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初一下英语知识梳理[1]

发布时间:2013-10-02 09:01:59  

初一第二学期

知识梳理

一、语法

1.动词时态

2.祈使句

动词时态
名称 特征词 肯定句的动词 原形 第三人称单数 一般现在 sometimes, usually, often

always, every...,
现在进行

一般过去

look, listen, now, It’s ...(几点了) . 后的句子 Don’t do sth. 后的句子 yesterday..., just now, ...ago, this morning, When I was young,

be + doing

过去式

否定句、一般疑问句的结构
句中有be、can, may , must, would 的变法
否定句 只在其后+not (some-any) 一般疑问句 将其放到句首...+?

句中没有be、can, may , must, would 的变法
动词 原形 第三人 称单数 过去式 否定句 在主语后+don’t 在主语后+doesn’t +动词原形 在主语后+didn’t +动词原形 一般疑问句 句前+Do +? 句前+ Does +动词原形 +? 句前+Did+动词原形+?

回答:
Can you ...? Is he...? Do you ...? Does...she ? Did they...? Yes, I can. Yes, he is. Yes, I do. No, I can’t. No, he isn’t. No, I don’t. No, they didn’t. No. I wouldn’t.

Yes she does. No, she doesn’t. Yes, they did.

Would you...? Yes, I would.

Were they...? Yes, they were. No, they weren’t.

Should you...? Yes, I should.

No, I shouldn’t.

二、祈使句 肯 定 式 否 定 式

无人称、动词开头, 带命令色彩的句子。

Open the window, please.

Look at here.
Please read after me. Don’t open the window.

Don’t look at here.
Don’t read after me.

二、话题
1.天气及季节 2.人的相貌及性格 3.健康 4.假期

简单句 并列句

三、 句 子

复合句 选择问句 特殊疑问句 感叹句 一般疑问句

否定句
祈使句

简单句
并列句 复合句 选择问句 特殊疑问句 感叹句 一般疑问句 否定句

This is an orange bike.

He knows me and I know him. When I was 5, I could swim. Did you live here or there? What did they learn just now? What a heavy rain it is!
Does Tom speak French?

I don’t understand it.
Stand (Don’t) up.

祈使句

四、句型 (及交际用语)
1.某人用多长时间做某事: It takes/took sb. + time + to do sth. 2. 提问时间:

What’s the time?
What time is it? What time is it by your watch?

3.提问日期:

What’s the date today? What was the date yesterday?
4. 提问星期几: What day is it today?

What day was yesterday?

5.提问某人的生日:

When is one’s birthday?
6. 提问天气:

What is the weather like today? (How is the weather today?)

What was the weather yesterday?
(How was the weather yesterday?

7.提问温度:

What’s today’s temperature? How about the temperature?
8. 提问人的相貌:

What does...look like?
9. 提问人的性格:

What is ... like?

10.询问对方情况:

What’s wrong with...sb.?

What’s the matter with ...sb.?
11. 到该做什么事的时候了。

It’s time to do sth.

It’s time for sth.

12. 提建议用语:

Why not do sth.? Why don’t you do sth.? W

hat about sth. / doing sth.? It’s best to do sth. You’d better do sth.

13.谈论健康问题:

1) 用英文叙述自己的病症

have a fever have a cold have a pain here have a headache have a sore through have a stomachache...

? Take / Have some / these medicine three times a day. ? Drink more water and stay in bed for a few days. ? It’s nothing serious. You’ll be / get / become OK / well soon/ in one or two days. ? Don’t be so tired.

2) 就此病症提出合理建议

五、词类
1. 动词 6. 形容词、副词

2. 系动词 3. 代词 4.不定代词
5. 连词

7.数词 8. 频率副词 9. 介词
10. 疑问词

He watches TV every day.
1.动词
(谓语)

He is watching TV now.
He watched TV a moment ago.

He enjoys watching TV.
动词
(非谓语)

Jim makes me laugh.
I wanted to see it again.

2.系动词 (+形容词的动词)

look sound taste feel get

turn become be smell

1) Jim’s idea sounds nice. 2) Kate looks taller. 3) I feel nervous now.
4) Beijing becomes bigger. 5) The days get long.

6) The cake tastes delicious.

3.代词
人 主格 I you he she 称 代 宾格 me you him her 词 it it we you us you they their

物 主 代 词

形容 词性

my

your his

her

its our

your

their

名词 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs 性

4.不定代词
1. other, others, the other, the others, another, One..., the other..., any other 2. one, ones, one’s

3. something
anything

somebody / someone
anybody / anyone

everything
nothing

everybody / everyone
nobody / no one

5. 连词
1. and 7. when

2. but
3. or 4. so

8. before
9. after 10. as

5. though 11. if 6. because

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

1. Jim often helps me with my English _____ I often help him and with his Chinese. 2. _________ the question is very Because difficult, few of us can answer it. 3. Mr. Black is over 70 years old, ____ he still works 8 hours a day. but

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

4. Everyone must be here _________ 6:00 tomorrow. before 5. __________it is raining Though heavily, the farmers are still working in the field. 6. I can help you ___ I have if time.

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

7. ______ getting up, I always After listen to the radio for a while.

8. We must be quick, ___ we or can’t follow them.
9. To catch the early bus, ___ I so got up very early this morning.

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

10. ______ the teacher When came in, I was thinking about the game.

11. __ you know him, why If not go and meet Jim instead of me, Kate?

