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第五次讲 冠词

发布时间:2013-09-28 11:38:57  

初中英语语法讲解——冠词

一、冠词的概念

冠词是一个虚词,它置于名词之前,限定名词的意义.冠词可分为定冠词,不定冠词和零冠词三类.

二、不定冠词:a/an

1.a用于辅音发音开头的词前,而不是辅音字母前面, 如:a book, a desk; 有些单词虽然是以元音字母开头,但需用a修饰,这些单词可以连成一句话:In a university, a European united a one-eyed man to steal a useful thing, then ran away along a one-way road. This is a usual thing.在一所大学里,一个欧洲人联合独眼龙偷了一件有用的东西,然后沿着一条单行道逃跑了。这是一件平常的事。

2.an用于元音发音开头的词前,而不是元音字母前,如:an apple, an hour. 有些单词虽然是以辅音字母开头,但发音却是以元音开头,这些单词可以连成一句话:An hour ago, an honest man accepted an honorable task.一个小时以前,一个诚实人接受了一项光荣的任务。

a/an的用法:

1. a/an 用于单数可数名词前,表示“某一”“一…”或者“一个”的意思. a book a boy a man a bird a dog an hour

an interesting book a big dog a dangerous animal

2.表示类别:这种用法是指某人或某物属于某一种类,或者指某一种类的人或物中的任何一个或一件,或者指某一种类的人或物,但不具体说明是何人或何物。 例如:

That is a pen, not a pencil. 那是钢笔而不是铅笔。(指属于某一种类) Give him a pear, please! 请给他一个梨。(指某一种类中的任何一个) An elephant is bigger than a horse. 大象比马大。

和 one 的区别: a/an 表示类别种类,而one强调数量

a bus (表示是一辆公交车 而不是一辆小汽车 也不是火车)

one bus (强调是一辆车 而不是两辆或三辆)

There is a cat under the chair. 椅子下面有一只猫。(强调种类)

There is one cat under the chair.椅子下边有一只猫。(强调数量)

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3.用来指某人或某物,但有不具体说明是谁或是什么,如:

A comrade from Shanghai is coming to give us a talk this afternoon.

一位来自上海的同志今天下午将给我们作报告。

My mother once worked in a school. 我母亲曾在一所学校工作。

4. 表示基本单位,作“每一”讲。例如:

three times a day 10 yuan a kilo

six class a day thirty miles an hour等。

5.不定冠词a/an可用在一种职业,阶级或宗教的名称前。如:

What’s your father? He’s a doctor. 你父亲是什么职业?他是名医生。

Mr Black is now a Christian.布莱克先生现在是名基督教徒。

6.用在序数词前表示“再一”,“又一”,如:

You can try it a second time if you fail.如果你失败了,你可以再试一次。

7.与专有名词连用表示“某一个”,“一个叫......的人”,如:

A John is waiting for you at the gate.一个叫约翰的人在门口等你。

8.用于说明事物同一性质、特征、程度或大小,表示“相同”,相当于the same.

如:They are all of a size.他们大小都一样。

9.和形容词最高级连用,修饰名词,表示“非常”,如:

It is a most funny story.那是一个非常滑稽的故事。

10.用于视为一体的两个名词之前,意为“一副、套、只”,如:

a knife and fork一副刀叉 a table and chair一套桌椅

a watch and chain一只带表链的表 a bow and arrow一副弓箭

11.固定短语:

once upon a time 从前 take a look 看一看 catch a cold 感冒 a little 一点点 a few 一点儿 have a rest 休息

三、定冠词the的用法:

1.the 表示特指。表示名词所指的人或事物是同类中的特定的一个,以别

于同类中其他的人或事物,相当于汉语中的“那个”或“这个”的意思。

the book in my bag the boy under the tree

the apples in the basket the hospital near my home

2.可以和单、复数名词,也可以和不可数的名词连用。

the books the book the rice the bread the football

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the old man the interesting book the teachers the women

3.用法:

1). 定冠词的最基本的用法是“特指”:表示某个或某些特定的人或物。

Do you know the girl in a red skirt? 你认识那个穿红裙子的女孩吗? Beijing is the capital of China. 北京是中国的首都。

2). 再次提到上文提到过的人或物,应该用定冠词the。例如:

Tom has an apple, The apple is big and red.

There is a boy under the tree.The boy is my brother.

3). 指谈话双方都知道的人或物。例如:

Let’s go and give it to the teacher.咱们去把它交给老师吧。

Open the door,please!请打开门。

4). 用于某些固定词组中。 例如:

in the morning / afternoon / evening 等。

5). 用在形容词前表示一类人。

the old 老人 the young年轻人 the rich富裕的人

the poor_________ the deaf __________ the blind____________

6). 用在表示“姓”的复数名词前,表示一家人或夫妇二人。 例如:

The Whites are spending their holiday in England.

The Greens came to China two years ago .

