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第八讲 英语阅读理解技巧

发布时间:2013-09-29 11:05:31  

第八讲 英语阅读理解技巧

高考考试说明对阅读理解的要求

要求学生读懂简易的英语文学作品,科普文章,公告,说明,广告以及书,报,杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章并回答相关问题。考生应能:

1` 理解语篇主旨大意

2` 理解文中具体信息

3` 根据上下文提供的线索推测生词的词义

4` 根据文中事实和线索作出简单的判断和推理

5` 理解文章的基本结构和文脉逻辑关系

6` 理解作者的观点,意图和态度

根据考纲阅读理解对学生提出如下能力要求

一` 题材分析能力 高考英语考试中阅读理解的文章一般有这样几种文体,即记叙文、描写文、说明文、应用文和论述文。不同的文体有不同的段落组织方式和脉络层次。

二` 题干分析能力

从阅读题的题干入手,题目可分为以下三种类型

? 细节理解题

? 细节理解题就是我们常见的wh-题,它们大多是根据文章中的具体信息如事实、例证、原因、过程、论述等进行提问的。有些问题可以在文章中直接找到答案,有些则要我们在理解的基础上将有关内容系统化才能找到,比如计算、排序、是非判断、图形比较等。做此类题的方法一般是先用寻读法找出与问题相关的词语或句子,再对相关的部分进行细读,找出正确答案。

? 细节类问题的命题方式有以下几种:

?

? Which of the following is NOT true

? according to the information in the passage?

? 2) The author mentions all of the following except___ .

3)In the passage, the author states that ______.

? 4) The reason for . . .is . . .

? 5) According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc. ) ... ? 6)From the passage we know that ______.

? 阅读理解训练(1)

? Many American presidents in the 19th century were born in poor families. They spent their childhood in little wooden rooms. They got little education. Washington and Lincoln, for example, never went to school and they taught themselves. Lincoln once did jobs of a worker, shop-keeper and post officer in his early years.

? A large number of U.S presidents had experiences in the army. The two best known were Ulysses Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Grant was a general in the American Civil War and Eisenhower was a hero in the second World War. It happened that they graduated from the same school──West Point Military Academy(西点军校)……

? Q: President Eisenhower became well-

? known .

? A. while studying in West Point Military Academy

? B. during the American Civil War

? C. after he was elected President of the U.S.

? D. during World War II.

? 阅读理解训练(2)

? Invited by Mr. Ye Huixian, host of the well received TV programe “Stars Tonight”,

Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991, appeared as the guest hostess on the Shan ghai TV screen last Sunday.

? Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old,

Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years.

? However, it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage,

dancing, singing,making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.

? “It’s really a hard job for me. I won’t enter for such competition any more.

Anyhow, I am quite lucky. I am also glad to have had more chance to work for the social welfare since I won the title. This time, in Shanghai, I'd love to make a deep impression on my TV audience," said Luo Lin with a sweet smile.

? Q: Which of the following is NOT true?

A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai.

B. Luo Lin moved to Hongkong with her parents.

C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991.

D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.

? 主旨判断题

? 主旨判断题就是考查文章的大意,考查学生归纳总结能力,一般我们可根据如下几个

因素来判断:

? 短文标题、

? 主题(Title);

? 大意(Theme)

? 段落大意(Main idea)

? 主旨大意题的 提问方式有以下几种:

? 1)The general/main idea of the passage is about ____.

? 2)Which of the following best states the theme of the passage?

? 3)In this passage the author discusses primarily ____.

? 4)The passage is mostly about ____.

? 5)The passage is mainly concerned about ____.

? 6)What is the main topic of the passage?

? 7)What is the best title for the passage?

? 8)The subject discussed in this text is _____

? 9)The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is to …

? 10)The passage is meant to ….

? 11)The purpose of this article is to ?

? 技巧:

? 1.认真阅读文章的第一段或每段的第一个句子或最后一句。

? 2.文章的主题作者往往有意识地反复论述。抓住反复出现的中心词,即高频词,

也叫做主题

? 3.文章或段落的主题句常常会出现在一些标志性

? 的提示后。

? On the whole , in short, therefore…

? I agree with the opinion that…

? For all the reasons mentioned above ,

? I would prefer…

? 掌握了找主题句的方法,就可以依据主题句归纳主题。但归纳主题容易出现以下三种

错误,需要同学们注意。

1.以偏概全。即只抓住了主题的一个侧面就误以为是主题。

2.过于笼统。即归纳的主题太泛,与细节脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论证。

3.把观点强加给作者。读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作者的见解。

? 阅读理解训练(3)

Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal. Such a person is not really a thief. They are sick and cannot help themselves. All small children act naturally and as they grow up they normally learn to control their actions. People with kleptomania for certain medical reasons have failed to develop control over their desire to take things that do not belong to them. With medical help they may become normal citizens again. They things that a kleptomaniac steals are seldom of great value.

