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中考英语精华大汇总考生必备宝典

发布时间:2013-10-02 18:08:25  

新目标英语中考考点全部汇总 1.宾语从句 3定语从句

7.感官动词用法之二 11.对“评价”“天气”提问之区别 13.双宾结构

14.部分词作连词与介词

15.动词ed / ing作形容词用法之一 17.动词ing和带to不定式作主语 19.四季 21.星期 ”

23.带to不定式用法之一 25.及物动词+副词

29.动词时态和形式 31.因为

33.so与such区别34.so

的另两个用法

35.neither / nor用法之一 37.used 短语 40. 延续性动词

45.反意疑问句

50.分数表达 52. 感叹句 56.belong to与be

59. 比较级与最高级部分要点 64.就近原则 65.主谓一致

66.quite / such / really用法之一 67.部分用what 提问的句型 68.there be部分用法

69.常见表否定的词或短语

70.常见后接动词原形的词或短语 72.常见后接带to不定式的词或短语 73.被动语态用法

74.名词或所属格作定语

80.a bit / a little区别 83.易用错的副词

84.常用于现在完成时的词或短语 85.形容词与副词区别 89.乘交通工具之表达 90.kind of 与kinds of

93.个别名词的部分用法 96.return用法

100.基数词和序数词

102.常见国籍、人及语言的对应

104. job与 work

106.时刻之表达

112. missing

与lost 113.常见部分名词及其修饰词114.个别疑问句的常见否定回答

117.常见带to为介词的短语 118.because与why的部分用法

122.用yes 与no回答时要注意的问题 不规则动词表

中学英语要点汇总

1.宾语从句:怎样判断出一个从句是宾语从句??

1 在动词后作宾语(动宾):

Do you know where he comes from? 划线部分是动词know的宾语.

?

2.在有些接双宾结构的动词后作宾语: He asked me when we would leave. 此句中me与从句when-分别是ask的宾语。

?3在介词后作宾语(介宾):Let’s talk about how we solve this problem.

?

在I’m sorry?, I’m afraid?, I’m sure?等结构后的句子也被认为是宾语从句. 宾语从句需注意的时态问题:

?

1主句若是一般现在时,从句根据不同情况用不同时态。 He says (that) he will have a walk soon. (soon指将来,从句用将来时)

The teacher asks who is the cleverest in the school. (暗指目前谁最聪明,从句用现在时)

I want to know who came here late this morning. (今早已过去,从句用过去时)

?

2主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用过去时。 He wondered if I would come. She told me that her son had got well.

She said that she liked watching TV. We thought Jim was wrong.

?3无论主句是何时态,从句若表客观真理,要用一般现在时。 Mr. Li said the moon is smaller than the earth. ?

4宾语从句无论有何引导词,句子都要用陈述句语序。 Could you tell me when you will get back to Wuhan?(不

是will you)

Do you know which sweater she is wearing? (不是is she) 2.状语从句:此处所说的状语从句用法仅包括条件(if和unless引导)状语从句和时间(when等引导,见下文)状语从句。状语从句需注意以下问题:

?1主句若是一般将来时、祈使句或含不表过去的情态动词等,则if(如果), unless(除非),when(当?的时候), as soon as(一?就?),before, after, until, till, as(当?的时候)所引导的状语从句用一般现在时。

You may take a rest when you finish doing your work. (主句有情态动词)

Could you look after my son after I leave home? (情态动词could是为了让语气委婉,并不指过去时,从句仍用一般现在时) I will go out as soon as it stops raining this afternoon. (主句是将来时)

Wait for your brother at the bus station until he arrives. (主句是祈使句)

?

而主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用表过去时的适当时态,如:

I would give the money to the charity if I had a million dollars.

When he got to the park, his classmates had left. My son ran towards me as soon as he saw me on the street. 3.定语从句:定语从句是指修饰前面名词或代词的句子。从句前面的名词或代词叫先行词,从句中的引导词叫关系代词或关系副词。关系代词who只指人,which只指物。that既可指人又可指物。whose 后必须跟有名词,既指人,也可指物。关系词作主语时,不可省略,作宾语时可省略。whom只指人,只作宾语。关系副词where指“在那里”,when指“在那时”。 (以下所给例子凡斜体字部分均作定语从句。)

She is a girl who / that is beautiful and kind-hearted. The girl . (以上关系词作主语,不可省略。)

She is a girl (who / whom / that) I know very well. (关系词做know的宾语,可以省略。) That boy whose hair is very long is my brother. I own a bike .

(关系词whose表所属,后需接名词。前句指人,译为“这个孩子的”;后句指物,译为“这个自行车的”。)

I bought a watch (which / that) I paid 100 yuan for. (指物, 作pay的宾语,可以省略。)

I prefer a place which / that is clean and quiet. (关系词译为“这个地方”,主语,不可省)

I prefer a place where I can live a quiet life. (关系词译为“在这个地方”,是地点副词。)

I shall never forget the day when a boy helped me find my dog. (“在这一天”,是时间副词)

4.wish和hope:?1wish既可接to do sth. 也可接sb + to do

sth. 也可接that从句.

I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao. I wish you to join my party this Sunday.

I wish (that) I could be a scientist. (注:接that从句时,从句用虚拟语气。)

?

2hope接to do sth. 或that从句. 但不接sb to do sth. I hope to receive a letter from you some day. I hope you will get well soon.

I hope (that) everything goes well. (接从句时不用虚拟) 5.thanks for和thanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work.

(此句表达对对方为自己做了某事的感谢,后无补充的结果。)

Thanks to your suggestion, I didn’t make such mistakes. (此句表达感谢由于某方所做的有利的事,出现了后面的结果。)

6.感官动词用法之一:see, hear, listen to, watch, notice等词,后接宾语,再接动词原形或ing形式。前者表全过程,后者表正在进行。句中有频率词时,以上的词也常跟动词原形。 I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (我入睡时有人正敲门)

I heard someone knock at the door three times. (听的是全过程)

I often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (此处有频率词often)

若以上词用于被动语态,后面原有动词原形改为带to不定式:

We saw him go into the restaurant. → He was seen to go into the restaurant.

I hear the boy cry every day. → The boy is heard to cry every day.

7.感官动词用法之二:look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词,后接形容词。

He looks angry. It sounds good. The flowers smell beautiful. The sweets taste sweet. The silk feels soft. I felt tired. They all looked tired.

这些动词都不用于被动语态。如:The sweets are tasted sweet.是错误的。 注意:如果加介词like, 则后不可接形容词,而接名词或代词: He looks like his mother. That sounds like a good idea. It sounds like great fun.

It smells like a flower. It tastes like salt. 8.find和think部分用法: find / think + 宾语 + 宾语补足语。(代替宾从)

宾补有以下情况:?1.名词短语 John found his son a clever

boy.

?

形容词短语 Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy.

?

有时宾补后可接带to不定式 I found it hard to fool the girl.

?

find后也有v-ing形式作宾语补足语。I found him reading a book just now.

9.would like / want / feel like: ?

1would like,和want类似:

◇都可接名词短语:I would like / want another three desks.

◇都可接带to 不定式:I would like / want to go out for a walk.

◇都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand. ?feel like: ◇后也可接名词短语:Do you feel like some tea?

◇后若接动词,须用动词ing形式:Do you feel like having a walk?

I don’t feel like drinking tea. 【注:feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

10.词序易错的短语:?

1形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词,形容词在后面。

Is there anything delicious in the fridge? Nothing serious.

There is something wrong with the computer. I want to go somewhere warm.

?

2else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,也放在后面。 What else can you see in the picture? Who else is in the room?

Do you have anything else to say? Where else can you

see it?

?

3enough修饰形容词和副词,enough 放在后面。 This sweater is cheap enough. Nemo is old enough to work.

He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog. She doesn’t listen carefully enough.

11.对“评价”、“天气”的提问之区别:?1What do you think

of ??=

How do you like ?? =How / What do you feel about?? “你对?怎么看?”(How??句中有like,是动词。)

?

2What’s the weather like in?? = How is the weather in??“?的天气什么样?” (What??句中有like,是介词,“像”。而How??句中无like.) 12.take, cost, pay, spend区别:

?

1It + take + sb + some time + to do sth: It took us half an hour to cut down the tree.

?

物 + cost + sb + 钱: The bag cost me thirty yuan. 若cost后无sb, 则译作“价钱是”: The bag costs 30 Yuan.

?

3人+ pay + sb + 钱 + for sth: I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike..

(pay后所加内容可视具体情况取舍。切记for后接的是物,而不是人或钱。)

?

4人 + spend + 时间/ 钱 + on sth / (in) doing sth. The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet. The girl always spends much money on her clothes. spend 有时可指“度过”:spend holiday / weekends /

winter

13.双宾结构:pass / give / teach / offer / lend / send / sell / call / show / buy / ask / tell 等可加双宾结构。也就是接sb + sth. Pass me the book, please. He gave us some pens.

其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等也可

接sth + to sb. 如: lend the book to me.

buy, build等可接sth + for sb. My brother bought a

dictionary for me.

另外,若sth是代词时,不用双宾结构。Please show it to

me. 而不说show me it. 14.部分词作连词与介词:(连词接句子,介词接名词或代词) Keep careful when you are listening to the teacher. (斜体部分是句子,when是连词)

Keep careful when listening to the teacher. (斜体部分是名词短语,when是介词)

类似的,while, than, before, after, as, since, until等。

如:I’ll wait until I hear from her. (连词) I’ll wait until hearing from her. (介词)

I’ll wait until next Friday / September / 11:00. (接的都是表时间的短语,until是介词)

15.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: ?

