一` 题材分析能力 高考英语考试中阅读理解的文章一般有这样几种文体，即记叙文、描写文、说明文、应用文和论述文。不同的文体有不同的段落组织方式和脉络层次。
? Which of the following is NOT true
? according to the information in the passage?
? 2) The author mentions all of the following except___ .
3)In the passage, the author states that ______.
? 4) The reason for . . .is . . .
? 5) According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc. ) ... ? 6)From the passage we know that ______.
? Many American presidents in the 19th century were born in poor families. They spent their childhood in little wooden rooms. They got little education. Washington and Lincoln, for example, never went to school and they taught themselves. Lincoln once did jobs of a worker, shop-keeper and post officer in his early years.
? A large number of U.S presidents had experiences in the army. The two best known were Ulysses Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Grant was a general in the American Civil War and Eisenhower was a hero in the second World War. It happened that they graduated from the same school──West Point Military Academy(西点军校)……
? Q: President Eisenhower became well-
? known .
? A. while studying in West Point Military Academy
? B. during the American Civil War
? C. after he was elected President of the U.S.
? D. during World War II.
? Invited by Mr. Ye Huixian， host of the well received TV programe “Stars Tonight”，
Miss Luo Lin， Miss Asia of 1991， appeared as the guest hostess on the Shan ghai TV screen last Sunday.
? Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old，
Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition， she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years.
? However， it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage，
dancing， singing，making-up and other proper manners， designed by the Asia TV Station.
? “It’s really a hard job for me. I won’t enter for such competition any more.
Anyhow， I am quite lucky. I am also glad to have had more chance to work for the social welfare since I won the title. This time， in Shanghai， I'd love to make a deep impression on my TV audience，" said Luo Lin with a sweet smile.
? Q： Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai.
B. Luo Lin moved to Hongkong with her parents.
C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991.
D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.
? 段落大意（Main idea）
? 主旨大意题的 提问方式有以下几种：
? 1）The general/main idea of the passage is about ____．
? 2）Which of the following best states the theme of the passage？
? 3）In this passage the author discusses primarily ____．
? 4）The passage is mostly about ____．
? 5）The passage is mainly concerned about ____．
? 6）What is the main topic of the passage？
? 7）What is the best title for the passage？
? 8）The subject discussed in this text is _____
? 9）The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is to …
? 10）The passage is meant to ….
? 11）The purpose of this article is to ?
? On the whole , in short, therefore…
? I agree with the opinion that…
? For all the reasons mentioned above ,
? I would prefer…
Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal. Such a person is not really a thief. They are sick and cannot help themselves. All small children act naturally and as they grow up they normally learn to control their actions. People with kleptomania for certain medical reasons have failed to develop control over their desire to take things that do not belong to them. With medical help they may become normal citizens again. They things that a kleptomaniac steals are seldom of great value.
They often give away what they have stolen or collect objects without using them.
? Q:What is the topic of the text?
? A. Young Thieves.
? B. An Unusual Illness.
? C. Reasons for Stealing
? D. A Normal Child’s Actions.
You dream each night, even though you may not remember your dreams. While you dream your eyes move and your heart beats faster. Even your brain-wave pattern changes. Some scientists think that dreaming is important for the sake of health.
They claim that without dream, people would go crazy.
Q: What does the passage mainly tells?
A. How people stay healthy
B.How sleep is necessary
C. Why dreams are important
D. When people remember their dreams
1) It can be inferred from the text that ______.
2) From the text we know that ______.
3) The story implies that ______.
4) The paragraph following the passage will most probably be ___.
5) The writer’s attitude toward...is ______.
6)The author implied（suggested）that．．．
7)It may be concluded from the passage that．．
8)Which of the following statements does the passage support？
9)With which of the following does the author agree？
One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant，“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches（蟑螂） and two spiders（蜘蛛）.”
“What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.
“Well，”replied the man，“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”
? Q： The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment， it was
? A. very clean
? B. just cleaned by the landlord
? C. tidy and comfortable
? D. dirty and full of insects
Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK， they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes.
Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them， it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions；he answers questions. He never says，“I don’t know.”
? Q： Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude（态度） towards Mr.
? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand
? B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful
? C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff
? D. He does not like Mr. Neff
1）The underlined word / phrase in the passage means ____．
2）The word "it / them"in the first paragraph refers to ____．
3）The underlined sentence in the last paragraph means ____．
4）Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the second paragraph？
The old man put on his spectacles and began to read．
The door was so low that I hit the head on the lintel．
The harbor is protected by a jetty—a wall built out into the water．
The doctor is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye．
Mr. Smith always arrives home punctually，neither early nor late．
a）．．．，and other Germanic and
Nordic peoples，who spoke what we
now call Anglo-Saxon（or Old English），
a Germanic language．
b）The "Chunnel"，a tunnel（隧道）connecting England and France，is now complete．
One of the obstacles to false reading is vocalizing—saying the words to themselves in a low voice．
The early scientific study of chemistry，known as alchemy，grew up in Egypt in the first few centuries A．D．
He has been getting better，but during the night his condition deteriorated．
research shows that Gold and others
who buy organic food can generally
--but their knowledge of organic food
is far from complete．
例1: The major market force rests in the growing population of white collar employees (白领雇员)，who can afford the new service.
例2: she is so particular about her housework that servants are not willing to work for her. 猜测熟词含义除了要求同学们有较强的语境分析能力外，还要求同学们有较宽的知识面，对常见有新含义的熟词要弄清其用法，并将这些词进行简要归纳整理。
When men and women lived by
hunting 50,000 years ago，how could
they even begin to picture modern life?
Bur in all honesty, I treasure the fact,
which helps me to be a better leader
? What is the best title of the passage?
? What is the main idea of the passage? / What does the passage mainly talk about? ? What is the purpose of the passage?
? ①What is the best title of the passage?
Answer: What is the real smartness?
? ②What is the main idea of the passage? / What does the passage mainly talk about? ? Answer: The summit of smartness is honesty and credibility.
? ③What is the purpose of the passage?
? Answer: To tell us the summit of smartness is honesty and credibility.
(Or To tell us what the real smartness is.)
? 如2007年山东高考试题中的补全句子在整段的开头，下面连续有Firstly, Secondly,
thirdly等词，由此可以判断属于总分式。又如济南市4月份统考试题的补全句子也是根据上句whether one’s act is wise or unwise, rather the summit of wisdom, depends on the result of the act得出正确答案。
①表总结：in conclusion, in summary, to sum up, on the whole, in general, in short, to be brief
? ②表比较：on the other hand, on the contrary, in comparison with, in contrast to/with ? ③表原因：due to, owing to, because of, on account of
? ④表结果：as a result, therefore, thus, consequently
? ⑤表层进：in addition, moreover, furthermore, in other words, what’s more, last but not
? ⑥表转折：but, however, nevertheless, at the same time, in spite of, despite
? ⑦表选择：rather than, instead of
英语中信息的传达, 把新的信息放在句首, 已知信息放在句尾, 句子结构相
对复杂; 汉语重句子的层次, 一般遵循时间顺序、逻辑顺序,句子在安排上往往以"先旧后新、先因后果、先条件后结论"等为原则, 句子结构往往简短。
举例来说:"An earthquake happened in Japan last week. "
句子在安排上首先强调的是最重要的信息是"earthquake ", 其次是"in
Japan ,last week"。
汉语则是: "上周日本发生了地震"。句子在安排上并没有以信息为先, 而是把
①定语从句：英语的句子是向外扩展的, 因为词可以有定语从句来修饰, 而
定语从句可以无限地叠加, 所以说有时一个句子长到可以独立成段, 此时如果还按照汉语定语置于主体词之前的习惯来翻译, 句子不仅会很长,读起来很费力, 而且翻译出的句子也不像是地道的汉语, 达意上当然就会有很大的问题了, 更何况有时不做调整根本就无法翻译。
汉语的短句, 适当调整句子之间的先后顺序, 做到句子条理清楚, 意思明确即可。比如说
在翻译"After graduation , he got a job as a programmer in a big company that paid ＄1, 000 a month"这个句子时, 就可以把其中的定语从句进行拆分, 译成"毕业之后,他到一家大公司做编程工作, 月薪一千美金"。
? ②被动句：被动句的翻译也是应该注意的。英语和汉语的不同点之一是: 英
语较多使用被动句。汉语总体来说, 被动句的使用不多, 且多数情况下所传达的都是负面的信息或者是极其肯定的信息: 如: "我被打了", "我的车被盗了", "他被授予诺贝尔和平奖"等等。在做翻译时, 一定要注意这一现象, 并把英语大量的被动句转换成汉语的主动句或把字句等。
:"The wallet was lost when I was on my way back home",
? 可译成― 我昨天在回家的路上丢了钱包
"; "The U. S was attacked by t he terrorist s on Sept. 11th, 2001", 可译成"美国在2001 年9 月11 日遭到了恐怖分子的袭击"。
比如：Distance from the event should make the memories less painful.(时过境迁，痛苦的往事会在记忆中淡漠。)。
再如： She showered us with telegrams.(她的电报纷至沓来。)
增译法：指在英译汉时需要根据情况适当地删减。英语词与词、词组与词组以及句子与句子的逻辑关系一般用连词来表示，而汉语则往往通过上下文和语序来表示这种关系。如：What about calling him right away? 马上给他打个电话，你觉得如何？ （增译主语和谓语）。
拆句法：拆句法是把一个长而复杂的句子拆译成若干个较短、较简单的句子。如：Increased cooperation with China is in the interests of the United States.