They often give away what they have stolen or collect objects without using them.

? Q:What is the topic of the text?

? A. Young Thieves.

? B. An Unusual Illness.

? C. Reasons for Stealing

? D. A Normal Child’s Actions.

? 阅读理解训练(4)

You dream each night, even though you may not remember your dreams. While you dream your eyes move and your heart beats faster. Even your brain-wave pattern changes. Some scientists think that dreaming is important for the sake of health.

They claim that without dream, people would go crazy.

Q: What does the passage mainly tells?

A. How people stay healthy

B.How sleep is necessary

C. Why dreams are important

D. When people remember their dreams

? 推理判断题

? 技巧:找出作者所陈述的细节、事实以及能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词语,

进行符合逻辑的推理。

? 注意:不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点

? 解推断题最主要的方法是根据词义关系推断具体细节。

有关推理的试题常常包括以下类型:

1) It can be inferred from the text that ______.

2) From the text we know that ______.

3) The story implies that ______.

4) The paragraph following the passage will most probably be ___.

5) The writer’s attitude toward...is ______.

6)The author implied(suggested)that...

7)It may be concluded from the passage that..

8)Which of the following statements does the passage support?

9)With which of the following does the author agree?

? 阅读理解训练(5)

One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant,“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches(蟑螂) and two spiders(蜘蛛).”

“What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.

“Well,”replied the man,“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”

? Q: The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment, it was

______.

? A. very clean

? B. just cleaned by the landlord

? C. tidy and comfortable

? D. dirty and full of insects

? 阅读理解训练(6)

Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes.

Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them, it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions;he answers questions. He never says,“I don’t know.”

? Q: Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude(态度) towards Mr.

Neff?

? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand

? B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful

? C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff

? D. He does not like Mr. Neff

三` 猜词能力

主要要求学生根据上下文判断词语的涵义

这种题型常见的设题方式有:

1)The underlined word / phrase in the passage means ____.

2)The word "it / them"in the first paragraph refers to ____.

3)The underlined sentence in the last paragraph means ____.

4)Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the second paragraph?

(一)根据常识、经验猜生词

例如:

The old man put on his spectacles and began to read.

The door was so low that I hit the head on the lintel.

(二)根据上下文解释做出判断:其方法主要有:

1.根据文中的定义、解释猜生词 。例如:

The harbor is protected by a jetty—a wall built out into the water.

2.利用事例或解释猜生词 。例如:

The doctor is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye.

3.利用重复解释的信息猜生词 。例如:

Mr. Smith always arrives home punctually,neither early nor late.

4.根据同位关系进行判断:

阅读中出现一些难词,有时后面就是一个

同位语,对前面的词进行解释,这种解释

有时也用连词“or”连接。

a)...,and other Germanic and

Nordic peoples,who spoke what we

now call Anglo-Saxon(or Old English),

a Germanic language.

b)The "Chunnel",a tunnel(隧道)connecting England and France,is now complete.

(三)利用标点符号和提示词猜测词义

One of the obstacles to false reading is vocalizing—saying the words to themselves in a low voice.

The early scientific study of chemistry,known as alchemy,grew up in Egypt in the first few centuries A.D.

(四)根据转折或对比关系进行判断

根据上下句的连接词,如:but,however,otherwise等就可以看到前后句在意义上的差别,从而依据某一句的含义,来确定另一句的含义。分号(;)还可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。

He has been getting better,but during the night his condition deteriorated.

(五)根据构词法(合成、派生、转化)

进行判断

英语中,有很多词可以在前面加前缀,后

面加后缀,从而构成一个词,乍看起来,

这个词可能是生词,但掌握了一定的构词

法知识,就不难猜出它的词义。

例如(NMET2002,B篇)Market

research shows that Gold and others

who buy organic food can generally

--but their knowledge of organic food

is far from complete.

根据近年来高考阅读理解对同学们提出新的要求,建议同学们在以下几个方面加强自我训练!

1.猜测熟词新含义

例1: The major market force rests in the growing population of white collar employees (白领雇员),who can afford the new service.

例2: she is so particular about her housework that servants are not willing to work for her. 猜测熟词含义除了要求同学们有较强的语境分析能力外,还要求同学们有较宽的知识面,对常见有新含义的熟词要弄清其用法,并将这些词进行简要归纳整理。

2.猜测词性变换新词含义

When men and women lived by

hunting 50,000 years ago,how could

they even begin to picture modern life?