1. 动词ed作形容词:表示被动或已发生,常作定语。The boy named Peter is my friend. 那个叫做彼得的男孩是我的朋友。 此处是后置定语,划线部分起修饰作用,下同。 He’s eating fried chicken. “他在吃炸鸡。”做chicken的前置定语。 There is no time left. —4“—

没时间剩余了。”做time的后置定语。

I have read a novel written by Lu Xun.我读了一部鲁迅写的小说。做后置定语。下同。

He lives in a house built twenty years ago. 他住在一个二十年前被建造的房子里。

一般来说,定语部分不只一个词时, 常放在名词的后面。 ?2动词ing作形容词:表示正在进行或表示功能,常作定语。 the crying boy, a running bus, the rising sun, a bus

running on the road,

the boy crying in the corner (以上表示正在进行)

a sitting room, the bathing suit, a cutting machine, writing paper?? (本行表示功能)

16.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二: 由一些及物动词派生而来,和心理感受有关,但ed修饰人,ing常修饰物。 以下词凡是译为“使?”的及物动词,其ed形式的形容词都译为“感到?的”,其ing形式的形容词都译为“令人(感到)?的”。以下带-ed形式的词的各个短语一般都译为“对?感到?”。

及物动词, 后接人 ed形式及常见短语

ing形式

excited (be ~d about) exciting excite(使兴奋,使激动surprised (be ~d at) ) surprising surprise amaze(使吃惊(使惊讶)

,amazed (be ~d at) 使吃惊) amazing embarrassed(be ~ed in) embarrassing embarrass(使尴尬encouraged(be ~ed at / by) )

encouraging encouragefrustrated (be ~d of) frustrating frustrate((使受鼓舞使失望,, 使沮丧鼓励) interested (be ~ed in) ) interesting interest(使感兴趣thrilled (be ~ed at) )

thrilling thrillterrified (be terrified at/ of / with) terrifying terrify((使激动使恐怖/ ,紧张使害怕)

pleased (be ~d with) )

pleasing, = pleasant please (使高兴,satisfied(be satisfied with) 使满意)

satisfying satisfyfrightened (be ~ed at / of ) frightening frighten (使满意(使害怕)

tired (be ~d of) ,使惊惧)

tiring tire(使厌烦) bored (be ~d with)

boring bore relax((使厌烦使放松)) relaxed (无固定搭配)

relaxing

fascinated (be ~d by) fascinating fascinate(使着迷annoyed (be ~ed with) )

annoying annoy move((使感动使烦恼))

moved (be ~d by) moving worried (be worried about)

worrying worry(使担忧) confused (be confused about)

confusing confuse(使困惑)

His words amazed me—. The 5—

news frustrated us very much.

(都是及物动词,后接人) His words were amazing. (修饰物) I was amazed at his words. (修饰人)

How exciting the film is! (修饰物) He was moved by the movie. (修饰人)

17.动词ing和带to不定式作主语:

To be a teacher is my dream. Working hard brings you success.

Taking care of our environment is very important. To plant trees makes me happy.

Reading books gives you knowledge. (以上各句谓语都用单数,见黑体部分)

Listening and writing are both difficult. (此句主语因指两件事,谓语用复数)

18.later / after / ago / before: ?

1later“?时间后”结构:时间段+later 常用于一般过去时。They went to Beijing five days later. (later前无时间段,单独在句尾,常用于将来时:I’ll see you later.)

?

2after“?时间后”结构:after+时间段,常用于一般过去时,和?

1相同。 They went to Beijing after five days. The dog died after a week.

(after也可加句子, 但主句不一定用一般过去时:I’ll send you an e-mail after I get home.

Return it to me after you finish it. 见2.)

?

3ago“?时间前”结构:时间段+ago, 用于一般过去时。 The Greens moved to Shanghai four weeks ago. I saw it ten minutes ago.

(若有since+时间段+ago,常用现在完成时:Mr. Li has worked here since 5 years ago.)

?before 单独放在句尾,常用现在完成时:“以前”

I have been to London before. He has seen the film

before.

(若是时间段+before,常用过去完成时,“?前”: I had seen the film two weeks before. We had found out the answer to the problem an hour before.) 19.四季:spring春;summer夏;autumn秋;winter冬;season季

20.月:January, 一月; February, 二月; March, 三月; April, 四月; May, 五月; June, 六月; July, 七月; August, 八月; September, 九月; October, 十月;

November, 十一月; December, 十二月。

21.星期:Sunday, 周日;Monday, 周一;Tuesday, 周二;Wednesday, 周三;Thursday, 周四;Friday, 周五;Saturday, 周六。Sunday是一周的第一天, Saturday是最后一天。 22.“也”:either, 用于否定句的末尾。also, 通常挨着动词,少用于句尾。too, 通常在句尾,前常有逗号。as well, 只用于句尾, 前无逗号。 注意:后三个词都不用于否定句。

23.带to不定式用法之一:带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时,to后动词用及物动词;不及物时需跟介词。The work is too

hard for me to do. (work

—6— 做及物动词do的逻辑宾语) I have nothing to say. (nothing做及物动词say的逻辑宾语)

I have a letter to write. (letter是及物动词write的逻辑宾语) 而以下情况有介词:

I have a pen to write a letter with. ( 用钢笔写信,所以要有“用”字,故加with.)

The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in. (“住在动物园里”,zoo是live in的逻辑宾语,故不及物动词live加介词in. )

Tom has no friends to talk to. (friends 是talk to的逻辑宾语,to不可少。)

He runs too fast for us to catch up with. (he是catch up with的逻辑宾语,带with.) There are no seats to sit on. (坐在座位上,故sit后要加on.)

1few,little“几乎没有;少”24.(a) little / (a) few: ?

fix up(修理); work out(算出) dress up(打扮); help out(帮人解决);

keep off / keep out(阻止;挡住); take off(脱下) / take away(拿走) / take out(拿出);

look up(查找) / look over(仔细查看); throw away / off (抛弃) wake up(叫醒); write down(写下); 否定词。few加可数名词复数, little加不可数名词。 There is little water in the bottle, is there? (前否定,后肯定)

Tom is so shy that he has few friends.

?

2a few“一些”肯定词,加可数名词复数; a little“一些;一点”也是肯定词,加不可数名词。 Tom is not an Englishman , but he knows a little English.

?

3另外,在too, very, so等词后用few, little; 在only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. 而quite a few / a little 都译为“很多”,分别相当于many和much.

(注:有时a little?..并不是固定短语。如: a little sheep译为“一只小羊”)

25.及物动词+副词:put on (穿上) / put off (推迟) / put away (把?整理好) / put up (举起,搭起,挂起,张贴) / put down (放下) / put out(扑灭); break down(损坏,倒塌);

turn on(打开) / turn off (关闭) / turn up (调大) / turn down(关小); get back(取回); use up(用光); cut up(切碎) eat up(吃光) sell out(卖完) cheer up(振作)

give away(赠送) / give out(发放) / give up(放弃) / give back(归还); pick up(捡起、拿起)

try out(验证) / try on(试穿); ring up/ call up(打电话); clean up / out (打扫干净); set up(成立); think up(想出;想起); hand in (上交) / hand out(分发;散发);

let down(使沮丧); make up(编造、组成); set off(激起、触发)

注:名词做以上短语的宾语,可放在它们中间或后边;而代词做宾语,只放在中间。

26.as??as用法:中间加形容词和副词原级。?

1和?一样? His room is as big as mine.

He runs as fast as I do / me / I. You should keep the room as clean as your brother’s.

?

2as?as possible / sb can “尽可能?” We went there as soon as possible. Listen to the teacher as carefully as you can. He went

there as quickly as he could.

—7— ?3有些短语有几个意思:as soon as 和?一样快;一?就?; as much as和?一样多;多达; as long as和?一样长;长达;只要; as well as和?一样好;和?一样;

as far as远达;就?来说 (as?as?在否定句中也可说so?as?.)

