,而-ing分词的被动式不能这样用。

A much discussed / *being discussed question (经常讨论的问题)

A written letter

The broken window

7) –ing 分词的主动式或被动式都有否定结构,否定词not都要位于主动或被动结构之前。

Not having seen her before, I didn’t talk to her.

*Having not seen her before,

如果否定词是never,应位于having之后,但有时也位于having之前。 Having never seen/ Never having seen her before, I didn’t talk to her. I remember having never been/ having been never told when to start.

独立(主格)结构

1. –ing分词/-ed分词做状语时,它的逻辑主语和句子的主语是一致的:句子的主语是-ing分词动作的执行者,或是-ed分词动作的对象(承受者).

Living in the countryside, I learned a lot.

=When I was living / lived in the countryside,

Having done this job, we went home.

=After/ When we did/ had done the job,

(Being) heated to 100℃, water boils.

=If/ When water is heated to 100℃, it boils.

如果分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,均属病句。

Reading the newspaper, the dog barked at the postman.

Standing on the hill, the whole city can be viewed.

Written in English, I sent the letter by air mail.

上面的句子之所以错,是因为句子的主语不可能是-ing分词的动作执行者或是-ed分词的动作对象。

Reading the newspaper, I heard the dog barking at the postman. Standing on the hill, we can view the whole city.

Written in English, the letter was sent by air mail.

2.Having explained the text, the teacher began to ask more questions. (=when/ after he (had) explained the text,)

The teacher having explained the text, the students began to discuss. (=When/ After the teacher (had) explained the text,) Being my friend, he helps me. (=Because he is my friend, he helps me.) He being my friend, I help him. (=Because he is my friend, I help him.) 以上这种-ing分词或-ed分词前直接带逻辑主语的结构叫做独立结构(absolute construction)

1)独立结构不是一个句子,而是独立存在的句子成分。主要做状语用,表示时间、条件、或原因,可以转换成相应的状语分句。独立结构正常位于句首并加一逗号与主句隔开。

He being honest, we all respect him. (=Because / As he is honest, …) The job (being) done/ having been done, we went home. (=When/ After the job was/ had been done)

All being well, he won’t do it again. (=If all is well )

Weather permitting, we’ll go out.

(=If the weather permits, we’ll go out.)

It being Sunday, the library is close.

(The library is close because it’s Sunday.)

The inspection now over, the soldiers were ordered to return to their barracks.

Christmas then only days away, the family was pent up with excitement.

The road (being) wet and slippery, we had to drive carefully.

主要有:

名词(词组)/代词 + -ing分词/-ed分词

名词(词组)+ 介词短语

名词(词组)+ 形容词

名词(词组)+ 副词小品词

2) 独立结构中用分词完成式,表明动作在谓语动词之前已完成。 The rain having (at last) stopped, we went for a walk.

The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.

The report having been read, we began to discuss heatedly.

3)独立结构的逻辑主语是分词动作的对象/承受者,均可用-ed分词或-ing分词被动式。

Lunch (being) finished/ having been finished, we retired to the lounge. The questions (being) settle / having been settled, they went home.

4) 独立结构的逻辑主语也可以是人称代词,但要用主格形式,所以又称为独立主格结构。(absolute nominative construction) He being my friend, I must help him.

They having finished the work, there’s nothing for us to do.

She having been taken care of, we could go on.

5)独立结构除了表示时间、原因、条件外,还可以表示方式或者伴随情况。这样的独立结构通常位于句末,并加一逗号与主句隔开,相

当于并列结构。

She stopped talking, her eyes never leaving my face.

She stopped talking, and her eyes never left my face.

He sat quiet, his mind working.

He sat quiet, but his mind was working.

The old man lay on the bed, his face covered with sweat.

(…, and his face was covered with sweat.)

The teacher came in, book in hand.

Father wad lying on the bed, (his) eyes closed.

6) there be句型也可以用于独立结构。

There being no bus, we had to walk home.

There having been little rain for a long time, the crops aren’t growing well.

7) 独立结构前通常不用任何从属连词连接,但可以加介词with或without。带with/without 的结构位于句首时,通常加一逗号与主句隔开; 位于句末时,逗号可用可不用。

He left, (with) gun in hand.

He left and carried the gun in his hand.

(With) Lousie living in London, we don’t see her often.

Because Lousie lives in London, …

I couldn’t sleep with my front door not locked.

I couldn’t sleep if my front door was not locked.

Without permission given or asked for, he brought me a large parcel. He left without a singe word spoken.

Without his shoes on, he slipped on the polished floor.

8) 除了一些固定结构外,独立结构只用在正式文体中,口语里并不常见。

all told (合计,总共)

God willing (上帝允许的话;假如情况许可)

Present company excepted (在座的诸位除外)

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