Bur in all honesty, I treasure the fact,

which helps me to be a better leader

and person.

利用熟词的新词性来抽象词义,关键应

在理解原词的基础上,分析它的新词性,

并结合原词含义发挥合理想象,从而概括

抽象出它的新词义。

四`综合应用语言能力

第一步:通读全文,把握文章大意

第二步:细读题干,查询转换内容

第三步:扫读语块,搜索有效信息

第四步:查读题项,定位正确答案

第九节 阅读表达的钥匙

理性认识

? 阅读表达题是自2007年开始山东省高考试题中增加的一种新的测试题型,要求考生

在阅读所给短文,然后按照题目要求回答文后的五个问题,每个问题3分,总分15分。该题型的测试目的是从多方位多角度考查考生通过阅读获取信息、处理信息并进行书面表达的能力。比传统的阅读理解题型更具综合性和主观性,更能体现对考生的 综合语言运用能力的考查。

阅读表达的选材特点

? 阅读表达选文仍然会以议论文或说明文为主,因为这两种体裁最能有效地考查考生的

语言思维与逻辑表述能力,并且这类文章主题突出、结构严谨、逻辑性强,适于设题。

? 阅读表达的选材内容会更加注重时代性、趣味性、知识性和科学性,强调实际应用,

篇幅依然会稳定在270—300词之间。

阅读表达题目类型

1. 概括文章大意、标题,或指出作者写作的主要意图;

2. 补全文章中空缺的句子;

3. 根据语境翻译句子;

4. 同义语句替换;

5. 回答问题;

6. 陈述个人观点。

7.必要时可根据文章的题材和体裁设置其他题目。

阅读表达题的解题方法与技巧

? 1、主旨概括:主要考查考生对文章内容的整体把握能力。要想答好该题,考生必须

有很强的概括能力或归纳能力,要善于寻找能够概括全文的主题段落或者主题句,剔除文中的细节事实或者作者所用的论据,即要分清主旨和细节,概括出来的中心意思一定要能够覆盖全文或整个段落,绝对不可太笼统离题太远或者以偏概全;文中标题格式可以是完整的句子,简洁的短语,也可以用问题的形式,同时要注意字数要求。具体的表达可以先根据文章内容找出关键词,再在此基础上确定文章标题或者文章的main idea。

? 首先,这个题型的呈现方式为以下三种:

? What is the best title of the passage?

? What is the main idea of the passage? / What does the passage mainly talk about? ? What is the purpose of the passage?

写好文章标题的关键是找准主题句。

? 寻找主题句和我们平时做阅读理解题(主旨大意题、归纳概括题、中心思想题)一样。

文章是由一个个句子组成的,而句子又总是围绕着中心意思按照一定的思路有计划地组织起来的。一段文字中往往有一个中心句(三种情况:一是出现在一段的开头;二是出现在段尾,具有总结的作用;三是出现在段落中间,往往由一句话来统领全段。)来提示该段的主题含义,是全段的核心或关键,其它句子都是围绕它从不同角度、不同方面进行展开的。找到了中心句,就把握住了段落的核心,其它句子的意义和作用也就迎刃而解了。因此,寻找中心句的阅读策略实际上是一个抓主要矛盾的策略。培养良好的阅读习惯,养成快读习惯,这样才能提高阅读的准确率。 其次,文章标题应该能够高度概括文章内容,同时还要有一定的针对性,另外标题应能吸引读者的注意力,唤起读者对文章阅读的兴趣。这一点也是标题和主旨大意的区别所在。

以2008年济南市4月份统考试题的阅读表达题为例,来看一下本题型的三种题目的回答方式:

? ①What is the best title of the passage?

Answer: What is the real smartness?

? ②What is the main idea of the passage? / What does the passage mainly talk about? ? Answer: The summit of smartness is honesty and credibility.

? ③What is the purpose of the passage?

? Answer: To tell us the summit of smartness is honesty and credibility.

(Or To tell us what the real smartness is.)

? 2.补全句子

? 这道题主要考查考生的逻辑思维能力,考生必须在理解全文的基础上了解主旨大意,

把握上下文之间的逻辑关系,例如解说式、总分式、递进式、并列式、对比式、转折式、因果式等,运用减法省去不必要信息,抓出启承转合信息词,定下大体的结构思路及形式,需要填写的是短语还是完整句子,然后根据上下文添加适当内容。 ?

? 如2007年山东高考试题中的补全句子在整段的开头,下面连续有Firstly, Secondly,

thirdly等词,由此可以判断属于总分式。又如济南市4月份统考试题的补全句子也是根据上句whether one’s act is wise or unwise, rather the summit of wisdom, depends on the result of the act得出正确答案。

?

