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一 句子成分

发布时间:2014-06-21 14:36:10  

语法精炼 一 句子成分

一、句子成分

(一)句子成分的定义:

1 句子成分:构成句子的各个部分

2 有主要成分和次要成分 :主语和谓语;

3 次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语、同位语和插入语。

(二) 主语:

主语 (Subject)

表示句子说的是什么人或什么事.,是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。

标出下列句子的主语,并确定其词性及表示的形式。

1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.

2.We often speak English in class.

3.One-third of the students in this class are girls.

4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.

5.Smoking does harm to the health.

6.The rich should help the poor.

7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.

8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.

(三)谓语

谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下:

1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:

He practices running every morning.

The plane took off at ten o’clock.

2、复合谓语:

(1)由情态动词加动词原形构成。如:

You may keep the book for two weeks.

(2)由助动词加动词原形,现在分词,过去分词构成。如:

Do you speak English?

They are working in a field.

He has caught a bad cold.

(3)由系动词加表语构成。如:

We are students.

注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。

(四)表语

表语(Predicative)

用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份,它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表语从句表示。找出下列句子的表语部分,并确定其表达的方式

1.Our teacher of English is an American.

2.Is it yours?

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3.The weather has turned cold.

4.The speech is exciting.

5.Three times seven is twenty one?

6.His job is to teach English.

7.His hobby is playing football.

8.The meeting is of great importance.

9.Time is up. The class is over.

10.The truth is that he has never been abroad.

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。

1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:

He is a teacher.

2)持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:

He always kept silent at meeting.

3)表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: He seems (to be) very sad.

)感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft.

5)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如: The river was beginning to run dry.

6)终止系动词表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"结果是;证明是 ",之意,例如:

The rumor proved false.

His plan turned out a success.

(五)宾语

宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如:

1.He is doing his homework.

2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.

3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.

4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday.

5.He pretended not to see me.

6.I enjoy listening to popular music.

7.I think(that)he is fit for his office.

宾语种类:

(1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),

例如:Lend me your dictionary, please.

To: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, bring, throw等,例如:

He sent the novel to William yesterday.

For: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save等,例如:

She bought a gift for her mother.

(2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如:

They elected him their monitor.

It is too hot ,he keeps his shirt open.

The policeman asked him to stop

2

When he came home,he found his computer missing.

注意:

1下列动词只能接不定式做宾语

ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire等,

如: He refused to lend me his bike.

2 下列动词只能接动名词做宾语

admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest等,

如: John has admitted breaking the window .

3 下列动词既可接不定式,也可接动名词做宾语,但意义不同,如mean, try, remember, forget, regret等。

forget to do表示“未发生的动作”,forget doing表示“已完成的动作”。如:

Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来)

I forgot returning the book to him. (书已还给他了)

(六)宾语补足语

宾语补足语(Object Complement),用于补充说明宾语的动作,一般位于宾语之后,宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。需接复合宾语的动词有:tell,let,help,teach, ask,see,have,order,make等。“宾补”一般可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如:

1.His father named him Xiaoming.

2.They painted their boat white.

3.Let the fresh air in.

4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.

5.We saw her entering the room.

6.We found everything in the lab in good order.

7.We will soon make our city what your city is now.

(七)定语

修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语(Attribute)。

定语可由以下等成分表示: (八)状语

修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语(Adverbial)。可由以下形式表示 :

1.Light travels most quickly.

2.He has lived in the city for ten years.

3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.

3

4.He is in the room making a model plane.

5.Wait a minute.

6.Once you begin, you must continue.

9种状语种类如下:

1. How about meeting again at six?

2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.

3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.

4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor.

5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care.

She came in with a dictionary in her hand.

6.In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.

7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.

8.She works very hard though she is old.

9.I am taller than he is.

(九)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名词或代词做进一步的解释,通常由名词、数词、代词或从句担任,如:

This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster.

(十)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话做一些附加的解释,通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如:

To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you.

