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发布时间:2014-07-04 14:11:00  

范文阅读Model Essay Reading

观察点 Points of Observation
Use of words ? Structure ? Implication ? Connection

Example 1 (注意句与句之间连接)
Nosocomial Infection Medical, surgical, and neonatal critical care areas provide a concentration of patients at high risk for developing nosocomial infection. This is a reflection of patients’ underlying disease, the frequent use of invasive monitoring, and alteration of normal flora by antibiotics.

Often patients are in close proximity to each other, promoting transmission by busy medical personnel who fail to wash their hands between contacts. Crossinfection has been reported to be particularly common among thermally injured patients.

Furthermore, the widespread use of topical antibiotics may select for colonization and infection with multiply resistant organisms.


Proper design of critical care units with regard to separation of patients by partitions and placement of sinks at the entranceway to individual cubicles, as well as optimal nursingto-patient ratios, may be required to minimize the risks of cross infection.


Others suggested infection control means include 1) the notification of the infection control team by the unit of all new procedures or products, and 2) use of a clinical flow sheet listing all catheters, dates of insertion, and rationale for continued use.

Example 2
Nutrition and Surgery Prepoperative evaluation of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal functions, together with an assessment of the immunologic status and physiologic age, is performed routinely in the preparation of a patient for operation in order to minimize operative and postoperative risks.


However, an equally critical though sometimes disregarded, factor affecting surgical judgment is the nutritional condition of the patient.


Nutritional status is very important in surgery because certain forms of malnutrition increase the morbidity and mortality of operations; because particular types of surgical procedures necessitate periods of relative or complete starvation preoperative and/or postoperatively; and because specific pathologic conditions or lesions that have caused or contributed to the state of malnutrition often require operative therapy.


Moreover, accidental or surgical trauma precipitates the catabolic response described by Cuthbertson and his associates in 1935, promoting excessive nitrogen losses and accentuating any existing protein deficits.


Certain specific nutritional problems that occur less frequently in other disciplines of medicine often confront the surgeon.


There may be prolonged periods of time during which patients cannot be fed by mouth or by intestinal tube because of bowel obstruction, primarily gastrointestinal disease, peritonitis, or other alimentary tract conditions. Such patients usually require parenteral means of nourishment.

Example 3
Clinical Approach to Neurological Disorders

Patient wi

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