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初中英语句子成分及五种基本句型讲解与练习

发布时间:2014-06-20 14:09:16  

句子成分&五种基本句型

一、 考点、热点回顾

I.【句子的成分】

在英文中句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)、表语、定语和状语、宾语补足语等。

(一)主语:主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁”。一般由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词或短语来充当。它在句首。如:

(1)Lucy is a beautiful nurse. (名词作主语)

(2)He reads newspapers every day. (代词作主语)

(3)Smoking is harmful to the health. (动名词作主语)

(4)To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure.(不定式作主语)

(5)What we should do is not yet decided. (主语从句作主语)

(二)谓语

说明主语“做什么”“是什么”或“怎么样”。谓语

谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。它在主语后面。

如:His parents are teachers. (系动词作谓语)

We study hard. (行为动词作谓语)

We don’t finish reading the book. (助动词和行为动词一起作谓语)

He can speak English. (情态动词和行为动词一起作谓语)

(三)宾语

宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任,它和及物动词一起说明主语做什么。一般放在谓语之后。

She is doing her homework now.(名词作宾语)

She says(that)she is ill.(宾语从句作动词宾语)

We often help him.(代词作宾语)

He likes to play basketball.(不定式作宾语)

We enjoy listening to the music. 我们喜欢听音乐。(动名词短语作宾语) 说明1:宾语是及物动词涉及到的人或物,宾语一般放在及物动词之后。介词后面的名词或代词或动名词,称为介词宾语。名词、代词、数词常在句中做动词宾语或介词宾语。另外,动词不定式可作动词宾语;动名词和宾语从句也可用作动词宾语。 说明2:

如:give, show(给??看),

bring, pass, buy等。如:(1)Our teacher tells us a story.

(2)The sun gives us light.

give, show, send, bring, read, pass, lend, leave, hand, tell, return, write, throw, promise(答应), refuse(拒绝)等。

★间接宾语加“for”的有:

1

make, buy, do, get, play, order(命令), sing, pay等

(1)I give him a book. 改成: (2)He passes me the book.(他将书递给我。)改成:

(3)He writes me a letter. 改成:(4)He will buy me some books. 改成:

(5)She is making me a cake. 改成:

(四)宾语补足语

在宾语后面宾语补足语词、副词、介词短语以及动词不定式、分词等可用作宾语补足语。宾语和宾语补足语称为复合宾语。

如:They make her happy.(形容词)

I see her dance.(省to的不定式)

We’ll help you to make the Olympics a success.(名词)

Please let him in.(副词)

We heard her singing a song.(分词短语)

(五)表语

表语说明主语“是什么”或者“怎么样”名词或形容词短语来担任。它的位置在系动词后面。

如:I am a teacher.(名词)

He is always happy.(形容词)

They are on the playground now.(介词短语)

It gets cold.(形容词)

Be动词(am,is,are, was, were)

系动词 表保持(keep, stay, remain)

表改变(get, become, turn)

感官动词(feel,sound(听起来),seem/look(看起来),taste(尝起来),smell)

如:(sound为系动词,interesting为表语)

We should all remain careful. (Remain为系动词, careful为表语)

(六)定语

定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不等式或相当于形容词的词或短语等。

单个词作定语时,通常放在它所修饰的名词之前。

如:The black bike is mine.(形容词)

What’s your name?(代词)

(名词)

说明1:nothing, anything, everything, something等时,定语在不

(形容词interesting作不定代词something的后置定语)

(to do为不定式作后置定语)

说明2。

如:The boys in the room are in Class Four. (in the room是介词短语作the boys 2

的后置定语。)

(七)状语

修饰动词、形容词、副词。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等意义,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来表示。状语一般放在句末,但有的可以放在句首、句中。

如:He did it carefully.(副词)

We often help him.(副词)

Her mother goes out to do some shopping on Sunday.(介词短语)

When I grow up, I am going to be a teacher.(从句作时间状语)

He sits there.(副词地点状语)

II. 【五种基本句型】

A. 主语+不及物动词(主谓)

如:The sun rises. 太阳升起来。

The car stopped. 小汽车停下来了。

rise和stop都是不及物动词,因此后边不必加宾语。

B. 主语+及物动词+宾语(主谓宾)

如:I love my country.

He helps me.

I like action movies.

I buy a book.

C. 主语+系动词+表语(主系表)

如:Her brother is a driver.

We feel happy.(feel为系动词,表示感到??)

It gets dark.天黑了。(get为系动词,表示变得)

Tom looks ill. Tom看上去病了。(look为系动词,表示看上去,看起来)

D. 主语+及物动词+双宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)(主谓+直宾+间宾)

如:He gives Tom a present.(双宾语) 他给汤姆一件礼物。

Mother make a new dress for me.(双宾语) 妈妈为我做了一件衣服。

E. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(主+谓+宾+宾补)

如:They call her Mary.(宾补) 他们叫她Mary。

We make our classroom clean and tidy.(宾补) 我们使我们的教室干净而整齐。

He always makes us laugh.(宾补) 他总使我们笑。

二、 典型例题

写出划线部分的句子成分。

3

sister.

6. She

to the Children’s Palace

三、 课后练习

(一) 挑出下列句中的宾语

① My brother doesn't do his homework.

A B C D

② People all over the world speak English.

A B C D

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

A B C D

④ How many new words do you learn ?

A B C D

⑤ Some students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?

A B C D

(二) 挑出下列句中的表语

① The old man is feeling very tired.

A B C D

② Why is he worried about Jim?

A B C D

③ The leaves have turned yellow.

A B C D

④ Soon They all become interested in the subject.

A B C D

⑤ She is the first to learn about it.

A B C D

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(三) 挑出下列句中的定语

① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name.

A B C D

② What is your given name?

A B C D

③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3.

A B C D

④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.

A B C D

⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

A B C D

(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语

① She likes the children to read newspapers & books in the reading-room.

A B C D

② He asks her to take the boy out of school.

A B C D

③ She find it difficult to do the work.

A B C D

④ They call me Lily sometimes.

A B C D

⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.

A B C D

(五) 挑出下列句中的状语

① There is a big smile on her face.

A B C D

② Every night he heard the noise upstairs.

A B C D

③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.

A B C D

④ The man on the motorbike is travelling to fast.

A B C D

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.

A B C D

(六) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(

① Please tell us a story.

5

② My father bought a new bike for me last week.

③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term.

④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom.

⑤ Does he leave any message for me?

(七)写出下列句子的结构

1. They work hard. ______________

2. The flowers are dead. ____________

3. Plants need water. ______________

4. He gave me some seeds. ___________

5. We should keep the plant in the shade. ____________

6. Many animals live in trees. _________

7. The cake tastes delicious. __________

8. Class begins at eight every day. _____

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