也可表示倍数: This room is twice as big as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。

27.prefer用法:prefer sth to sth 或 prefer doing sth to doing sth.“比起?更喜欢?”

prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿?也不愿? 若单独一个prefer,和like 用法类似,后接 to do sth 或 doing sth “更喜欢做某事”

28. some-, any-, every-用法:?1some-“某~,一些~”,

用于肯定的陈述句中。

I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it. 若用于疑问句中表示期待对方肯定的回答或表示请求或建议. Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat? What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs? Will you buy me some books? May I give you some tea? Would you like some milk? 在一些”do some?”短语中, 即使是疑问句中, some也不变为any. 如: Will you do some washing next Sunday? 这些短语有: do some shopping / cleaning / cooking / sweeping / washing 等。 ?2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为“某~,一些~”Do you have anything to say? Is anybody in the house? Have you seen it anywhere? 在if 引导的句中,常用any. 如:If you have any water, please give me some. 在肯定句和否定句中译为“任何~” You may put the box anywhere in the room. He is taller than any other student in the class. We won’t have anything to eat now. ?3every-“每~”,强调所有,既包括此也包括彼。 Is everybody here?-No,Tom and Lucy have asked for leave. The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere. 29.动词时态和形式:八个时态:一般现在时、 现在进行时(am / is / are + v.ing)、 一般将来时(will / shall / be going to+动词原形)、 一般过去时、 过去进行时(was / were + v.ing)、 现在完成

时(have / has + v. 过去分词)、 过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形) 六个形式: 原形; 过去式(规则的加ed); 过去分词(规则的加ed); 第三人称单数(加s / es); 现在分词(v.ing); 带to不定式。 30.if / whether区别:if 如果(引导条件状语从句) / 是否(引导宾语从句) Do you know if he will go to the post office? If he goes there, I will ask him to buy me some stamps. 两个

if, 前者“是否”;后者—“8—如果 ”,观察其后时态的不同。(各

见语法1、2) whether“无论”引导让步状语从句 / “是否”引导宾语从句(相当于if) 都译为“是否”时,whether可接or not, 也可接带to不定式。而if 则不可。 另外,if可接any-单词,常不接some-单词。 (见语法28.) 31.因为:because, 常是对why的回答,语气最强。位置:Because?, ?或?, because?. since, 表显然的或已知的理由Since it’s already late, I must go now. for, 位置:?,for?.语气最弱。 I drove carefully, for it’s snowing. as有时也指“因为”,用法基本无限制。As I am ill, I won’t go. 32.表推测:must, may, might, could, can, can’t must“一定”,可能性最大,常用于肯定句。 There is the door bell, it must be Tom. 门铃响了,一定是汤姆(来了)。 may / might“也许”一般用于肯定句, may比might可能性大。 She is coming to us. She might be our new teacher. can / could“可能”could比can语气更委婉。但can多用

于否定。

You could be right, but I don’t think you are.

The light in the office is off. The teacher can’t be there now.

33.so与such区别:so是副词,后跟形容词/副词,so tall / slowly / carefully / young?

such是形容词,后跟名词短语。such bad weather / good news /beautiful music?;

such a beautiful girl / an important lesson / a heavy stone / an interesting lesson?;

such kind boys / new desks / friendly people / amazing movies / clever children?; 若名词前形容词是many, much, few, little时,不用such, 而用so.

so many flowers / much rain / few friends / little water? 也常有“so / such ?that?”句型,译为“如此?以致于?”。

34.so的另两个用法:?

1so + be / 情态动词 / 助动词 + 主语,“?也”

上下文所指不是同一个人或物。 The twins are working, so am I.

I will leave tonight, and so will Peter. If you go there, so will I . (最后一句参见语法2)

又如:A: I woke up late this morning. B: So did I. ?2so + 主语 + be/情态动词 / 助动词,“的确?是”上下文所指是同一个人或物。

A: We have lunch at school. B: So you do.

又如:A: Bruce can work out the problem. B: So he can. (注意以上黑体字的照应)

35.neither / nor用法之一:neither / nor + be / 情态动词 / 助动词 + 主语

“?也不”上文是否定句。She didn’t get well, nor did

her brother.

Tim isn’t going to do his work, neither is John. 又如:A: Jim hasn—9’— t had breakfast. B: Neither have I. (注意以上黑体字的照应) 36.keep, make, get, have用法: ?1keep + sb / sth doing sth “让?一直做?” I’m sorry for keeping you waiting so long. (区别:keep + doing sth “坚持做某事,一直做某事”)

?

2make + sb / sth do sth让?做某事(接动原) I’ll try to make you understand what I mean.

I feel sorry that I have made him wait for long. make若用于被动语态,原有后接动词原形要改为带to不定式(另见语法6的类似说法): I made him wait for long. →He was made to wait for long. ?

3get + sb / sth to do sth.让?做某事。He got Peter to buy him a pen.

?

have + 宾语+ 动词原形 / ing / 过去分词 Have him do it, please.让他做它吧。(him 和 do 逻辑上形成主谓关系,do用原形。)

We had the machine working.我们让机器一直工作着。(让某物一直在进行着某事。) We had the machine repaired.我们让人修理了那台机器(让机器被修理了,表被动。)

?

5也都可接形容词:keep safe / busy, keep the door closed / open,

make us happy, get the door closed, have everything ready. get her ears pierced. 37.used短语:used to + 动原,“过去常常” He used to smoke. be used to 译为“被用于?”,后接动原。 It is used to cut things. (主语是物) be used to 译为“习惯于?”,后接动词ing或名词 / 代

词. (主语常是人)

如:He’s used to working late. We are used to the country life. Are you used to it? be used for “被用于?”,后接名词或动词ing (主语也是物) 如:

English is used for business. Knives are used for cutting things.

I haven’t seen you for a long time. They won’t leave until it stops raining.

另外,请观察以下短暂性动词转换成延续性动词的常见表达:

lose →be lost. start / begin to do→do go off→be off

start, begin→be on turn on→be on 38. through / past / across 区别: 都可作介词,“穿过”,前常有位移动词(以下黑体部分)。 He climbed through the window and saw what he could take away. (从窗户内部经过)

He went past me without saying any words. (从我旁边经过) He swam across the river. (从河的表面经过)【through,内部; past,旁边; across,表面】

位移动词 + past 有时相当于动词pass; 位移动词 + across有时相当于动词cross.

39.the number of / a number of: 前者“?的数量”;后者“许多的”

都跟可数名词复数。前者作主语,谓语用单数;后者作主语,谓语用复数。

The number of the trees is two thousand. (用单数谓语. 另注意trees前有限定词)

A number of trees have been cut down. (用复数谓语. 另注意trees前无限定词) 40.延续性动词:how long,since,for,(以上见84)until / till等所在肯定句中的主句谓语要用延续性动词(以下划

线部分): We have been in Zhengzhou —10— for ten years.

How long may I keep this novel? I’ve lived here since 2002.

Let’s wait until he comes back.. 但否定句中可用短暂性动词,如下面的see与leave:

move to→live in

end→be over get, buy→have, own borrow→keep

die→be dead go out→be out fall asleep→be asleep get / become + adj →be + adj. open(动词,“打开”) →be open(形容词,表状态)

arrive in, get to, reach→be in, stay in leave, go away (from)→be away (from)

如以下例子的划线部分(并注意黑体部分的变化):

The dog died five hours ago. →The dog has been dead for five hours.

I lost my dictionary two weeks ago. →My dictionary has been lost since two weeks ago.

He began to teach English last year. →.He has taught English for one year.

Lucy arrived in Beijing the day before yesterday. →Lucy has been in Beijing for two days.

I bought this bike six months ago. →I have owned this book since six months ago.

My friend borrowed the book last month. →My friend has kept the book for a month. He left Beijing in 1990. →He has been away from Beijing since 1990.

(注意以上的“for + 时间段”与“since + 时间段 + ago”

或“since + 时间点”可互换)

41.all / each / both / none / either / neither不定代词或形容词的用法:

?

1All boys / All of the boys are from China. (all 若接可数复数, 谓语也用复数。)

All of the water is polluted. (若接不可数,谓语用单数。)

?

2Each boy / Each of the boys has a different bag. each接名词单数或接of + 限定词+复数,其后谓语都用单数。

?

3Both of the twins are clever. 后面谓语用复数。 ?

4None of the students has / have been there before. none +of +限定词+复数, 谓语用单、复数都可。另见88. ?

5-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday? -Either day is OK. / Either of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

?

6-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday? -Sorry, I have to look after my mother these two days. That is, neither time is OK. / neither of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。 —11— 【 all / each / none分别指三者或更多中的“都” / “每一个”/“没有一个”。

both / either / neither分别指两者中“都”/“任何一个”/“没有一个” 】

42.计量表达法:数量+单位+形容词。 The street is two kilometers long.

That boy can jump four meters away.(此处不用far, 见49) The fish is five kilos heavy.

The street is forty meters wide. This baby is only six months old.

若计量表达的后面跟有名词,则要用连字符,单位不用复数。 They dug an eight-meter-deep hole. /. I bought a

10-kilo-heavy fish.

It’s a piece of 2-meter-thick ice. / They built a 50-meter-wide street. It’s a two-month holiday. She is a three-child mother. (最后两句计量中省略了形容词)

43. Must I / May I / Need I ?? 用法:?

1Must I ?? “我必须?吗?”

A: Must I finish the work? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.

?

2 Need I?? “我有必要?吗?”或“我需要?吗?” A: Need I clean the house? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.

?

3 May I ?? “我可以?吗?”表示请求。 A: May I go out for a walk now? B: Yes, you can. / No, you mustn’t / can’t.

44.hundred / thousand / million / billion: 前有具体数字,这些词不加s及of. 如:

nine hundred people, ten thousand students等。 这些词前若无具体数字,后加s和of. 如:

thousands of trees; many millions of people; hundreds of cars; billions of stars

但前若有several, 后常不加s和of:several million pounds

45.反意疑问句 (此处用QT表示反意疑问句后一部分内容) 的部分用法:

?

1something, nothing, anything, everything作主语,QT主语用it.

Something is wrong, isn’t it? / Nothing is difficult, is it?

?

2当主句中think的主语是第一人称时,QT要结合think后的从句而定:

I think Lucy can do well in the exam, can’t she?

I don’t think he will come here on time, will he? ?

3祈使句的QT一般用will you?(包括let us ?..), 而Let’s ?用shall we?

Get up now, will you? Don’t be noisy, will you? Be quiet, will you?