Great changes have taken place in China since the
introduction of the reform and opening policy.改革开放以来，中国发生了巨大的变化。(全部倒置)
Robots have found application for the exploration of the outer space. (机器人已经被用于探索外空间。)
He is a stranger to the operation of the helicopter. (他对直升机的操作很陌生。)
The university aims at the first rate of the world. (学校的目标是成为
The Internet is different from traditional media in that it sends and
receives information faster.
Success is dependent on his efforts. (成功与否取决于他的努力。)
The pictures give a visual representation of the situation.
⑦介词转连词With all its shortcomings this composition is regarded as the best. (尽管这篇作文有缺陷，但仍被认为是最佳的。)
例：80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 Chinese.
Whatever the reason, my urban hellos were answered far less often than my rural one. 不管出于什么原因，我在城里打招呼得到的回应比在乡村少得多。
? 只有准确理解所给句子的意义，才能准确快速地找出原文中意义相同的句子。 ? 同义词或词组，句子成分划分
An American friend of mine who was high up in a big corporation had worked out a way of handling a flood of e-mails before most of us had even heard of the concept. If any information he was sent was vital enough, his lack of response would ensure the sender rang him up, if the sender wasn’t important enough to have his private number, the communication couldn’t be that important, my friend is now even more senior in the same company so the strategy must work. Almost every week now there seems to be a report suggesting that we are all being driven crazy by the bother of e-mail. If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it.
_________. Firstly, you junk nothing with an exclamation mark or a string of capital letters, or from any address you don’t recognize or feel confident about.
Secondly, e-mails don’t all have to be answered. Because e-mailing is so easy, there’s a tendency for
correspondence to carry on for ever, but it is permissible to stop an endless discussion or to accept a point of information sent by a colleague without acknowledging it.
Thirdly, a reply e-mail doesn’t have to be the same length as the original. We all have e-mail pals who send long, chatty e-mail, which are nice to receive, but who then expect an equally long reply. The charm of e-mail can consist in the simple, incomplete sentence, totally regardless of the format of the letter sent by post. You are perfectly within the bounds of politeness in responding to a marathon e-mail with a better reply.
76．Which sentence in the passage is the closest in meaning to the following one?
The possible existence of annoyance results from our inability to sort out e-mails
77．Fill in the blank in Paragraph 3 with a proper sentence.(within 10 words )
78．What advice is given in the last paragraph? (within 10 words)
79．For what purpose does the author mention his American friend in Paragraph 1 ?(within 10 words)
80．Translate the underlined sentence in the last paragraph into Chinese.
76. 答案：If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it.
77. 答案：E-mail(s) can be handled in the following ways. / Here are the ways to deal with e-mail(s). / handling e-mail(s) is an art.
78. 答案：You may reply to a long e-mail briefly./ You don’t have to write a long reply e-mail. 解析：该题为封闭性问题，要求答出最后一段所给的建议。做这种类型的题目时，首先要读懂该段要告诉读者的是什么信息，然后根据要求进行总结，因为有字数限制，所以答题时要特别注意如何用词和如何组织语言。从最后一段的第一句我们就可以知道这条建议是告诉读者“在回复e-mail时，不必和对方来信的长度一样”。其实这句话就是该问题的答案，但是由于有字数限定，我们就必须改变一下说法，使答案的字数控制在10个单词以内，这样就可以避免学生照抄原文，从而达到考察学生灵活运用语言能力的目的。
79. 答案：To show a way of handling e-mail(s) with an example. / To introduce the topic of the text.