回答此类问题时,一定首先注意弄清楚上下文的逻辑关系,如递进、转折、并列、对比、因果等等;然后根据上下文的含义搞清楚空白处该填句子还是短语或者单词,再读上下文,最后确定答案。

? 补全句子参考过度词汇

①表总结:in conclusion, in summary, to sum up, on the whole, in general, in short, to be brief

? ②表比较:on the other hand, on the contrary, in comparison with, in contrast to/with ? ③表原因:due to, owing to, because of, on account of

? ④表结果:as a result, therefore, thus, consequently

? ⑤表层进:in addition, moreover, furthermore, in other words, what’s more, last but not

least

? ⑥表转折:but, however, nevertheless, at the same time, in spite of, despite

? ⑦表选择:rather than, instead of

3、翻译句子

在该类题目中要求翻译的句子往往是结果较为复杂或者包括一些特定习语的句子。因此再翻译之前一定要先分析句子结构,并结合文章中心思想以及上下文弄清句子所在的语境,同时还要注意英、汉两种语言及其问题特征的差异,最后在忠实于原文的基础上,把画线部分的句子翻译成符合汉语表达习惯的句子。

句子翻译(英译汉)

此题主要是让考生翻译文章中的长句、难句、关键词或关键句,英译汉必须

做到忠实于原文的语义内容,并且语句通顺,符合汉语表达习惯。在做题时需要注意两种语言之间的差异,同时还要了解常用的翻译方法。

(1) 掌握英汉两种语言句子构成之间的差异。

英语中信息的传达, 把新的信息放在句首, 已知信息放在句尾, 句子结构相

对复杂; 汉语重句子的层次, 一般遵循时间顺序、逻辑顺序,句子在安排上往往以"先旧后新、先因后果、先条件后结论"等为原则, 句子结构往往简短。

举例来说:"An earthquake happened in Japan last week. "

句子在安排上首先强调的是最重要的信息是"earthquake ", 其次是"in

Japan ,last week"。

汉语则是: "上周日本发生了地震"。句子在安排上并没有以信息为先, 而是把

时间、地点和事件逐一说来。

(2) 两种句式的翻译:

①定语从句:英语的句子是向外扩展的, 因为词可以有定语从句来修饰, 而

定语从句可以无限地叠加, 所以说有时一个句子长到可以独立成段, 此时如果还按照汉语定语置于主体词之前的习惯来翻译, 句子不仅会很长,读起来很费力, 而且翻译出的句子也不像是地道的汉语, 达意上当然就会有很大的问题了, 更何况有时不做调整根本就无法翻译。

遇到这类问题就要根据两种语言句法的不同点, 把英语的长定语从句转换成

汉语的短句, 适当调整句子之间的先后顺序, 做到句子条理清楚, 意思明确即可。比如说

在翻译"After graduation , he got a job as a programmer in a big company that paid $1, 000 a month"这个句子时, 就可以把其中的定语从句进行拆分, 译成"毕业之后,他到一家大公司做编程工作, 月薪一千美金"。

? ②被动句:被动句的翻译也是应该注意的。英语和汉语的不同点之一是: 英

语较多使用被动句。汉语总体来说, 被动句的使用不多, 且多数情况下所传达的都是负面的信息或者是极其肯定的信息: 如: "我被打了", "我的车被盗了", "他被授予诺贝尔和平奖"等等。在做翻译时, 一定要注意这一现象, 并把英语大量的被动句转换成汉语的主动句或把字句等。

? 举例说

:"The wallet was lost when I was on my way back home",

? 可译成― 我昨天在回家的路上丢了钱包

"; "The U. S was attacked by t he terrorist s on Sept. 11th, 2001", 可译成"美国在2001 年9 月11 日遭到了恐怖分子的袭击"。

(3)常用的翻译方法:

意译法:通常我们采用最多的是直译法。可是我们常会遇到一些容易理解,

但难以表达或者表达不到位的情况, 往往是英文中一个常见词就是找不到确切的汉语来表达。这时我们可以采用意译法。

比如:Distance from the event should make the memories less painful.(时过境迁,痛苦的往事会在记忆中淡漠。)。

再如: She showered us with telegrams.(她的电报纷至沓来。)

增译法:指在英译汉时需要根据情况适当地删减。英语词与词、词组与词组以及句子与句子的逻辑关系一般用连词来表示,而汉语则往往通过上下文和语序来表示这种关系。如:What about calling him right away? 马上给他打个电话,你觉得如何? (增译主语和谓语)。

拆句法:拆句法是把一个长而复杂的句子拆译成若干个较短、较简单的句子。如:Increased cooperation with China is in the interests of the United States.

