结构： 先行词 + 关系词 + 句子
The man ___ lives next to us is a ______ who ________________ 定语从句 先行词 关系词 policeman.
关系代词: that, which, who, whom,whose 关系词 关系副词: when, where, why
关系代词： 指物：that which 指人：who (主/宾格) that whom（宾格）
如果先行词是表示物的名词或代词，关系 代词应用that、which. (作主语或宾语)
which / that 作主语. (不能省)
This is a dream. The dream will never come true.
This is a dream which / that will never come （作主语） true. The dog has been found. The dog was lost. The dog which was lost has been found. Practise: 1.This is the house which is for sale. 2. The book which is lying on the floor is mine.
which / that 作宾语 ： （可省略） This is the card. I’ve just received the card.
This is the card (which / that ) I’ve just received （作宾语） Practise:
1.This is the mistake (which /that) I always make. 2. I still keep the letters (which )she wrote to me.
3. I lost the pen (which) my father bought me.
关系代词who, that, whom引导的定语从 句:
如果先行词是表示人的名词或代词， 关系代词应用who, that (作主语或宾语) whom (作宾语)
who / that 作主语. (不能省) This is the film star. The film star is very popular in China. This is the film star who/ that is very popular in China. (作主语) 1.The boy who broke the window is called Roy. 2. Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting yesterday? 3. The girl who is watering the flowers is my cousin.
who / whom / that 作宾语：( 可省略) The man is a famous writer. He described the man just now. The man ( who/ whom/ that ) he described just now is a famous writer. (作宾语） 1.The boy who(m) I ‘m looking for is my friend.
2. The thief has been sent to prison.
The police caught the thief last night.
The thief whom the police caught last night has been sent to prison.
小结： ? that－ 既可指人，也可指物，作主语， 不能省略；作宾语，可以省略。
? which－指物，作主语，不能省略；作 宾语，可以省略. ? who－ 指人，作主语，不能省略；作宾语，
有时只能用 that , 不用 which, 常见的情况有五种：
1.当先行词是 all, any, few, little, none, anything, everything, nothing , 或被它们修饰时。 That’s all that I know. Is there anything that I can do for you? He answered few questions that the teacher asked. 2. 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时 That is the most interesting book that I have ever read.
The first thing that I should do is to review my lessons. 3. 当先
行词有the very, the only, the same等修 饰时。 That’s the only thing that I can do now. These are the very words that he used. 4. 当主句以 who 或 which开头时，定语从句的 关系词用 that, 而不用 which 或 who. Who is the girl that spoke to you just now? Which is the pen that you lost ?
The man and his dog that I always meet are standing by the gate.
whose 作定语,表示所属关系。 The boy is my classmate. The boy’s father is a policeman.
The boy whose father is a policeman is my classmate.
A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan( 孤儿). A. who B. whose C. who’s D. which
Exercise 1 :用关系代词填空
1. The boy ____________ is playing ping-pong is who / that my classmate. 2. The e-mail ___________ I received yesterday which/ that was from my sister. who / that 3. I hate people ______________ talk much but do little. which / that 4. The car _____________ my father bought last month is very beautiful.
whose 5. The man ______ hair is white is his grandfather. whose 6. Is there a student _________ father is a business man? which 7. This is the house in ________ we have lived for 10 years. 8.I’ve never heard of the people and things ________ you talked about just now. that
1. My father and his teacher talked a lot about that the persons and things ______ they couldn’t remember. that 2. Say all ________ you know.
3. Is there anything ______ I can do for you? that
当先行词是something, anything, nothing, all 等词时，关系代词只能用that.
4.This is the first play ________ I have seen that since I came here.
5. This is the best novel _______ I have read. that 当先行词被序数词，最高级等词修饰时，关系 代词只能用that.
6.Who is the girl _______is standing under the tree? that
that 7. Which is the machine ____ we used last Sunday.
当主句是who或which 引导的特殊疑问句 时，或中心词指人或物时，关系代词只能 用that.
关系副词： when/ where/why
when 作时间状语: When = 介词 + which
She will never forget the day.
She was married on that day. She will never forget the day when (=on which) she was married. It was the year. The World War I broke out in the year. It was the year when (= in which) the World War I broke out.
where 作地点状语 where = 介词 + which
I want to know the place.
I was born there.
I want to know the place where (= in which) I was born. The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one.
why 作原因状语, 其先行词常常是the reason.
why = for which
That is the reason why(= for which) I’m late. I know the reason why he said it.
? 1.October 1,1949 is the day _____ the PRC was founded. A. which B. when C. that D. on that
? 2.Is that the reason _____ you are for the plan. which B. what C. why D. for that
October 1,1949 is the day _____ the PRC was founded. ? A. which B. when C. that D. on that ? 4. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
? 1. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
? 2. Is this the place ______ some German friends visited last year? ? A. which B.where C.what D. why
? 3.The house _______ the famous writer wrote his works is a museum now. ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
? 4.The house _______ the famous writer bought many years ago is a museum now. ? A. that B.where C.what D. why
? 5.He told her the reason____ he is unhappy, but she doesn’t believe the reason ______ he gives her. ? A. why; why ? B. why; which ? C. that; why ? D. which; why