Please don’t talk, will you? Let us do it now, will you? Don’t talk in class, will you?

Let’s do it now, shall we? Let’s sing a song, shall we?

?

There be句型,QT主语用there. There is a man working in the field, isn’t there?

There used to be a meeting on Friday, didn—12— ’t there?

There won’t be a movie in the theatre, will there?

46.put on, wear, dress, in: ?

1put on,“穿上”后接物。表行为,是短暂动词。

You should put on your coat when you leave.

?

2wear,“穿,穿着”后接物,表状态,是延续性动词。 He always wears the yellow sweater in winter. I like wearing beautiful clothes.

?3dress, “给?穿衣”后接人。You can dress yourself, baby.

Lucy is dressing her little brother now.

be dressed in后常接具有某种特征的衣物。也可直接加表示颜色的词。

The lady is dressed in a white skirt. The students are all dressed in yellow. get dressed “穿好衣服”,常不接宾语: He went out as soon as he got dressed.

dress up (as) ...“装扮(成)......” He dressed up as a clown. 他装扮成小丑。

?

4in, “穿着”后接具有某种特征的衣物,表状态,是介词,不可作谓语,可作状语。

也可以直接加表示颜色的词。 The woman in a white skirt is my teacher.

Do you know the girl in a red coat? (你认识那个穿着红外套的姑娘吗?)

I want to talk to the boy in black. (我想找那个穿着黑衣服的男孩谈谈。)

47.虚拟语气部分用法:在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气,即if 从句中用一般过去时,而主句动词用would / should + 动词原形,表示与现在相反的主观设想,也可以表示在说话人看来实现的可能性很小的情况。(注意:虚拟语气中的be动词都要用were.)

If there were no air, people would die. (与现在事实相反)

If I got rich, I would travel around the world. (可能性很小)

48.other / others / the other / the others / another: ?1如果不特定指出哪一个,是泛指,“另一个”要用another, 后加可数名词单数。

If you are still thirsty, you may have another cup of tea.

(没特定指出哪一杯茶,是泛指。cup是单数。)

another也可+数字+可数复数:The meeting will last another two hours. (再持续两小时)

We need another six desks. (此处两句分别相当于:two more hours; six more desks.)

?

2如果只有两个或只有两部分,就给出了范围,其中另一个或另一部分是特指 (other前有the.), 有如下用法: 第一种,所说内容只有两个:

Mrs. Green has two sons, one is interested in math, the other (one / son) is good at science. 【只有两个,用

the other, 不加s, 后面名词可省略—13— 。】又如:This pair of

shoes is strange. One is blue, yet the other is green.

“这双鞋子很怪,一只蓝色,而另一只绿色。” 第二种,只有两部分:此种情况下the other后接可数名词复数,或不接名词而只在the other后加s. Two children went there, but the other children / the others stayed. Two fifths of the students in our class are boys, the other students / the others are girls.

?

如果没有显示出只有两部分,未给出范围,则是泛指,不加the.

Lei Feng liked helping other people / others. Do you have any other questions?

Alice didn’t like that dress, so she asked to see some others.

?other的另一用法:用比较级的形式,体现最高级的含义。 He is taller than any other boy in his class. (划线中boy常用单数) = He is taller than all ( of ) the other boys in his class. (划线中boy用复数)

他比班里任何男孩都高(他是班里男孩中最高的)。

49.how long / how often / how soon / how far: ?

1how long 是对长度或时间段提问。

How long is the river? -It’s 5,000 kilometers long. (对长度提问)

How long have you lived there? -For five months. / Since 2002. (对时间段提问) ?2how often是对频率提问,如:never, sometimes, often, usually, always, once a week,

twice a day, three times a year, every day / year / month / week等。

How often do you watch TV? -Every two days. / Twice a week. / Sometimes.

【若只有次数,则用how many times 提问:

How many times do you watch TV a week? -Twice. / only

once.】

?

3how soon 是对“in + 时间段”提问: How soon will you return to Beijing? -In a week./ In two days.

?

4how far是对以下三种表达法的提问: —How far is it from your home to the school? 有以下三种回答: ▲—It’s five minutes’ walk / an hour’s ride / thirteen minutes’ drive.

▲—It’s about 20 kilometers (far) away. (注意回答时不再用far,而用away, 或far away)

▲—It’s 15 minutes by bus / on foot / by train / by bike.

50.分数表达:二分之一: half a / an 或a half. 如: half an hour = a half hour半小时 It’s half past seven.(省略冠词)

以下情况中,分子(基数词)若超过一,分母(序数词)需加s: 三分之一: a / one third 三分之二: two thirds 四分之一: a / one fourth 或a / one quarter 四分之三: three fourths或three quarters.

五分之一: a / one fifth —14— 五分之二: two fifths 其它

类推。

若分数所在of短语作主语,谓语依of后的名词而定: A third of the boys have passed the test. A third of the work has been over.

of the students are on time. Two fifths of the land is polluted.

(of后是可数名词复数时,谓语用复数;of后是不可数名词时,谓语用单数。)

51.到达:?1get to + 地点 get to Shanghai / London / China

接地点副词时,不带to. get there / home / here. ?2arrive in+大地点(如Beijing / Zhengzhou),arrive at+

小地点(如school / hospital)

arrive只作不及物动词,所以也可单独用:Please ring me up when you arrive.

?

3reach只作及物动词,后直接加地点:reach Beijing / England

但常不说reach home / there / here.

52.感叹句:?

1What + 名词短语+主语+谓语!此情况下主、谓常可省略。

What lazy boys (they are)! What hard work (it is)! What good news (it is)!

What a good idea! What bad weather (it is)! What clever girls (you are)!

?

How +形容词 / 副词 + 主语 + 谓语! How hard the work is! How fast he runs! How rude you are! How carefully they are listening! How bad the weather is!

53.because/ instead / out等与加of的区别: ?

1because 后接句子,because of 接名词或代词。 He didn’t come because he was ill. / because of his illness.

?instead是副词,单独在句尾。instead of 后要接名词或代词。

We didn’t have rice, we had noodles instead. / instead of it.

?

3out 副词,可单独用,但若接地点,先加of.(也可作介词, “向?外”,

可不加of. 一般不要求掌握。) He went out early.或He went out of the house early.

54.too much, too many与much too: much too“过于”,加形容词或副词原级。much too big / slowly等。

too much“太多的”,加不可数名词。too much work / rain等。 too many“太多的”,加可数复数。too many books / people等。

(以上每个短语可依第二个词来决定其后要接什么词。)

55. alone / lonely: ?

1alone,“独自一人;单独”不含感情色彩。

可当形容词,但只在系动词后作表语:Jack is alone. 杰克是单身。

The old woman is alone in the house. 那位老妇一个人

在屋里。

—15— 可当副词,修饰动词:She lives alone. 她独居。

Can you move the stone alone? 你能独自搬动那块儿石头吗?

Dick is walking on the beach alone. 狄克独自在海滩漫步。

(注意:不可说very alone. 但可说very much alone.) ?2lonely, “孤独的;寂寞的”带有伤感色彩。只当形容词。 可在系动词后作表语:The old man is lonely.这位老人是孤独的。

He has many relatives, but he feels lonely. 他有很多亲戚,但感到孤独。

(lonely 和心理感受有关,而alone和心理感受无关。) 也可在名词前作定语:a lonely person一位孤独的人 a lonely village一个偏僻的村庄 (而alone不可作定语) 56.belong to与be: This suit belongs to me / Lucy / my brother. (直接加人)

This suit is mine / Lucy’s / my son’s / hers. (某物是某人的,所以用名词性物主代词。)

57.by常见用法:?1“通过”I study English by memorizing

grammar. You can know it by looking it up in a dictionary. He

travels by bike.

?

2“截止到”Will you finish the task by tomorrow? The train had left by the time he got there. ?

3“被”This novel was written by Lu Xun. ?

4“经过”He passed by me without noticing me. ?

5“在??旁边”Sit by me. They are playing by the river.

58.部分用in的短语: in a good way(用一个好方法), in the open air(在露天场所) in a hurry(匆忙), in pen / ink(用钢笔 / 墨水) (见105), in style(时新的)

in the day(在白天)(见92), in different sizes(以不同的大小), in red(穿着红衣服)in different shapes(以不同的形状) in a difficult situation(在困难情况下)

in good health(身体健康) in a red coat(穿着红外套)(见46), in English(用英语)

in the way(挡道) in a low voice(用低的声音) in order to(为了,后接动词原形)

59.比较级与最高级部分要点:?

1不规则形式或易错形式: much / many→more→most bad / badly / ill→worse→worst

far→farther / further→farthest / furthest little→less→least

few→fewer→fewest old→older / elder→oldest / eldest

?

2常见比较级/最高级句型:He runs faster than me. (有than, 用比较级)

He did better than any other student in the school. (用比较级。另见48的other用法,)

Tom is the cleverest boy in his class. (某个范围内,

用最高级)

—16—

He is the taller of the two (boys). (两者,用比较级。)

(注意:此句型中比较级前加the。而一般情况下比较级前不加the.最高级前才加the.)

He is the tallest of the three (boys) / of all. He jumped (the) farthest of the four.