同中国加强合作,符合美国的利益。 (在主谓连接处拆译)

倒置法:在汉语中,定语修饰语和状语修饰语往往位于被修饰语之前;在英语中,许多修饰语常常位于被修饰语之后,因此翻译时往往要把原文的语序颠倒过来,即对英语长句按照汉语的习惯表达法进行前后调换,按意群进行全部倒置,原则是使汉语译句安排符合现代汉语论理叙事的一般逻辑顺序。如:

Great changes have taken place in China since the

introduction of the reform and opening policy.改革开放以来,中国发生了巨大的变化。(全部倒置)

词类转换法:词类可根据词语在上下文中所起的作用进行转换,也可根据汉语表达习惯的要求进行转换,在实际操作中须变通处理、灵活掌握。

① 名词转动词

Robots have found application for the exploration of the outer space. (机器人已经被用于探索外空间。)

②名词转形容词

He is a stranger to the operation of the helicopter. (他对直升机的操作很陌生。)

③动词转名词

The university aims at the first rate of the world. (学校的目标是成为

世界一流的大学。)

④形容词转名词

The Internet is different from traditional media in that it sends and

receives information faster.

(因特网和传统媒体的区别就在于因特网可以更快地发送和接收信息。)

⑤形容词转动词

Success is dependent on his efforts. (成功与否取决于他的努力。)

⑥形容词转副词

The pictures give a visual representation of the situation.

(这些图片直观地展示了当时的情景。)

⑦介词转连词With all its shortcomings this composition is regarded as the best. (尽管这篇作文有缺陷,但仍被认为是最佳的。)

总之,要把握准文章意思,再根据上下文和文章的含义合理地翻译出来就可以了。但要做到表达完整、句子通顺,切勿望文生义,偏离主题。

例:80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 Chinese.

Whatever the reason, my urban hellos were answered far less often than my rural one. 不管出于什么原因,我在城里打招呼得到的回应比在乡村少得多。

4、同义句替换

? 只有准确理解所给句子的意义,才能准确快速地找出原文中意义相同的句子。 ? 同义词或词组,句子成分划分

5、封闭性问题

? 封闭性问题是指答案是固定或唯一的问题,一般可在文章中找到明确的答案或依据,包括

常见的wh-questions。

6 、开放性问题:

开放性问题是阅读表达中主观性最强的试题,要求考生结合个人的观点、经验来回答相关问题。

7、其他类型

? 该题是结合文章的不同题材和体裁给出的除以上6种类型以外的类型的题。比如设计图表

题,推理判断题等。

应试技巧与策略:

1.对于主旨概括题,要通读全文,分清主旨与细节,防止以偏概全。这类题目大多是要求给出文章的题目。文章的标题可以是一个完整的句子、简洁的短语或者是一个问题,书写时要特别注意字母的大小写和字数问题。题目可以全部用大写;可以实词第一个字母大写,虚词第一个字母小写;也可以第一个字母用大写,其余除专有名词外全部用小写。如果是个疑问句,可以在题目后加问号,但如果是陈述句则不必加句号。

2.英文释义题,也可称句子替代题,要求从文章中找出与所给的句子含义相同的句子来,一般读懂了文章,弄清了所给句子和文中相应句子的意思即可答出,该题是阅读表达中相对比较简单的一个题。

3.对于句子填空,要充分利用文章中表示对比、转折、因果、递进、条件等关系的连接词,结合上下文语境,来搞清楚需要填的究竟是什么含义的句子。

4.做翻译句子的题时,一定要使句子意思切合语境,表达简洁、准确、到位,不可罗罗索嗦、颠三倒四、词不达意。

四年高考习题训练

评分原则:

1、本节总分为15分,每小题3分。

2、考生答案应与参考答案意义相符。

3、语言错误、表达不当应酌情扣分。

4、超出字数限制应酌情扣分。

2007山东卷的阅读表达实例对各种类型问题的答题技巧说明

An American friend of mine who was high up in a big corporation had worked out a way of handling a flood of e-mails before most of us had even heard of the concept. If any information he was sent was vital enough, his lack of response would ensure the sender rang him up, if the sender wasn’t important enough to have his private number, the communication couldn’t be that important, my friend is now even more senior in the same company so the strategy must work. Almost every week now there seems to be a report suggesting that we are all being driven crazy by the bother of e-mail. If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it.

_________. Firstly, you junk nothing with an exclamation mark or a string of capital letters, or from any address you don’t recognize or feel confident about.

Secondly, e-mails don’t all have to be answered. Because e-mailing is so easy, there’s a tendency for

correspondence to carry on for ever, but it is permissible to stop an endless discussion or to accept a point of information sent by a colleague without acknowledging it.