80. 答案：用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节。/ 用简短的话回复马拉松式的电子邮件也是礼貌的。
解析：该题为句子翻译题。做该题时应先分析句子成分，搞清每个意群的含义，然后结合上下文以及文章的中心思想，调整成符合汉语表达习惯的通顺的汉语句子。翻译该句，关键是搞清处两个短语的含义，一个是within the bound of (在?范围内), 另一个是in responding to
The word addiction usually makes you think of alcohol or drugs, but in modern-day society we are seeing some new kinds of addictions. Some people are compulsive (难以自制的) shoppers. Others find it impossible to pull themselves away from their work. Still others spend countless hours watching TV or playing computer games
Over the years, shopping has become a very common activity. Many people enjoy going to malls or stores more and more everyday, but it’s more than a common hobby for some of them. They have turned into shopaholics. They are people who simply enjoy shopping and walking around spending money without being able to stop doing it. They are hooked on shopping and usually buy things that they don’t need. Even though they don’t have enough money, they buy everything they want.
The question is: why do they have this addiction? There isn’t a specific answer. Some people go shopping when they are sad, worried, upset or lonely and they want to feel better. They use this activity as a way to forget their problems. Shopaholics say that they feel more important and better after they buy something. They also tend to have this addiction when they feel guilty.
Shopaholism seems to be a harmless addiction, but it can ___________. Some of them can be psychological. If this is the case, people addicted to shopping should go to a support group to help them break this habit. However, the process, like for most addictions, is long, and they suffer a lot. It can also cause financial problems. They just think about satisfying their feelings, so they spend money they don’t have. They get deep in debt, and they can even go bankrupt and get sent to prison.
76. List three activities that might develop into addictions based on the text. (Please answer within 8 words)
77. What’s the main idea of Paragraph 3? (Please answer within 8 words)
78. Fill in the blank in paragraph 4 with proper words. (Please answer within 6words)
79. Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one?
Accordingly, these shopaholics should turn to a certain organization for help so that they can stop compulsive shopping.
80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 2 into Chinese.
76. 答案：shopping, drinking, playing computer games, working, watching TV, taking drugs. (答出其中三种即可，不根据原文回答不得分)
解析：此题的答案应根据文章第一段的内容进行归纳、提炼。第一句说提到addiction人们通常会想到alcohol or drugs，可见drinking, taking drugs是容易成瘾的活动；根据第三句可容易概括出shopping, 根据第四句概括出working，根据第五句提炼出watching TV 和 playing computer games。
77. 答案： The reason why some people/ shopaholics have shopping addiction
The possible reasons for shopaholism/ shopping addition
解析：第三段第一句提出问题：why do they have this addiction? 接着说明这一问题，所以第一句即是该段的中心句，因此概括出以上答案。
78. 答案： cause/ bring about/ result in many problems
79. 答案：If this is the case, people addicted to shopping should go to a support group to help them break this habit.
Accordingly, these shopaholics should turn to a certain organization for help so that they can stop compulsive shopping.
说明：该题属于英文释义题。要求考生准确地找出与所给句子意义相同的句子，并抄写正确。 解析：解答这类题一定要从总体上把握句意，然后再回读原文，从中找出意义相同的句子。解答这类题的一个有效方法是找对应词，即意义相同或相近的词汇或短语。所给句子中的turn to与答案句中的 go to?to help..同义，a certain organization与答案句中的a support group同义，stop compulsive shopping与答案句中的break this habit同义，据此可以确定答案。
 Hello. It’s one of the first words we learn as babies, yet it’s one of the last ones we think to use as adults. That’s unfortunate, because saying hello is more than just saying hello—it is recognition of another’s worth. How might the world change—how might we change—if we mastered this word? To find out, I spent one month saying hello to every person I met. Here’s what I’ve learned. Ks5u
 It can boost （促进） productivity. In one of the few studies ever done on this subject, Allan Allday, an assistant professor of special education at Oklahoma State University, had middle school teachers greet their students individually each morning. This exchange of greetings raised the kids’ productivity. School went from impersonal to personal, and that resulted in more class participation and better grades. Ks5u
 Environments influence friendliness, One study found that people in the city were kiss likely to one hands with a stranger than those in the countryside. And researchers say, pleasure environments generally encourage more smiles and hellos than unpleasant ones. My experience was similarly. Whatever the reason, my urban hellos were answered far less often than my rural one. Similarly, people in vacation spots, like the Jersey Shore, were far friendlier than those hurrying work downtown. Ks5u
 It’s a form of universal health insurance. It’s impossible to say hello without smiling. And smiling has been shown to lower blood pressure, relieve stress and boost happiness. Apparently, a smile creates a similar effect in the recipient （接受者）。 So maybe we can make the world a better place by____________. After a month of doing it. I feel lighter and more connected and I have a better sense of well-being. Ks5u
76. What does the author say about the adults according to Paragraph 1? （within 8 words） _________________________________________________________________________
77. Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one?