(以上两句都指三者或更多,用最高级。前句因the在形容词..略.最高级前,不可省略;而后句因the在副词。)

..前, 可以省Which is better, tea or milk? (两者选择,用比较级。) Which is the best, tea, milk or water? (三者或更多中选择,用最高级。)

It’s the second longest river in China. (序数词后的形容词或副词用最高级形式。) ?3“越来越?”结构:“比较级 + and + 比较级”

He cried harder and harder. 他哭得越来越厉害了。 She is getting taller and taller.

类似:bigger and bigger / happier and happier / fatter and fatter

/ stronger and stronger / richer and richer / worse and worse?

多音节词或部分双音节词:more and more beautiful / slowly / carefully / interesting?

?

4“越?, 越?” “the+比较级”分别置于两句的开头,作为倒装成份。

The more difficult English is, the harder you should study.英语越困难,你就要越努力。

The younger we are, the more energy we have. 我们越年轻,我们就越有活力。

The more you eat, the fatter you will get.你吃得越多,你就变得越胖。

?

5“越来越多的?”more and more + 名词 (既有可数名词,也有不可数名词。)

More and more people are getting richer and richer. We need more and more desks / paper / trees / water ?. (与?3所接形 / 副不同) ?6“?得多”much + 形容词 / 副词比较级 This room is much bigger than that one. 类似:much taller / fatter / younger / heavier / faster / earlier / better? 注意多音节词或部分双音节词:much more careful / difficult / tiring / mysterious? ?7“另外的?(个) ?”结构:数量 + more + 名词,如two more students“另两个学生” 以下类似:one more towel, three more suits, many more tiles, much more truth, some more meat, a lot more wood, a little more experience, once more = one more time = again. 上述结构有时也可用another + 数字 + 名词替代: five more trees = another five trees (记住词的位置) (另见48, another) 60.talk, tell, say, speak: ?1talk只作不及物动词。 Don’t talk in class. Shall we talk about our English study? He is talking with his teacher. May I talk to you? (注意talk接人和接物时介词搭配不同—17— :talk with / to sb ; talk about sth) ?2tell只作及物动词,“告诉;讲”。常接双宾结构(tell sb sth.) Mr. Li told us an interesting story. Who told you the news? ?say必须接有内容,或逻辑上有内容作宾语。 (所接内容见以下划线部分) Please say it in English. He said nothing. Please

show me what to say.. “I disagree with you.” said Tom. What will you say?

Do you have anything to say? say 若接sb, 则需先加to: I must say sorry to you. “I overslept this morning.” he said to me.

?4speak ●“说话”不及物动词。He spoke too fast for me

to follow. ●接人时先加介词to. May I speak to Mr. Smith? ●可表说话的能力。The baby can speak now. 这个婴儿现在能说话。 There is something wrong with his throat, he can’t speak. 他的喉咙有病,说不成话。 ●也可译为“演讲,发言”Who will speak in the meeting? ●也可译为“说”,作及物动词,后接语言。Do you speak English / Chinese? 61.sometimes / some times / sometime / some time: sometimes: “有时”=at times. He is sometimes late for school. (sometimes在be后) I sometimes forgot my homework. (sometimes在实义

动词前)

Sometimes he becomes very angry. (sometimes 也可放在句首或句尾)

some times: “几次”I have been to Nanjing some times.

sometime: “某一时刻” I bought it sometime last spring.

我去年春天某个时候买的它。 We’ll meet again sometime next week. 我们下星期某个时候会再见面的。 some time: “一段时间”We have to stay here for some time. 62.need 的用法:?1need可当情态动词(和can等用法类似,但need只用于疑问句或否定句中): Need I go now? (need 放在一般疑问句的开头)

I needn’t tell you the answer. (否定句中直接在need后加not)

【当情态动词时,need无时态变化。】

?2need 可当行为动词(和want 等用法类似): He needs a bike. (后可直接加名词)

I need to go over my lessons. (后可接带to不定式) Do you need to have a rest? (一般疑问句中do, does, did在句首) We don’t need to wait for her coming. (否定句中do, does, did提前) 【 注:need 后接表被动的内容时,可表达为: The TV needs

to be repaired.

—18— = The TV needs repairing.】

63.do with 与deal with: 都译为“处理,对付,安排,应付”

What have you done with the milk? 用what提问。 How shall we deal with this problem? 用how提问。 下面两句由此而来:Could you tell me what to do with the milk?

Could you tell me how to deal with this problem? 64.就近原则:常见的有:Either you or Lucy is wrong. There is a dog and two cats in the yard. (there be句型)

Not only you but (also) I am strict in the work. Neither you nor Lucy has seen the film before. 65.主谓一致:One / Neither of you is right. (单数谓语)

Tom, with his friends, has gone. (主语是Tom, 单数谓语)

This pair of shoes looks beautiful. (主语是pair, 谓语用单数)

The shoes look beautiful. (此句主语无pair, 谓语用

复数)

Every boy and every girl has a chance to do it. (此结构中用单数谓语) The old need to be looked after carefully. The young are energetic.

(the 加形容词表一类人或物,谓语用复数)

Mr. and Mrs. Green are from America. 指格林夫妇 (复数谓语)

The teacher and writer is an able man. 指教师兼作家, 一个人,单数谓语。

Both you and I are excited about the news. (both?..and ?做主语,谓语用复数)

the number of与a number of参见39. (分数表达见

50, 其它见74之?

5) 66.quite / such / really用法之一:如果出现不定冠词时,不定冠词常放在后面。

It’s quite an easy question. He is quite a clever boy.

It’s such an important lesson.(另见33) Lily is really a lazy girl.

67.部分用what 提问的句型:

What size do you want? 你想要多大尺寸的?

What will you do with the problem? 你将怎样处理这个问题?

What’s the population of China? 中国的人口是多少? What day is it today?今天星期几? What’s the date today? 今天几月几号?

What’s the price of this one? 这个价钱是多少? What’s your address? 你的地址是什么?

What’s your phone number? 你的电话号码是多少?

68.there be部分用法:●—there 19— be 后跟的是名词。如:There

will be rain tomorrow.

此处名词rain不能用rainy, raining等形式。

●常有以下结构: there may / will / must / is going to / used to /?be. ?

●there be中不可再出现have / has / had (译为“有”) 的词。 ●there be 后接的是表示泛指的名词,即不加the. There is a dog under the desk.

There is no water in the bottle. There are some books on the shelf.

●There is only a student taking notes now. (划线部分逻辑上是主谓关系,动词加ing)

There is no need to open the box. There are 20 trees to be planted. There is nothing to do.

(划线部分逻辑上不是主谓关系,动词常用带to 不定式。)

●反意疑问句用法见45。

69.常见表否定的词或短语:no, not, hardly, few, little, neither, nor, nothing, nobody, none, nowhere, never等.(但前缀如dis--, un--, in--, im--, mis--或后缀如—less等词并不表否定。)

有些词或短语有时在某些句型中也相当于否定,如without, too?to?

without anything, too tired to go any further 70.常见后接动词原形的词或短语: why not / had better / please /would you please / let / make / 情态动词,等等。 (have“使、让”,可接动词原形,其它用法,另见36) 【注意否定形式: had better / would you please / let直接加not + 动原;

而please加don’t + 动原】 71.常见后接动词ing的词或短语:finish / enjoy / practice / give up / end up / put off / consider / keep / feel like / prefer?to?/ can’t help(禁不住) / be busy

/ be worth(值得) / take turns(轮流) / miss(错过) / spend / have fun / 介词等。

72.常见后接带to不定式的词或短语:want / hope / wish / allow / encourage(鼓励)/ ask / tell / pretend(假装) / decide / plan / invite / urge / advise / warn / seem / in order (为了) 等等。

疑问词后也可跟带to不定式, 如how to do it。 it作形式主语,后也常有带to不定式。

【否定形式:以上大多词 + not + to do sth】

73.被动语态 (be + 动词过去分词) 用法:?

1主动语态为下列情况时被动语态的变化:

一般情况:I saw the accident . →The accident was seen by me.

We often do homework at night. →Homework is often done at night.

双宾情况:He told us a story.→We were told a story.(无to)→A story was told to us.(有to)

She passed me a pen.→I was passed a pen.(无to)→A pen was passed to me. (有to)

情态动词:We can make a plan. →A plan can be made. 进行时态:Tom is writing a letter.→A letter is being

written by Tom. (be being done)

—20— 完成时态:I have finished the work. →The work has been finished. (have been done) 被动语态其它用法分别见6和36. ?2被动语态常跟的介词:(以下面短语为例) be made in + 地点 These watches are made in Shanghai. be made of + 眼睛可以看出的原材料 This desk is made of wood. (仍能看出木头)

be made from +眼睛看不出的原材料 The paper is made from wood. (看不出木头)

be used for + 目的 English is often used for

business. (用于商业目的)

This machine is used for cutting things. (用于切割东西)

be used as ?被用来当作?? English is used as a foreign language in China.

be made by + 人 The model ship was made by Lily. be filled with / be covered with是固定短语,分别译为“被充满了?”和“被覆盖着?”

The room is filled with smoke. This bag is filled with rice. The ground is covered with snow. The hill is covered with trees.

74.名词或所属格作定语:?

1强调性别时a man doctor / two men doctors ;

a woman teacher / six women teachers a man cleaner / some men cleaners

被修饰词是单数时,性别也用单数;被修饰词是复数时,性别也用复数。

?