Thirdly, a reply e-mail doesn’t have to be the same length as the original. We all have e-mail pals who send long, chatty e-mail, which are nice to receive, but who then expect an equally long reply. The charm of e-mail can consist in the simple, incomplete sentence, totally regardless of the format of the letter sent by post. You are perfectly within the bounds of politeness in responding to a marathon e-mail with a better reply.

76.Which sentence in the passage is the closest in meaning to the following one?

The possible existence of annoyance results from our inability to sort out e-mails

___________________________________________________________________

77.Fill in the blank in Paragraph 3 with a proper sentence.(within 10 words )

___________________________________________________________________

78.What advice is given in the last paragraph? (within 10 words)

____________________________________________________________________

79.For what purpose does the author mention his American friend in Paragraph 1 ?(within 10 words)

____________________________________________________________________

80.Translate the underlined sentence in the last paragraph into Chinese.

____________________________________________________________________

答案与解析:

76. 答案:If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it.

解析:该题为同意句替换题,细读所给句子,不难得出其意义“这些令人恼火的情况之所以存在,是因为我们没有对电子邮件进行分类的能力”。然后对照原文,就很容易找到其同意句了。

77. 答案:E-mail(s) can be handled in the following ways. / Here are the ways to deal with e-mail(s). / handling e-mail(s) is an art.

解析:该题为填空题。做该类题目首先要根据上下文搞清楚所填内容是句子还是短语或单词。从该题要求来看我们可以知道此处要填入合适的句子。联系上下文可知,下文所列三条都是处理电子邮件的方法,那就不难知道,此处所填句子内容应该是一个概括性较强的topic sentence,这样我们就不难知道该填什么内容了。

78. 答案:You may reply to a long e-mail briefly./ You don’t have to write a long reply e-mail. 解析:该题为封闭性问题,要求答出最后一段所给的建议。做这种类型的题目时,首先要读懂该段要告诉读者的是什么信息,然后根据要求进行总结,因为有字数限制,所以答题时要特别注意如何用词和如何组织语言。从最后一段的第一句我们就可以知道这条建议是告诉读者“在回复e-mail时,不必和对方来信的长度一样”。其实这句话就是该问题的答案,但是由于有字数限定,我们就必须改变一下说法,使答案的字数控制在10个单词以内,这样就可以避免学生照抄原文,从而达到考察学生灵活运用语言能力的目的。

79. 答案:To show a way of handling e-mail(s) with an example. / To introduce the topic of the text.

解析:该题属于其他类型的题目,要求考生写出作者在第一段中提到他美国朋友的写作意图。纵观全文不难知道,该短文的主旨是向读者介绍处理电子邮件的方法。而作者在第一段引用他美国朋友处理邮件的方法做为例子,目的正是为了揭示文章主题。

80. 答案:用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节。/ 用简短的话回复马拉松式的电子邮件也是礼貌的。

解析:该题为句子翻译题。做该题时应先分析句子成分,搞清每个意群的含义,然后结合上下文以及文章的中心思想,调整成符合汉语表达习惯的通顺的汉语句子。翻译该句,关键是搞清处两个短语的含义,一个是within the bound of (在?范围内), 另一个是in responding to

2008山东卷的阅读表达

阅读下面的短文,并根据短文后的要求答题(请注意问题后的字数要求)。

[1]The word addiction usually makes you think of alcohol or drugs, but in modern-day society we are seeing some new kinds of addictions. Some people are compulsive (难以自制的) shoppers. Others find it impossible to pull themselves away from their work. Still others spend countless hours watching TV or playing computer games

[2]Over the years, shopping has become a very common activity. Many people enjoy going to malls or stores more and more everyday, but it’s more than a common hobby for some of them. They have turned into shopaholics. They are people who simply enjoy shopping and walking around spending money without being able to stop doing it. They are hooked on shopping and usually buy things that they don’t need. Even though they don’t have enough money, they buy everything they want.

[3]The question is: why do they have this addiction? There isn’t a specific answer. Some people go shopping when they are sad, worried, upset or lonely and they want to feel better. They use this activity as a way to forget their problems. Shopaholics say that they feel more important and better after they buy something. They also tend to have this addiction when they feel guilty.

[4]Shopaholism seems to be a harmless addiction, but it can ___________. Some of them can be psychological. If this is the case, people addicted to shopping should go to a support group to help them break this habit. However, the process, like for most addictions, is long, and they suffer a lot. It can also cause financial problems. They just think about satisfying their feelings, so they spend money they don’t have. They get deep in debt, and they can even go bankrupt and get sent to prison.