6.形容词、副词
在词尾处+ ly

形容词 与副词 的转换

y结尾时,去y + ily 有的e结尾的单词,需去y + ly,有的则直接+ly。

1.quick—quickly 3.terrible-terribly 5.brave-bravely

2. easy--easily 4. true-truly 6. careful-carefully

形容词、副词的使用
形 容 词
修饰名词

They

are clever boys. I prefer long hair.
修饰动词、形容词

副 词

It really sounds nice.

They work very hard.

7. 数词
基数词变序数词

数 词

用来表达年、月、日

用来表达时、分

百,千,万,的表达 几分之几

8. 频率副词

? 用How often 对它们进行提问。
? 他们体现了动词出现的频率程度。

? I always have milk for breakfast. ?I usually have eggs for breakfast. ?I often have noodles for it. ? I sometimes have fruits for it. ? I seldom have rice for it. ? I never have meat in the morning.

9. 与 时 间 相 关 的 介 词

on 具体日子、节日、
生日、星期几前

in 某年、某月前 at 某分,某时前 for 时间段前
当“早上、下午、晚 上”被修饰时不用 in 而用on.

表示方位的介词:

The Position

某物/处在某处的东南西北。

north

northwest
west

northeast east

southwest southeast south

in, to, on 的区别
某处 在某 处之

to

in



on
某处与某 处相接壤

某处在某 处之内

with
的多 种用 法

do sth. with sb./ sth. a girl with long hair a room with two doors a city with large population be busy with sth. be popular with... be with a style of... talk with sb. help sb. with sth. an action movie with Jackie Chan What’s wrong / the matter with...?

10. 疑问词
提问 What time is it? 价格 how much 几点 What’s the time? 钟 地点 where 数量 how many... how much... what...do... 程度、how 动词、 方式 宾语 what 主语 who, whom... 性格 What’s...like? 时间 when 长相 What does/ do... look like? 频率 how often 天气 What’s ...like? How’s...?

六、常用短语
1.wake up 8. fall off 2. wake...sb. up 9. come out 3. tell... about 10. get along with... 4. talk to / with sb. 11. turn on / off 5. invite ...to... 12. put on 6. play with 13. take off 7. think about... 14. be always doing... think out 15. add... to think of... 16. know about

17. learn about 18. start with 19. give of 20. be called / named 21. stop off 22. on the telephone 23. on the Internet 24. on weekend 25. on the earth on the moon

26. in many ways 27. in fact 28. in summer 29. in the sun 30. in one’s thirties 31. in space 32. in 1990 33. in the 1990s 34. in the night 35. at night

36. at this time of year 46. on the top 37. at the same time 47. a road to... 38. at the moment 48. to sb. 39. at the end of... 49. be different 40. from...to.. from... 41. for a while 50. be difference 42. for a drink between 43. for days 51. go to sw. for a 44. on the other side of... holiday 45. on one’s way to... 52. as usual

53. be interested in... 54. be always doing... 55. by bike 56. on Kate’s bike 57. a photo of... 58. a photographer for 59. not...at all 60. get into trouble 61. listen to music 62. go to concerts

63. in class 64. first of all 65. in the past 66. last year 67. from the 1960s 68. apart from... 69. thousands of... hundreds of... 70. for example 71. the trip to...

72. too muc

h noise 73. much too expensive 74. save up 75. go on vacation 76. take photos 77. stay at a hotel 78. on the same team 79. need ...for... 80. do sth. on one’s own 81. make one stop

82. all night 83. a lot of fun 84. plan to do 85. decide to do 86. want to do 87. a big meal 88. keep out 89. one third 90. the time of... 91. a form of...

93. drive to sw. 103. the same as 94. the capital of... 104. all the time 95. be full of... 105. all kinds of 96. more than 106. 3 times a day 97. the shape of... 107. take the 98. 10 thousand medicine 99. a northern city of... 100. get a view of ... 101. the population of Beijing 102. a population of 13 million

七、易混淆的词、词组 1. 2. 4. 6.
What is ...like? What does...look like?
what to do how to do it wake up wake sb. up there be have / has

3.

in the corner at the corner get dressed

5. dress sb.
7.

join take part in...

8. 9.

a population of... the population of... in the east of... to the east of...

10.

trip travel

11.

other, others the other, the others One..., the other..., another any other schools any other school

12. 14.
15.

stop to do sth.
stop doing sth.

13.

besides
except

a little, little, a bit, a bit of... a few, few get to... arrive in / at... reach

16.

too much much too

17.

by car, in Jim’s car by bike, on Jim’s bike

18.

excited, interested, amazed exciting, interesting, amazing

like It’s time to ... . 19. 20. as It’s time for... . 21. noise, voice, sound

22. hear, listen, listen to 23. say, tell, talk, speak 24 wear, put on, dress, get dressed 25. read, watch, see, look, look at

八、易错的词
finish enjoy spend keep prefer practice

还有介词&busy +doing

+doing
plant order decide want ask …

make

let

+do

+to do

1.Without thinking more, he left here. 2.I can’t finish writing it in only a few minutes. 3.Everyone is busy getting ready for the final exams. 4.Mother always spends much time doing such foolish things. 5.Jim was good at dancing when he was young.

6.Let’s practice speaking English, OK?

九、不易用对的词 enough enough
(名词前) (形容词、副词后)

enough water enough books

tall enough

strong enough
good enough

enough time
enough people

big enough

十、形容词与不定代词的位置
something easy,

hard, important...
anything useful,

interesting, funny...
nothing difficult, cheap, amazing, exciting...

一点点建议:
心要明、路要准、

题要精、量要均。
出错、记错、要知错,

检查、落实、再落实。
分数虽诱人,

技巧不能少。
拼搏呈可贵, 健康价更高。


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