2a girl actor / four girl actors a boy player / two boy players

a bus station / some bus stations 复数只变被修饰的词, 定语不再变复数。

?3a boys’ team / a gentlemen’s holiday / Teachers’ Day / Children’s Day / Nurses’ Day?? “复数 + ’s ” 作定语,译为“?的?”

?

4Father’s Day / Mother’s Day 此处“单数 + ’s ”作定语。

?5and连接的名词所属格:Lucy’s and Ann’s fathers are workers. 分别是两个人的爸爸,所以应分别加 ’s,做主语时谓语用复数。而下一句: Lucy and Ann’s father is very interesting. 两人共有的爸爸,两人后只加一个 ’s. 做主语时谓语用单数。

75.win与beat区别:都有“赢”的意思。 win后加物:I’m sure Jim will win the match.

We won the first place in the sports meeting. 我们赢了第一名。

而beat后加的是人,也可译为“打败”:I’m afraid they will beat us.

I hope we can beat the boys’ team. (男子队,相当于人。)

76.it / that / this / one当代词时的部分用法:?

1it 指上文的某个事物,和上文是同一个。

This book is very useful. I will take good care of it. it也可指上文所说的事:

My son has lost himself in the computer games. I’m worried about it.

?2that与上文所说是同一类,但不是同一个,常指不可数名词—21—....The .

。 food in China is quite different from that in America.

The weather of Hainan is better than that of Gansu. that也可指上文所说的事:

A: I had an accident and broke my legs. B: I’m sorry to hear that.

?

3 this 更多指下文所说的事:The reason is this : ???..

?

4one 指代上文所说的某类可数名词单数,指同一类物但不是同一个。

This sweater is too expensive, do you have another one?(也指毛衣,但不是上文那个)

77.at / by the end of, in the end 的区别: ?1at the end of +时间点或地点,“在?的尽头,在?的末尾”

They will have a sports meeting at the end of March.

(时间)

He put some books at the end of the bed. (地点) ?2by the end of +时间点,“截止到?末” 若接过去的时间点,常用过去完成时: We had built ten buildings by the end of 2002. They had planted six thousand trees by the end of last month. 若接将来的时间,常用一般将来时:We shall finish the work by the end of next month. ?3in the end “最后”,后不加of 短语:

They wanted to find a place to rest in, in the end, they saw a village.

78.have gone to/have been to/have been in: ?

1have gone to+地点“已去了?(还未回来)” -I can’t find those children, where are they?

-They have gone to the farm. (去了农场,不在这儿) ?

2have been to+地点“去过?(原来去过,现在已回) ”句尾常接次数或多个地点

或before,或句中常有ever, never等。

She has been to Qingdao three times. I have been to two big cities.

Have you been to Dalian before? I have never / ever been to Dalian.

I have never been there before. Where have you been? 你去哪儿了?(此行省略了to) ?3have been in + 地点,“已在?(多久了) ”句尾常接for + 时间段,或since + 时间点 / 一般过去时的句子。 Peter has been in China for a long time.

I’ve been here for 2 hours / since 2 hours ago. (此短语省略了in) 79.all / whole用法:all (of) the land / all (of) the class / all (of) the students?【all 在定冠词the 前】 the whole school / the whole country / the whole day?

【whole 在定冠词the 后】

80.a bit / a little区别:都可作副词,后直接加形容词

或副词。

—22— I’m a bit / a little hungry. She feels a bit / a little tired.

也都可作代词(或形容词),后接不可数名词,但有所不同: I have only a little drink. She ate a little bread and went out. (a little 直接加名词)

而下文:I have only a bit of drink. She ate a bit of bread. (a bit先加of,再跟名词) 81.“擅长”与“不擅长”: “对?有利”与“对?有害”: “擅长”:be good at / do well in He is good at math. = He does well in math. “不擅长”:be bad in / be poor in / be weak in / do badly in

“对?有利”:be good for “对?有害”:be bad for

82. 表数量的词与短语的部分用法:?

1none / all / some / most / more / plenty of / a lot of (lots of) / 后既

可接可数名词复数,也可接不可数名词。 ?

2many / (a) few / a number of / several只接可数名词复数。 ?

3much / (a) little / a bit of只接不可数名词。

83.易用错的副词:?

1really可修饰动词、副词和形容词,常在它们前面。

I really love reading. I really miss you. (修饰动词) Tom speaks really quickly. 汤姆说得非常快。(修饰副词)

It’s really kind of you. 你真好。 (修饰形容词) ?

2very much常修饰动词want, miss, hate, love, like, dislike, enjoy, take after(长得像?), move(使?感动), excite(使?激动)等等。常在句尾。

Jack wants to go there very much. 杰克很想去那儿。 I hate reciting the words very much. 我很讨厌背单词。

He enjoyed the film very much. 他很喜欢这部电影。 He takes after his mother very much. 他长得很像他妈妈。 (very much 不可修饰形容词和副词:I’m happy very much.是错误的。)

?3very修饰形容词和副词,放在它们前面: She is very kind. I am very happy. Peter speaks very slowly.

(very不可修饰动词:I very like English. He very misses you.等类似结构都是错误的。)

84.常用于现在完成时的词或短语:for(后加时间段,句中谓语用延续性动词);

since(后加时间点或一般过去时的句子,主句谓语用延续性动词);

How long(对时间段或for与since引导的内容提问,句中谓语也用延续性动词)

in / all one’s life(在某人一生);in / during the past / last+时间段 (在最近的?时间内) ;so far(“到目前为

止”); ever;never;just;before(参见18之?

4) ;recently;.

yet(用于句尾,用在疑问句或否定句中);

already (用于句中或句尾—,23—用在肯定的陈述句中 )

其中ever, just, never, already在句中时常放在动词过去分词前面。如:He has just gone.

85.形容词与副词区别:?

1形容词修饰名词,作定语(划线部分): She is a kind girl. What bad weather! I bought a new bike.

形容词可在系动词后,作表语(划线部分):

The girl is kind. His face turned red. It tastes

sweet.

也可放在不定代词或不定副词后面作定语: somewhere warm; anything new (另见10)

?

2副词(以下划线部分)修饰动词、形容词、副词,也可修饰整个句子,如以下黑体字。

He ran quickly. Please speak in the class aloud. Tim lives alone. 修饰动词

She is very angry. He felt too tired. I’m so lucky. 修饰形容词

He got up quite early. She did it very well. 修饰副词

Unluckily, I failed the English exam. 修饰整个句子 86.everyday与every day: everyday是形容词,后接名词,“日常的”。He is practicing everyday English. every day是副词,作时间状语,“每天”。We speak English every day.

87.everyone与every one: ?

1everyone“每个人;大家;所有人”,只指人。

后不接of短语。Everyone is here except Tom.

?2every one“每一个”既可指人,也可指物。后常接of短语。

Every one of us has a dictionary. Every one of the trees is tall.

88.none与no one: ?

1no one“没有一人”只指人, 后不接of短语。

No one has been to Beihai Park. No one told us about it.

(以上因后面无of短语,故不用none)

?

2none“没有人;没有任何东西”既可指人,也可指物;既可指可数名词,也可指不可数名词。后常接of短语。

None of the children has/have been to Beihai Park. (此处指人。因后有of短语,故不用no one)

A: How many elephants did you see there? B: None. (对话中none单独用,不指人,故不用no one. 另见114)

89.乘交通工具之表达:?

1by bike / car / sea (ship) / air (plane) (前无冠词,且不用复数)

?

2on a horseback / his bike / the plane / a ship (有冠词或限定词)

?

3in his / a car (car前用in) ?4on foot ?5动词短语: ride a —bike 24— / a horse; drive a car; walk;

take a plane / taxi / bus; fly等。

90.kind of 与kinds of: ?1kind of 单独用,表示“有点”,

后接形容词或副词: He is kind of thin.”他有点瘦” I feel kind of hungry.”我有点饿”

Uncle Wang speaks kind of quickly. 王叔叔说得有点快。 ?

2若kind of前有a, this, that, what等,译为“种,种类” 后加名词。

That kind of question is difficult to answer. 那类问题难回答。

What kind of sport do you like best? 你最喜欢何种运动?

?3熟记一些短语:all kinds of...“各种各样的...” many kinds of“很多种类的”

different kinds of“不同种类的” 后都加名词。 91.rain / snow / wind的常见修饰词:a strong wind“一阵强风” a heavy rain

“一场大雨” heavy snow“大雪” (以上修饰词与后面名词组成了名词短语) blow hard“猛烈地吹” snow heavily“下大雪” rain hard

/ heavily“下大雨”

(以上修饰词与前面动词组成了动词短语)

92.day的部分用法:?

1in eight days“8天后” (in + 时间段 “?.时间后”. )

?2in the day / daytime“在白天” (前加“in”)

?

3on Teachers’ Day / May Day on Monday(表节日或星期几,前用”on”. 另见110)

?

4(in) those / these days“在过去 / 现在”= in the old days (用”in”)

?

5today, next / last / this / that / every / all day等前面常不加介词。

93.个别名词的部分用法:?

1family“家庭;家庭成员”指整体时,表示单数,谓语动词用单数形式;指成员时,表示复数,谓语用复数形式:

His family is going to move. My family is large. (以上指整体,谓语用单数)

My family are very well.我全家人很健康。 (指成员,谓语用复数)

类似的还有:staff(职员),class, team, public(公众),government等.

?