7). 用在由普通名词构成的表示场所的专有名词前。

the Great Wall 长城 the Summer Place颐和园

the United States 美国 the October Revolution 十月革命 the Chinese People’s Liberation Army 中国人民解放军

the Long March 长征

8).用在序数词或形容词最高级前

The first thing I want to say is to listen carefully in class.

He is the tallest one in our class.

9).世界上独一无二的事物等(月亮、地球、天空、宇宙)

the globe太阳系 the universe 宇宙 the atmosphere大气层

The sun rises in the east.

The earth goes round the sun.

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10).在世纪,年代名词前用冠词。

in the 1980s 或 in the 1980’s 20世纪80年代

in the nineteenth century 二十世纪

11).在江河、山脉、湖泊、海洋、群岛、海峡、海湾运河前用the。

the Changjang River 长江

the West Lake 西湖 the Pacific Ocean 太平洋

12).在表示方位的词前,如:

The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west. 太阳从东边升起,从西边落下 Jiangxi lies in the south of China. 江西位于中国的南方。

13)在乐器名称前常用定冠词,如:

He often plays the piano at five in the afternoon. 他常在下午五点弹钢琴。 Can you play the violin? 你会拉小提琴吗?

14)用于表示计量的名词前,如by the....“以...计算”,如:

by the dozen按打计算 by the hour按小时计算

区别:by weight按重量计算 by dozens按打计算

by volume按体积计算 by hundreds数以百计,很多

15)用在报刊、杂志、条约、历史、事件、时期、朝代等前面,如: the New York Times纽约时报 the Middle Ages中世纪

16)固定短语:

in the morning 在早上 the day after tomorrow 后天 the next day 第二天 by the way 顺便

【对比】有the 和没有the 意义不同的词组:

at table 在吃饭 at the table 在桌子旁 at school 上学 at the school 在学校 go to bed 上床睡觉 go to the bed 朝床边走去

in hospital/prison 住院(坐牢) in the hospital/prison在医院/在监狱

in future 今后 in the future将来 take place发生 take the place取代 in office执政 in the office 在办公室

go to church/college/hospital/prison/school做礼拜、上大学、住院坐牢、上学 go to the church//college/hospital/prison/school 到教堂去、到大学去、到医院去、

到监狱去、到学校去

四、零冠词:

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所谓零冠词,即指不使用冠词的情况:

用法:

1)在物质名词,抽象名词前不用冠词,如:

The desk is made of wood. What is work? Work is struggle

2)专有名词前通常不用定冠词,如:

England, China Mary Lilei Mr.Green

3) 在星期、月份,季节,节日等名词前,如:

We have four seasons- spring, summer, autumn and winter一年有四季:春夏秋冬 We often go to sea a film on Sunday. 我们经常周日去看电影。

Tomorrow is National Day. 明天是国庆节。

4)名词前有物主代词,指示代词,不定代词,名词所有格修饰时(this, my,that, those, these, her),如:

this morning my pen your watch whose bike

5) 在球类运动、一日三餐、学科和语言的名词前,如:

have breakfast play chess play basketball

(注意:在乐器前必须加定冠词 如弹钢琴play the piano,play the violin)

6)在独一无二的职位、头衔、称呼的名词前,如:

Mr. Smith, head of the group, will plan for the whole trip.

小组的组长史密斯先生,将全面制定这次旅行的计划。

Doctor, I am not feeling myself today.大夫,我今天感觉不太舒服。

7)man泛指人类时,前面不加冠词,如:

Man can save the earth, man can destroy the earth.

人类能够拯救地球,人类也能够毁灭地球。

Man can’t live without air and water.没有空气和水,人类不能生存。

8)名词在介词后不是抽象概念时,不用冠词,如:

He is still in hospital.他任在住院。

9)单数名词相对应使用时,不用冠词,如:

day by day天天 little by little渐渐地 step by step 逐渐地

all day and all night 整日整夜 from time o time时不时地 hand in hand 手拉手

10)as/though引导的让步状语从句中,如果前置的是名词,名词前不加冠词。

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如:Child as/though she is, she plays the violin perfectly.

尽管是个孩子,但她小提琴拉得很好。

11)有些一人兼多个身份的情况,只在第一个名词前加冠词,其他几个不再加冠词。如:A teacher and writer will come to visit our school next Monday.

下周一,一个老师兼作家要来参观我们学校。

12)系动词turn后如有名词,通常不加冠词,但名词前有形容词修饰时要加冠词。如:I hoped to become a pianist, but I turned teacher.

我本想成为一名钢琴家,可最终成了教师。

13)有些不可数名词前尽管有形容词修饰,也不能使用a/an,如:

Here is good news for you!报告你一个好消息。

What good advice you gave me!你提的建议多好啊!