划分句子成分

12.I’

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二 完形填空

It was a busy morning, about 8:30, when an elderly gentleman in his 80s came to the hospital. I heard him saying to the nurse that he was in a hurry for appointment (约会)at 9:30.

at least 40 minutes someone would be able to busy—my patient didn’t at the appointed hour ,I would examine his wound, While taking care of his wound ,I asked him if he had another doctor’s appointment. that she had a special disease, I asked if was ,that she had not and asked him,” And you even though she doesn’t know who you are?”

He smiled and said .”She doesn’t know me, but I know who she is” I had to hold back as he left. of all that, The happiest people don’t best of everything; they just the best of everything they isn’t about how to live through the storm, but how to dance in the rain.

36.A.breath B. test C. seat D. break

37.A.persuading B. promising C. understanding D. telling

38. A. if B. before C. since D. after

39. A. taking off B. fixing C. looking at D. winding

40. A. very B. also C. seldom D. not

41. A. turn up B. show off C. come on D. go away

42. A. needed B. forgot C . agreed D. happened

43. A. daughter B. wife C. mother D. sister

44. A late B. well C. around D. there

45. A. lonely B. worried C. doubtful D. hungry

46. A. so far B. neither C. no longer D. already

47. A. recognize B. answer C. believe D. expect

48.A. moved B. disappointed C. surprised D .satisfied

49.A. only B. then C. thus D. still

50.A. curiosity B. tears C. words D. judgment

51. A. realize B. suggest C. hope D. prove

52. A. agreement B. expression C. acceptance D. exhibition

53. A. necessarily B. completely C. naturally D. frequently

54. A. learn B. make C. favor D. try

55. A. Adventure B. Beauty C. Trust D .Life

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三 阅读训练

Science can't explain the power of pets, but many studies have shown that the company of pets can help lower blood pressure (血压) and raise chances of recovering from a heart attack, reduce loneliness and spread all-round good cheer.

Any owner will tell you how much joy a pet brings. For some, an animal provides more comfort than a husband/wife. A 2002 study by Karen Allen of the State University of New York measured stress (紧张) levels and blood pressure in people — half of them pet owners .while they performed 5 minutes of mental arithmetic (算术) or held a hand in ice water. Subjects completed the tasks alone, with a husband/wife, a close friend or with a pet. People with pets did It best .Those tested with their animal friends had smaller change in blood pressure and returned Most quickly to baseline heart rates .With pets in the room ,people also made fewer math mistakes Than when doing in front of other companions. It seems people feel more released (放松)around Pets, says Allen, who thinks it may be because pets don’t judge.

A study reported last fall suggests that having a pet dog not only raises your spirits but may also have an effect on your eating habits. Researchers at Northwesterm Memorial Hospital spent a year studying 36 fat people and were put on a diet-and-exercise programs; a separate group of

56 fat people without pets were put on a diet program. On average,people lost about 11 pounds, Or 5% of their body weight .Their dogs did even better,losing an average of 12 pounds,more than 15%of their body weight .Dog owners didn’t lose any more weight than those without dogs but ,say Researchers,got more exercise overall –mostly with their dogs –and found it worth doing.

67.What does the text mainly discuss?

A.What pets bring to their owners B.How pets help people calm down

C.people’s opinions of keeping pets D.Pet’s value in medical research

68.We learn from the text that a person with heart disease has a better chance of getting well if ____________

A.he has a pet companion B.he has less stress of work

C.he often dose mental arithmetic D.he is taken care of by his family

69.According to Allen, why did the people do better with pets around when facing stressful tasks?

A.They have lower blood pressure. B.They become more patient.

C.They are less nervous. D.They are in higher spirits.

70.The research mentioned in the last paragraph reports that

A.people with dogs did more exercise

B.dogs lost the same weight as people did

C.dogs liked exercise much more than people did

D.people without dogs found the program unhelpful

36-40 CDBCD41-45 AABDB46-50 CACDB 51-55 ACABD AACA

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