2有些名词只表复数,谓语只用复数。如people, police, cattle等:

The police are searching for a man with a big nose. The cattle have been killed .

?

3deer, fish,sheep等词的单数和复数形式相同: a deer (一只鹿) / two deer (两只鹿)

a fish (一条鱼) / two fish (两条鱼) a sheep (一只羊) / some sheep (一些羊) 另外fish若表示种类时,复数要在后加es: two fishes(两种鱼)

?4有些名词单数变复数有特殊形式: man→men; woman→women; foot→feet; tooth→teeth; —25— mouse→mice; child→children; ox→oxen (公牛) ?5有些名词通常只有复数形式 (左右对称的): scissors (剪刀) clothes(衣服) trousers (裤子) glasses(眼镜) ?6有些名词只是不可数名词: It’s such great fun. What fun! What good news! I won’t do anything in such bad weather. Can you tell me some information? I like music which is popular. 类似:a piece of chalk much knowledge 94.leave的用法:?1leave可指“离开”leave Zhengzhou离开郑州 leave Zhengzhou for Wuhan离开郑州到武汉 leave for Wuhan动身到武汉 (for后接目的地,而不是出发地) ?2leave留下;忘记 I left my backpack at home. leave后接地点,而forget后无地点。如:Sorry, I forgot the money. 95. ill与sick的区别:?1都可译为“生病的”。ill只在系动词后作表语: Her mother was ill in bed. She feels ill today. 但sick既可作表语: Her mother was sick / ill in bed. (作表语常是美国英语用法) 也可作定语(即后接名词):Jane is taking care of her sick mother. (此处是定语,不可用ill. 原因见下文ill用法) ?

2若ill作定语,译为“坏的,恶劣的”an ill person一

个坏人 sick作表语时也常译为“恶心的,想吐的”。

The boy always feels sick when he travels by car.

96.return用法:?1“返回”,相当于“go back / get back /

come back..

如:Ann will visit you when he returns to London. (当“返回”时是不及物动词,先加to才可再加地点。另外,return已含有back的意思,后不可再跟back.)

?2“归还”,相当于“give back”如:I have returned the

dictionary. (当“归还”时是及物动词,后直接加物,不加to. 同样不可再跟back.) You should return the piano to Dick on time. (后接

有人时,方可加to)

97.favourite 与own的类似结构: 形容词性物主代词 + favorite + 名词 “某人最喜欢的...”。同样,形容词性物主代词 + own + 名词“某人自己的...” 如:My favorite animal is dog. He found his own bike. 98.stop / start (begin) / forget (remember) / like / go

on等动词:

—26— ?

1stop doing sth. 停止正在做的某事。He was tired, so he stopped working.

stop to do sth. 停下来做某事(stop后是将要做的事)。 He was tired, so he stopped to have a rest.

有时两种形式会同时出现:He was tired, so he stopped working to have a rest.

?

2start / begin doing / to do 含义基本相同,但以下情况下start / begin后只接to do: ★若start / begin 已用进行时态时:He is just beginning

/ starting to write the letter.

★主语是物而不是人时:The ice began / started to melt. 冰开始融化。

★其后的动词与想法、感情有关时:He began / started to understand it.

?3forget / remember to do sth. 忘记 / 想起将要做的事。 forget / remember doing sth. 忘记 / 想起已经做过的事。 ?

4◆like doing sth. (因爱好而喜欢,表示一种习惯) Jack likes sleeping in the class. (在班睡觉虽不是好事,杰克却有这个爱好。表习惯。)

Jim doesn’t like helping others. (无助人的习惯或爱好)

◆like to do sth(因明智或正确而喜欢) She likes to help others. (助人正确,所以喜欢。)

I don’t like to play in the street. (在大街上玩不明智,故不喜欢)

大多情况下区别不明显,接两形式都可。He likes watching / to watch TV.

?

5go on doing sth.继续做某事(上文所做的事) go on to do sth接下来做另一件事.

代词是相同的人或物时, 其宾格代词要用反身代词: I teach myself English. We solved the problems ourselves. Lucy hurt herself by accident. You have to take care

of yourself.)

—27— 基数词和序数词:基数词表示人或物的数量。序数词表示人或物的次序。注意以下几种形式:one→first two→second three→third five→fifth eight→eighth nine→ninth twelve→twelfth twenty→twentieth (thirty, forty, fifty?..都变y为i加 eth.) 另外,“四十”forty; 无字母u. “第九”ninth无字母e.

?1room“房间”(可数)a room

/ two rooms “空间”(不可数):指可以容纳东西或为其它目的而使用的空间。

Could you make room for me? 你能为我让一下空间吗? Is there room for me in the car? 车里有我的位子吗? ?

2space“空间”普通用语,表示万物存在之处,与“时间”(time)为相对概念。 in the dark space在黑暗的宇宙空间(太空) time

100. 101.room / space / place:

and space时间和空间

Is there any space for me in the car? 车里有给我留的空间吗?(此处和room的含义相当) ?3place“地方”(可数),指某一具体地点。

I want to live in a place which is warm in winter. 我想住在冬季温暖的一个地方。

Mount Chaya is a wonderful place. 嵖岈山是一个奇妙之地。

102.常见国籍、人与语言的对应:

?1China“中国” Chinese(无复数形式)“中国人(的)/ 中文(的)/ 中国的” a Chinese/ two Chinese“一个 / 两个中国人” Japan, Japanese 和此类似。

?

2England“英国(原义:英格兰)” (= Britain) English(无复数形式)“英国人(的)/ 英语(的)/ 英国的”

He is English.(前无冠词)= He is an Englishman.(前有冠词)“他是英国人”

注意复数:They are English. = They are Englishmen. (变为men)

?

3France“法国” French(无复数形式)“法国人(的) / 法语(的) / 法国的”

The lady is French. (前无冠词)= The lady is a Frenchwoman.(前有冠词)

注意复数:The ladies are French. = The ladies are Frenchwomen.

?

4Germany“德国” German“德国人(的) / 德语(的) / 德国的”

The boy is a German. (前有冠词) The boys are Germans.(复数加s.)

?

5America“美国” American“美国人(的)/ 美国的” He is American.(前常无冠词) They are Americans.(复数加s)

103.易写错词形:◆noise(名词)“噪音”; noisy(形容词); noisily(副词)

◆health(名词)“健康”; healthy(形容词); healthily(副词) —28—

◆luck(名词)“运气”; lucky(形容词)“幸运的”; luckily(副词)

◆succeed(动词)“成功”; success(名词); successful(形容词); successfully(副词) ◆save(动)“救”; safe(形)“安全的”; safety(名)“安全,安全场所”safely(副) “安全地” ◆true(形)“真的,对的”; truly(副)“真正地”; truth(名)“真理, 事实”

◆terrible(形容词)“难受的,可怕的”; terribly(副词)“可怕地”

104. job与work: ?1job, 可数:I have a job as a teacher.

Jobs are not easy to get. ?2work, 不可数:I cannot find work in this town. Have you finished your work?

105.with和in表示“用”:?1with用工具:write with a pen

/ a pencil / a piece of chalk

?

2in用写字材料:write in ink / pen (材料前无冠词) 106.时刻之表达:?

1分钟未过半点 如7:20→seven twenty→twenty past seven;

2:02→two oh two→two past two 以上情况不可用带to的表达,但可用past。

?

2分钟已过半点 如5:45→five forty-five→a quarter to six→fifteen to six

1:58→one fifty-eight→two to two 以上情况不可用past, 但可用to.

?

3刚好半点,如9:30→nine thirty→half past nine ?

4刚好整点,如11:00→eleven o’clock 15:00→fifteen o’clock

107.be + 形 + of sb 与 for sb的区别:?1It’s kind of you

to help me. 你帮助我真好。

解释:kind, nice, good, clever, foolish,lazy等词表示的是人的特点或性格。此句相当于在说You are kind to help me. 形容词在描述人而不是事,此情况下介词用的是of. 又如:

It’s very clever of you to do it in such a way. 你用那种方法做它可真太聪明了。(指人聪明)

?

2It’s easy for you to do the work. 对你来说做这事是容易的。 解释:easy,difficult, necessary, important, dangerous, interesting等词如果在句中不反映人的特点或性格,如此句中并不是在说You are easy. 而是”To do the work is easy”。不是说人,而是说事。此情况下介词用的是for. 又如:It’s dangerous for us to climb the mountain. 不是说“我们”是危险的,而是说“爬山”这件事是危险的。故用for.

108. take, bring, fetch与carry: 都译为“拿”。 ◆take“拿走”,从说话人处带到另一处。 Could you take the rubbish out when you leave? ◆bring“带来”,从另一处带到说话人处。 Don’t forget to bring your homework here tomorrow. ◆fetch“去拿来”,先到另一地拿东西,然后再返回到说话人处。

如: When you go back to the classroom, please fetch

me my pen. ◆carry“拿、搬、扛”,没有特定方向。 Tim is carrying a box.

109. 条件与祈使: 有时条件句可以与祈使句相互转换—29— 。注意

以下句子结构有何不同。

?

1If you work hard, you will achieve your dream. 含条件句,相当于:

Work hard, and you will achieve your dream. 含祈使句,根据句意,用and连接后一句子。

?