76. List three activities that might develop into addictions based on the text. (Please answer within 8 words)

① ________________________

② _______________________

③ ________________________

77. What’s the main idea of Paragraph 3? (Please answer within 8 words)

_______________________________

78. Fill in the blank in paragraph 4 with proper words. (Please answer within 6words)

_________________________________________

79. Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one?

Accordingly, these shopaholics should turn to a certain organization for help so that they can stop compulsive shopping.

_________________________________________

80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 2 into Chinese.

_________________________________________

【答案说明与解析】

76. 答案:shopping, drinking, playing computer games, working, watching TV, taking drugs. (答出其中三种即可,不根据原文回答不得分)

说明:该题属于根据具体文章设置的其他类型的问题。要求根据文章列举出三种容易成瘾的活动,答案不是唯一的,但是也不能根据自己的经验自由发挥。

解析:此题的答案应根据文章第一段的内容进行归纳、提炼。第一句说提到addiction人们通常会想到alcohol or drugs,可见drinking, taking drugs是容易成瘾的活动;根据第三句可容易概括出shopping, 根据第四句概括出working,根据第五句提炼出watching TV 和 playing computer games。

77. 答案: The reason why some people/ shopaholics have shopping addiction

The possible reasons for shopaholism/ shopping addition

说明:该题属于主旨大意题,要求概括出第三段的主要意思是什么。

解析:第三段第一句提出问题:why do they have this addiction? 接着说明这一问题,所以第一句即是该段的中心句,因此概括出以上答案。

78. 答案: cause/ bring about/ result in many problems

说明:该题属于补全句子题。要求给出的答案要保持上下文的连贯性,而且与参考答案的意思接近。

解析:解答该类题目时,要认真阅读上下文,理清短文作者的思路,按照题目的要求进行表达;填入的内容应该与前后内容连贯,恰当地表达作者的意图。从该段内容来看,空格处应该是该段的概括句,空格后的句子都是说购物成瘾会导致什么后果,因此需要填入上述答案中的短语。

79. 答案:If this is the case, people addicted to shopping should go to a support group to help them break this habit.

Accordingly, these shopaholics should turn to a certain organization for help so that they can stop compulsive shopping.

说明:该题属于英文释义题。要求考生准确地找出与所给句子意义相同的句子,并抄写正确。 解析:解答这类题一定要从总体上把握句意,然后再回读原文,从中找出意义相同的句子。解答这类题的一个有效方法是找对应词,即意义相同或相近的词汇或短语。所给句子中的turn to与答案句中的 go to?to help..同义,a certain organization与答案句中的a support group同义,stop compulsive shopping与答案句中的break this habit同义,据此可以确定答案。

80. 答案:他们购物成瘾,而且通常买的都是用不着的东西。

他们购物上瘾,常买些不需要的东西。

说明:该题属于句子翻译题。要求在准确、全面的基础上,翻译成通顺的汉语,并表达出作者的思路。

解析:该句翻译的难点在于hook的理解。Hook的本意是“钩住”,引申为“沉迷,上瘾”。其余部分基本与汉语表达一致,没有理解障碍。

2009山东卷的阅读表达

[1] Hello. It’s one of the first words we learn as babies, yet it’s one of the last ones we think to use as adults. That’s unfortunate, because saying hello is more than just saying hello—it is recognition of another’s worth. How might the world change—how might we change—if we mastered this word? To find out, I spent one month saying hello to every person I met. Here’s what I’ve learned. Ks5u

[2] It can boost (促进) productivity. In one of the few studies ever done on this subject, Allan Allday, an assistant professor of special education at Oklahoma State University, had middle school teachers greet their students individually each morning. This exchange of greetings raised the kids’ productivity. School went from impersonal to personal, and that resulted in more class participation and better grades. Ks5u

[3] Environments influence friendliness, One study found that people in the city were kiss likely to one hands with a stranger than those in the countryside. And researchers say, pleasure environments generally encourage more smiles and hellos than unpleasant ones. My experience was similarly. Whatever the reason, my urban hellos were answered far less often than my rural one. Similarly, people in vacation spots, like the Jersey Shore, were far friendlier than those hurrying work downtown. Ks5u

[4] It’s a form of universal health insurance. It’s impossible to say hello without smiling. And smiling has been shown to lower blood pressure, relieve stress and boost happiness. Apparently, a smile creates a similar effect in the recipient (接受者)。[5] So maybe we can make the world a better place by____________. After a month of doing it. I feel lighter and more connected and I have a better sense of well-being. Ks5u

76. What does the author say about the adults according to Paragraph 1? (within 8 words) _________________________________________________________________________

77. Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one?