14)固定短语:

by bus 乘坐公共汽车 after school 放学后 in bed 卧床

at first 首先 at noon在中午 on foot步行

take care of 照顾 in trouble 处在麻烦中 take part in 参加 pay attention to 注意 with pleasure 高兴地,乐意地 at dinner在吃饭

五、冠词的省略

冠词的省略主要指可用可不用冠词的情况。具体用法如下:

1、 文章标题、书名等前冠词的省略。

(文章的标题、新闻标题、广告语、书名、电报中,在不引起歧义的情况下,冠词课不用,从而使行文更加简明、快捷。)

如:History of China before Han Dynasty 《汉朝以前史》

2.部分并列或对称名词前冠词的省略

a.两个并列名词都有冠词在前面时,第二个名词前的冠词常可被省略。如: Is the baby a boy or (a) girl? 这个婴儿是男孩还是女孩啊?

b.在一些对称结构中,常可以讲冠词省略。如:

from (the) east to (the ) west 从东到西

from(the)morning to (the) night 从早到晚

3.序数词前定冠词的省略

a.日月表达中

March (the) eighth 8 3月8日

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b.并列使用两个序数词,后面序数词前的定冠词常省略。

the third and (the) forth lesson 第三课和第四课

4.一些固定短语中冠词的省略

take (an) interest in 对…..感兴趣 catch(a)cold 感冒

take (a) pride in 以…..为豪

练习题:

一、填空

1.There is _______ picture of _______ elephant on _______ wall.

2.This is _______ useful book.I've read it for _______ hour.

3. _______ elephant is much heavier than _______ horse.

4. _______ doctor told him to take _______ medicine three times

_______ day.

5.Let's go out for _______ walk.

6.It's too hot.Open _______ door,please.

7.There is _______ woman over there. _______ woman is Meimei's mother.

8. _______ sun rises in _______ east.

9. _______ Changjiang River is _______ longest river in _______ China.

10.Are you going to do it _______ second time?

11.Washington is _______ capital of _______ USA.

12. _______ Turners are living at the end of _______ Turner Street.

13.He joined the army in _______ spring of _______ 1995.

14. _______ old man is _______ teacher.He likes playing

_______ basketball after _______ supper.

15.After I had _______ quick breakfast,I hurried to school.

16.Are _______ sheep kept by _______ farmers for producing _______ wool and _______ meat?

17.They went to _______ People's Park,but we both went to

_______ People's Cinema yesterday.

18.I often watch _______ TV in _______ evening.

19. _______ day of _______ December 20,1999 is Monday.

20.What _______ important news!

二、选择填空

1.—How about_________ charity show? —I should say it was_______ success.

A. the; a B. the; / C. a; a D. a; /

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2. On _______sunny afternoon, my parents and I had a good time on the beach.

A. the B. an C. a D./

3.—Do you play ______piano in your free time?

—No, I likes sports. I often play _____soccer with my fiends.

A. /; the B. the; / C. the; the D. a; a

4.__Eric, what would like to be when you grow up?

---_____ actor like Jackie Chan.

A. The B. A C. An D./

5. Leaning _____country’s language is a better way of knowing _______culture behind it.

A. the; a B. a; the C./; the D. a; /

6. Mary has a bad cold. She has to stay in _____bed.

A. a B. / C. the D. an

7. __I just have _______cup of milk for_______ breakfast.

__That’s not enough.

A. a; a B. the; the C. the; / D./; the

8. There is ______800-meter-long road behind _____hospital.

A. an; an B. a; a C. an; the D. a; the

9. ___What about renting a bike?

___It will cost you $2_____hour or $4______day.

A. A; the B. an; a C. the; a D. an; an

10. It is not ______good idea to drive for hours without ________break.

A. a; a B. the; the C. a; the D. the; a

11.________ fine day! Let's go out to fly a kite.

A .What B. How C. How the D. What a

12. My brother studies in ______university.________university is very far from here.

A. an, The B. a, The C. the, A D .a,A

13.Bob is _____eleven-year-old boy, but he knows a lot about Chinese.

A. an B. a C. the D./

14.-- Will you get there by ______train?

—No, I'll take ____bus.

A. /, a B. a, the C. /,/ D. the, a

15. _______ Great Wall is _______ longest wall in the world.

A.A;a B.The;the C.A;the D.The;a

16. _______ new bridge has been built over _____Huangpu River.

A.The;a B.A;/ C.A;the D.An;the

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17. _______ woman over there is _______ popular teacher in our school.

A.A;an B.The;a C.The;the D.A;the

18.He used to be _______ teacher but later he turned _______ writer.

A.a;a B.a;the C./;a D.a;/

19.They made him _______ king.

A.a B.the C.an D./

20.Australia is _______ English-speaking country.

A.a B.an C.the D./

21.Beijing is _______ beautiful city.It's _______ capital of China.

A.a;a B.the;the C./;the D.a;the

22.Shanghai is in _______ east of China.

A./ B.an C.a D.the

23.I've been a student there for nearly two and _______ half years.

A.a B.an C.the D./

24.Bill is _______ English teacher.He likes playing _______ football.

A.a;the B.an;the C.a;/ D.an;/

25.The museum is quite far.It will take you half _______ hour to get there by _______ bus.

A.an;/ B.an;a C.a;/ D./;/

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