Teachers and students got friendlier so that the students became more active in learning and scored higher in tests. ____________________________________________________________________________
78. Fill in the blank in Paragraph 5 with proper words. （within 5 words）
79. List three effects of smiling on health according to the text. （within 8 words）
① ② ③
80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 Chinese.
76. Adults are not willing to say hello.
77. School went from impersonal to personal, and that resulted in more class participation and better grades.
78. saying hello to each other/ greeting each other/ saying hello
79. ①lowering blood pressure ②relieving stress ③boosting happiness
One out of many important things for the whole family to do is to have dinner together. Researchers began reporting the benefits of family dinner about a decade ago, focusing mainly on how it affects children. Studies show that those families who eat dinner at least 3 or 4 times a week together, benefit in many ways.
Eating together helps families achieve open communication and build stronger and healthier relationships. Children have better grades at school and are better adjusted as teens and adults, and the entire family enjoys healthier nutrition. For many families, eating dinner together proves to be good and effective way to reduce the risk of youth rates of addiction, and helps to raise healthier children. It is also a great time to share the events of the day, discuss news and ideas and just be together and enjoy each other's company.
During dinner time parents have better opportunity to show that they are the prior to their children. Sitting at the same table and sharing meals is where and when parents can find out more about their children's school performance, daily activities and attitudes toward life. When parents have all this information they can better direct their kids toward positive things in life. They also have better chance to reduce the possibility that children will get involved with alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs.
However, family researchers say that the benefits of family dinner by no means can be considered as automatic. Parents can sit down to dinner with their kids every day and achieve nothing. ____________________ if there is too much arguing going on, if there is no meaningful conversation or, what is even worse, if there is just plain silence during gathering.
76. What is the main idea of the text? (no more than 8 words)
77. Which sentence in the text is closest in meaning to the following one?
By having dinner together family members can have free exchange of information and develop closer ties among them.
78. Fill in the blank in Paragraph 4 with proper words. (no more than 8 words)
79. What information can parents probably get about their children at family dinner? (no more than 12 words)
80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 into Chinese.
76.Families benefit from eating together./Having dinner together is beneficial to families.
77. Eating together helps families achieve open communication and build stronger and healthier relationships.
78. No family dinner can benefit/ Family dinner may not benefit
79. Their children's school performance, daily activities and attitudes toward life.
Now we come to the most popular crime of all –pocketpicking. Pickpockets are everywhere, in every country. Though pickpockets seldom turn to violence, they have been troubling the world for many centuries, whose skill has been handed down from generation to generation. I suppose you have all read in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens how green hands were taught by the old professionals.
Today the pickpockets have overtaken their forefathers of Dickens’ time in both number and skill. They can be found wherever a crowd gathers. For them, documents such as passports and identification cards (ID cards) are as valuable as cash. There is a ready market of official documents as well as counterfeit (not real) money, traveler’s checks, driver’s licenses and so on. I shall not go into the details of all the crimes that I have mentioned above and I have no time to study other crimes. But one thing ____________________________ is that the rate of increase of every kind of crime has been surprising. a bit. Many of them often say, ―Well, what is to be will be!‖ or ―After all, we just have to compromise (妥协) among evils‖.
1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words)
2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one？
I think it is not necessary to talk about other crimes
3. Please fill in the blank in the second paragraph with proper word or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words)
4. What should we do with crimes and violence according to the passage? (Please answer within 30 words)
5. Translate the underlined sentence in the second paragraph into Chinese.
1. The most popular crime – pocketpicking.
2. I shall not go into the details of all the crimes that I have mentioned above and I have no time to study other crimes.
3. you can be sure of/ you can make clear
4. Crimes and violence can’t be ignored The spreading of crimes and violence weighs heavily on the mind of people , so we shouldn’t compromise among evils but resist them (The answers may vary if reasonable.)
5. 然而我们必须清楚的认识到犯罪和暴力令那些过着诚信生活的美国人很担忧,但是他们根本不想改变他们的生活方式, 来解决这一问题。