Teachers and students got friendlier so that the students became more active in learning and scored higher in tests. ____________________________________________________________________________

78. Fill in the blank in Paragraph 5 with proper words. (within 5 words)

79. List three effects of smiling on health according to the text. (within 8 words)

① ② ③

80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 Chinese.

【答案】

76. Adults are not willing to say hello.

77. School went from impersonal to personal, and that resulted in more class participation and better grades.

78. saying hello to each other/ greeting each other/ saying hello

79. ①lowering blood pressure ②relieving stress ③boosting happiness

80. 不管出于什么原因,我在城里打招呼得到的回应比在乡村少得多。

2010山东卷的阅读表达

[1]One out of many important things for the whole family to do is to have dinner together. Researchers began reporting the benefits of family dinner about a decade ago, focusing mainly on how it affects children. Studies show that those families who eat dinner at least 3 or 4 times a week together, benefit in many ways.

[2]Eating together helps families achieve open communication and build stronger and healthier relationships. Children have better grades at school and are better adjusted as teens and adults, and the entire family enjoys healthier nutrition. For many families, eating dinner together proves to be good and effective way to reduce the risk of youth rates of addiction, and helps to raise healthier children. It is also a great time to share the events of the day, discuss news and ideas and just be together and enjoy each other's company.

[3]During dinner time parents have better opportunity to show that they are the prior to their children. Sitting at the same table and sharing meals is where and when parents can find out more about their children's school performance, daily activities and attitudes toward life. When parents have all this information they can better direct their kids toward positive things in life. They also have better chance to reduce the possibility that children will get involved with alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs.

[4]However, family researchers say that the benefits of family dinner by no means can be considered as automatic. Parents can sit down to dinner with their kids every day and achieve nothing. ____________________ if there is too much arguing going on, if there is no meaningful conversation or, what is even worse, if there is just plain silence during gathering.

76. What is the main idea of the text? (no more than 8 words)

________________________________________________________________________

77. Which sentence in the text is closest in meaning to the following one?

By having dinner together family members can have free exchange of information and develop closer ties among them.

________________________________________________________________________

78. Fill in the blank in Paragraph 4 with proper words. (no more than 8 words)

________________________________________________________________________

79. What information can parents probably get about their children at family dinner? (no more than 12 words)

________________________________________________________________________

80. Translate the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 into Chinese.

76.Families benefit from eating together./Having dinner together is beneficial to families.

77. Eating together helps families achieve open communication and build stronger and healthier relationships.

78. No family dinner can benefit/ Family dinner may not benefit

79. Their children's school performance, daily activities and attitudes toward life.

80.父母也有更好的机会来减少孩子沾染烟、酒和毒品的可能性。 或:父母也更有可能降低子女染上吸烟、酗酒、吸毒等不良习惯的几率。

第六篇

Now we come to the most popular crime of all –pocketpicking. Pickpockets are everywhere, in every country. Though pickpockets seldom turn to violence, they have been troubling the world for many centuries, whose skill has been handed down from generation to generation. I suppose you have all read in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens how green hands were taught by the old professionals.

Today the pickpockets have overtaken their forefathers of Dickens’ time in both number and skill. They can be found wherever a crowd gathers. For them, documents such as passports and identification cards (ID cards) are as valuable as cash. There is a ready market of official documents as well as counterfeit (not real) money, traveler’s checks, driver’s licenses and so on. I shall not go into the details of all the crimes that I have mentioned above and I have no time to study other crimes. But one thing ____________________________ is that the rate of increase of every kind of crime has been surprising. a bit. Many of them often say, ―Well, what is to be will be!‖ or ―After all, we just have to compromise (妥协) among evils‖.

阅读短文,回答问题。

1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words)

______________________________________________________________________________

2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one?

I think it is not necessary to talk about other crimes

______________________________________________________________________________

3. Please fill in the blank in the second paragraph with proper word or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words)

______________________________________________________________________________

4. What should we do with crimes and violence according to the passage? (Please answer within 30 words)

___________________________________________________________________

5. Translate the underlined sentence in the second paragraph into Chinese.

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

【答案与解析】

1. The most popular crime – pocketpicking.

2. I shall not go into the details of all the crimes that I have mentioned above and I have no time to study other crimes.

3. you can be sure of/ you can make clear

4. Crimes and violence can’t be ignored The spreading of crimes and violence weighs heavily on the mind of people , so we shouldn’t compromise among evils but resist them (The answers may vary if reasonable.)

5. 然而我们必须清楚的认识到犯罪和暴力令那些过着诚信生活的美国人很担忧,但是他们根本不想改变他们的生活方式, 来解决这一问题。

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