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发布时间:2014-06-15 13:51:59  

Practice 7:

Translate the following into Chinese:

Knowledge is conceptually integral to education, since whatever else is involved in the process of education there must be some form of engagement with knowledge. Values too are central in the same way since, on most definitions, education must involve the exposure of pupils to what is believed to be worthwhile, or what someone decides, for whatever reasons, they ought to be exposed to. Thus, while there are many facets to discussions of education and of curriculum, those which centre on the nature of knowledge and the problem of values must be central.

It is therefore, surprising to note how inadequate the educational debate has been in this area. Quite often this kind of issue is completely ignored. All those attempts at the ‘scientific’ study of education, for example, conducted mainly by psychologists, have been fundamentally and methodologically quite incapable of encompassing issues of this kind and thus have ignored them either implicitly or explicitly. They have made assumptions, tacit or open, concerning knowledge and values –what kinds of are valuable, for example, and thus ought to be included in any curricular provision –and concerning the relation of knowledge to education –that education is no more than the transmission of knowledge –assumptions which themselves should be part of the debate and which cannot and certainly should not be made so casually nor so readily in an area which is so highly problematic. Throughout the period when psychology dominated the scene in educational theory this was the picture. The concentration inevitably was on means: the ends were not debated, not only because they are beyond the scope of the discipline, but also because they were not seen as problematic. Sometimes they were discussed as ‘principles’, but in a manner usually lacking the kind of rigour, and even the kind of understanding, such discussion requires.

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