? Stock Exchange, organized market for buying and selling financial instruments, including stocks, options, and futures. Most stock exchanges have specific locations where commissioned, or paid, intermediaries called brokers conduct trading—that is, buying and selling. At a stock exchange, certain brokers specialize in trading certain stocks. These specialists operate on the floor of the exchange, the area where all trading takes place. Brokers pack the floor during trading. They often use bargaining and negotiation to execute larger trades, and they take bids for the highest prices. The process is noisy and frantic, and brokers use hand signals to communicate above the chaos.
London Stock Exchange
? The London Stock Exchange is one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges and can trace its history back more than 300 years. Starting life in the coffee houses of 17th century London, the Exchange quickly grew to become the City’s most important financial institution. Now it is at the heart of global financial markets and is home to some of the best companies in the world. Its aim is to compete in the global market for financial transaction services to become the supplier of choice – providing customers with the most efficient, trusted and reliable services, and shareholders with the most successful exchange business.
Castle: fortified residence of a feudal lord or monarch. Derived from the walled cities of ancient Rome and the fortified palaces of Byzantium, the castle became virtually ubiquitous in western Europe during the wars of the late Middle Ages. An Englishman’s house is his castle.
? aroma: A pleasant characteristic odor, as of a plant, spice, or food. the kitchen aroma / the aroma of coffee ? A distinctive quality a city with the aroma of Paris. ? c.f. smell (smelly) fragrance scent / perfume
? minute: a note or summary; a memorandum ? make a minute of a debate ? minutes: An official record of the proceedings at a meeting. (both verb and noun.) ? to minute the proceedings of a meeting ? to write up the minutes of a meeting ? adj. [mai’nju:t]: exceptionally small; tiny
crash / plummet
To decline suddenly and steeply
Greenback: the paper currency first issued by the United States during the American Civil War Buck: (slang) US dollar
? poly- ―more than one, many, much‖ ? polyatomic ? polyadenitis ? polyalcohol ? polyamine ? polycentric ? polyethnic
American Civil War
? American Civil War, a military conflict between the United States of America (the Union) and the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy) from 1861 to 1865. It is sometimes called the War Between the States, the War of Rebellion, or the War for Southern Independence. It began on April 12, 1861, and lasted until May 26, 1865, when the last Confederate army surrendered. The war took more than 600,000 lives, destroyed property valued at $5 billion, brought