2If you don’t listen carefully, you won’t understand it. 相当于:

Listen to me carefully, or you won’t understand it. 根据句意,用or (否则)连接后一句子。

110. in / on / at + 时间:?1in three days (“?时间后”,

常用一般将来时。另见92) in September(in跟“月”) in 1998(in跟“年”) in the 1860s(在十九世纪六十年代)

in the morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night (morning / afternoon / evening / night若无前置或后置修饰词时, 用in the ?短语。) (in其它用法见58) ?2on Christmas Eve; on October 1st; (on跟“日”) on Sunday evenings; on a cold morning; on a windy night.

on the morning / afternoon / evening / night of September 10th.

(morning / afternoon / evening / night若有前置或后置修饰词时,如以上划线词,

前面用的是on. 而若是early / late 修饰时,仍用介词in. 如:in an early morning )

on Fridays; on New Year’s Day; (另见92)

?

3at 6:00; at Christmas; at noon; at night

111. one day与someday / some day的区别:

?

1one day“某一天,有一天” 既可用于一般过去时,也可用于一般将来时。

One day, a stranger came to my house. (指过去的一天,用过去时。)

I will achieve my dream one day. 某天我会实现梦想的。 (指将来,用将来时) ?2someday = some day“ (将来的)某一天”用一般将来时。可以和one day互换。

We’ll beat them someday. 有朝一日我们会打败他们的。 I’m sure I can win someday. 我确信某天我会嬴。 112. missing与lost: 都可译为“丢失的,失踪的” 但用的分别是动词的现在分词和过去分词形式。

My pen is lost / missing. (表语) I’ve found the missing / lost book. (定语)

113.常见部分名词及其修饰词:?

1price(价格)常用high 与low修饰。

sell sth at a high / low price 以高 / 低价出售. The price of the shoes is high / low. ?2number(数量)常用big / large和small修饰:The number of the students is big.

?

3quality(质量,品质)常用low / poor和high / good修饰。

?4population(人口)常用big / large和small修饰:China

has a large population.

—30— (以上词都不用many, much修饰。) 114.个别疑问句的常见否定回答:

?

1What is on the desk? →Nothing. (不用none) ?

2Who is in the classroom? → Nobody. (不用none) ?

3How much water is in the bottle? → None. (不用nothing)

How many people are in the room? →None. (不用nobody)

(how many / much都是对数量提问,所以用相应表数量的词none回答,

而what / who不表数量,故不用none回答)

115.fun的用法:fun虽然有时有形容词的含义,但大多情况下仍然是不可数名词。

所以大多仍具备名词的用法。识记以下句型或短语,也基本掌握了其用法。 What fun! 多么有趣啊!(what 跟名词) It’s such great fun. 这可真有趣。(such加名词)

Skating is great fun. 滑冰太有意思了。(be good / great fun)

have fun (in) doing sth 做某事很快乐 make fun of 取笑

It sounds like fun. 这听起来有趣。(like,“像”,加名词)

116.except / except for / besides: 都译为“除了?之外” ?

1except后面的人或物不包括在前面对象当中。 We all failed except him.

“我们都失败了,除了他。” 此话意味着他没有失败。“我们”不包括“他”。

?

2except for 说明整个基本情况后,对细节加以纠正。 The book is good except for its price. 书很好,就是太贵。

He is an able man except for bad memory. 他是个有才能的人,就是记忆力差了点。

(这一短语有时也可等同于except以及besides.但暂不要求掌握。)

?3besides和except正好相反,后面的人或物包含在前面对象当中。

We all succeeded besides him. 除了他成功外,我们也都成功了。“我们”当中包括“他”。

117.常见带to为介词而不是不定式的短语:

prefer?to?(见27); look forward to ?(期待;渴望); pay attention to?(注意);

be used to ?(习惯于,见37); (以上短语可接名词或代词,若接动词,需用ing形式)

the key to?(?的钥匙, ?的答案, 后者等于the answer to); the ticket to?(?的票);

the solution to ?(?的解决办法) reply to (?.的答复); lead to ?(引起?)

118.because与why的部分用法:若分别引导从句,即在It’s / That’s 等之后,则because后表原因,why后表结果。如: I came late today. It’s because the bus broke down on the way.

和下文比较:The bus broke down on the way. That’s why I came late.

又如:He broke my window, that’s why I was angry. 和

下文比较:

—31— I was angry with him, that’s because he broke my window. 119.no与not的区别:

◇no表“无,没有”接名词,等于not one, not a, not any: There is no water in the river. (=not any water) I have no book to read. (=I don’t have a book to read.) ◇no表“不许”,不可用not. 如: No parking. 禁止停车 No photos. 不许拍照 ◇no表“不”,后接形容词或副词,相当于not (any). He feels no worse.他不再感觉难受了。 =He doesn’t feel any worse.

类似,no more = not any more. ◇在对问题的否定回答时,要用no,与yes对应。不用not. 见122.

120. That’s all right / All right / That’s right. 的区别:

That’s all right. = That’s OK. “没什么,别客气”,

是对对方道谢或道歉时的回答。

All right. = OK. “行,好,可以”,表示同意。 That’s right. = You are right. “你说的对;对”,表示认同对方的观点。

121.on表方式的用法(常译为“靠,借助”):I hear music on the radio.

He learns English on TV. He found out the information on the Internet.

Tom learned the news on the newspaper. John saw Effel Tower on the film.

He told me the news on the phone. (注意:TV前无the.)

122.用yes与no回答时要注意的问题:说话人用yes或no回答对方时,并不表示对对方的观点的赞同或反对,而是在表达自己的看法。如下文几种情况:

He isn’t Tom. / He is Tom. Is he Tom? / Isn’t he Tom?

He is Tom, isn’t he? / He isn’t Tom, is he?

对以上各句的回答,若是:Yes, he is.则都指“他是Tom.” 而若用No, he isn’t.回答,则都指“他不是Tom.” 同样,以下所有句子: Lucy likes music, doesn’t she? / Lucy doesn’t like music, does she?

Lucy likes music. / Lucy doesn’t like music. Does Lucy like music? / Doesn’t Lucy like music? 回答人若用yes,都表示Lucy喜欢音乐; 若用no, 都表示Lucy 不喜欢音乐。

fall(跌,落) fell fallen

不规则动词表 feed(喂) fed fed

feel(感觉,摸) felt felt

原形 过去式 ring(鸣响) rang rung

run (跑) ran run say (说) said said see (看、看到) saw seen 过去分词awake[(使)醒来 ] awaked / awoke awoken

be (am /is /are) was / were

been beat (打败)

beat beaten become(变得) became become

begin(开始)

began begun blow (吹)

blew blown break (打破)

broke broken bring (带来)

brought brought build (建造)

built built burn(燃烧)

burned / burnt burned / burnt buy(买)

bought bought can(能、可能) could -------

catch(捉住)

caught caught choose (选择)

chose chosen come(来)

came come cost(值,花费)

cost cost cut(切,割)

cut cut deal(对待)

dealt dealt dig(挖)

dug dug do

did done draw(绘画)

drew drawn dream(梦想)

dreamt/ dreamed dreamt/ dreamed drink(喝)

drank drunk drive(驾驶)

drove driven eat(吃)

ate eaten fall(跌,落)

fell fallen feed(喂)

fed fed feel(感觉,摸)

felt felt fight(战斗,打架) fought

fought find (找到、发现) found

found fly (飞)

flew flown forget (忘记) forgot

forgot,forgotten get (得到)

got got,gotten give (给)

gave given go (去)

went gone —33—

fight(战斗,打架) fought fought find (找到、发现) found found fly (飞) flew flown forget (忘记) forgot forgot / forgotten get (得到) got got give (给) gave given go (去) went gone grow(种,生长) grew grown hang(悬挂) hung hung have /has had had hear(听到) heard heard hide(隐藏) hid hidden

hit(打击) hit hit hold(握住,举行) held held hurt(损伤) hurt hurt keep (保持) kept kept know (知道) knew known lead(领导) led led learn (学、学会) learnt / learned learnt / learned leave(离开,留下) left left lend(借出) lent lent let (让) let let lie(躺) lay lain lose(失去,丢) lost lost make (做、制造) made made may (也许、可能) might ------ mean(意味,指) meant meant meet (遇到、迎接) met met mistake(误会) mistook mistaken must (必须、一定) must --------- pay(付) paid paid put (放) put put read (读) read read ride(骑) rode ridden —34— seek(寻找) sought sought sell (卖) sold sold send(送,派遣) sent sent set(安置) set set shake(摇动) shook shaken shall (将要) should should shine (照耀) shone / shined shone / shined shoot(射击) shot shot show (显示) showed shown,showed shut(关) shut shut sing (唱) sang sung sit (坐) sat sat sleep (睡) slept slept slide(滑) slid slid smell(闻,嗅) smelt, smelled smelt,smelled speak (说、演讲) spoke spoken speed (加速) speeded / sped speeded / sped spell (拼写) spelt, spelled spelt,spelled spend(度过、花费) spent spent spread (延伸、展开) spread spread stand(站,忍受) stood stood steal(偷) stole stolen stick(刺、插) stuck stuck sweep (扫) swept swept swim (游泳) swam swum take (拿、花费) took took teach (教) taught taught tell (告诉、讲) told told think (思考、想) thought thought throw(扔) threw thrown understand(理解) understood understood wake(醒,叫醒) woke, waked woken, waked wear (穿、穿着) wore worn will (将要) would --------- win(获胜,赢) won won write (写) wrote written

—35—

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