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初中英语主谓一致和就近原则讲解及练习

发布时间:2013-10-01 18:32:57  

英语语法——主谓一致(就近、就远原则)

就近原则:

也称“邻近原则”“就近一致原则”(Proximity),即:谓语与靠近的名词、代词(有时不一定是主语)在“人称、数”上一致。

在正式文体中:

1.由下列词语连接的并列主语:"there be+句型; or ; either …or;nor; neither…nor;whether…or;not…but; not only…but also" ; 等。e.g.

①What he does or what he says does not concern me . 他的行为或言谈都与我无关。 ②Neither you nor I am wrong . 你和我都没错。

③Not you but your father is to blame . 不是你,而是你父亲该受责备。 ④Not only you but(also) he is wrong .不仅你错了,他也错了。

2. 在倒装句中:谓语可与后面第一个主语一致。e.g.

①In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people . 在远处,能听见鼓掌声和人们的呼喊声。

②There is (are) a pen and some books on the desk .桌上有一支钢笔和几本书。 II. 非正式文体中:

有时依“就近一致原则”,但也可依“意义一致原则”或严格地依“语法一致原则”。e.g. Neither she nor I were there (意义一致) 我和他当时都不在那儿。(非正式) Neither she nor I was there .(就近一致)(译文同上句)(正式)

但是,如果依“就近一致原则”而与其他两项原则相矛盾时,则常常认为是不太合符规范的。e.g.

No one except his own supporters agree with him .仅他自己的支持者同意他的意见。(依“就近”和“意义”一致的原则;但语法上,“No one ”才是主语,谓语要改成“agrees”。“写作中”一般要依“语法一致”原则。

英语就近原则短语

1.There be 句型 There is a book and some pencils on the desk.

=There are some pencils and a book on the desk.

2.neither...nor... Neither you nor he is right. = Neither he nor you are right.

3.either...or... Either they or Jim is going to Shanghai next Saturday.

= Either Jim or they are going to shanghai next Saturday.

4.not only...but also... Not only Ann but also her parents stay at home every Sunday.

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= Not only Ann's parents but also she stays at home every Sunday.

就远原则

谓语动词与前面主语一致

代表词汇:as well as;(together/along)with;rather than;except;besides;but;including;in addition to;apart from

例子:He rather than I is right.

Nobody but two students is in the classroom.

主谓一致单项填空专练

主谓一致是历年中考热点之一,一般说来,句子的主语和谓语在人称与数上应保持一致,但在很多情况下存在一些特殊情况,这些特殊情况就是重要考点。

一、当主语后面与with, as well as, but, except, like, rather than, no less than, besides, including等 + 名词或代词连用时, 谓语动词与第一个主语保持一致。

1. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ________ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck.

A. was B. were C. had been D. would be

2. A library with five thousand books ________ to the nation as a gift.

A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered

3. E-mail, as well as telephones, ________ an important part in daily

communication.

A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play

4. Nobody but Jane ________ the secret.

A. know B. knows C. have known D. is known

5. All but one ________ here just now.

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A. is B. was C. has been D. were

二、当 either ... or ...; neither ... nor...;not only... but also...等连接并列主语时,谓语动词与靠近它的主语保持一致。

6. Either you or the headmaster ________ the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting.

A. was handing out B. are to hand out C. are handing out D. is to hand out

7. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ________ tired of having one examination after another.

A. is B. are C. am D. be

三、 当“the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”,且关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式;当“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”,且关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词用复数形式。

8. He is the only one of the students who ________ a winner of scholarship for three years.

A. is B. are C. have been D. has been

9. She is one of the few girls who ________ in the kindergarten.

A. is well paid B. are well paid C. is paying well D. are paying well

四、当news, means, maths, plastics, physics等在形式上是复数概念,而在意义上是单数概念的名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

10. Every possible means ________ to prevent the pollution, but the sky is still not clear.

A. is used B. are used C. has been used D. have been used

五、当分数(百分数)+of+名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于of后面名词的数。 3

11. ________ of the land in that district ________ covered with trees and grass.

A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifth; are C. Two fifths; is D. Two fifths; are

六、the number of...(……的数目)短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;当a number of...(许多……)短语作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

12. The number of people invited ________fifty, but a number of them ________ absent for different reasons.

A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were

七、当“疑问词 + 不定式”结构作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。

13. When and where to build the new factory ________ yet.

A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided 以上仅从七个方面归纳了主谓一致的特殊情况,但在实际学习中还不止这些,希望同学们在以后的学习中对此多加留意,以不断丰富、充实其内容,为未来高考做好准备。 参考答案: 1—5 AAABD 6—10 DBDBC 11—13 CCA

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