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词语辨析(2)

发布时间:2013-10-03 11:00:43  

词语辨析2

一、学习目标

1.掌握常见名词,介词,连词等词的词义辨析 。

2.掌握常见词组的词义辨析。

二、知识讲解

词语辨析:

第一组:Job, work & occupation

Work——是用于表示工作或职业最常用的词,它可以用来指一切长期性的职业,包括脑力劳动和体力劳动,通常代替employment和job。不过work多用来指“工作”本身, 平常我们每做一件事无论大小,都可以称为 work。 例句:I started work when I was 18.

Job——非正式用语,泛指一份固定的赚钱工作,不论是否需要技术和特殊训练。该词在口语中广泛使用。

例句:She has a good job in a bank. 她在银行里有份很好的工作。

Occupation——指一个人经常担任的工作,不论是否领取工资。

例句:By occupation she is a housewife.她的工作是管家。

这是因为尽管她没有外出工作,但她负责管理整个家庭,照顾一家人的生活,她的管家工作就可以称为occupation,而不能用其他词来代替。当然,干工作而又领取工资的也可称为occupation。

例句: The principal occupation of the inhabitants is to feed peacefully 1

on tourists. 当地居民的主要职业是靠招待旅游者平静地度日。

小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. He finally got a _________ in a supermarket.

2. Will you go back to __________ when you've had the baby?

3. State your name, age, and ______________in the box below.

第二组:Some & any

Some和 any——既可以修饰可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词,some常用在肯定句中,而any则常用在否定和疑问句中。因此 some和any 的用法主要是考虑用在肯定句、疑问句还是否定句中,与名词的可数与否无关。

例句:--I have some tea here. 我这儿有些茶叶。

--I can’t see any tea. 我没看见茶叶。

--Do you have any friends at school? 你在学校有些朋友吗?

Some 意为“一些”,可作形容词和代词。它常修饰可数名词复数。 例句:some books一些书 some boys一些男孩

也可修饰不可数名词

例句:some water一些水 some tea一些茶叶

但在表示建议,反问,请求的疑问句中,或期望得到肯定回答时,多用some而不用any。

例句:Would you like some coffee? 你要不要来点咖啡?

What about some fruit juice? 来点果汁如何?

当any表示“任何”的意义,起强调作用时,它可以用在肯定句中。 2

例句:Any student can answer this question.任何学生都可以回答这个问题。 小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. I don’t have __________ milk.

2. There is _________ water in the glass.

3. Do they have ________ friends in China?

4. I want to buy _________vegetables.

5. Would you like _______ coffee?

第三组:both, either & neither

这三个词都指两个人或物,它们既可以单独作主语,也可以与of 连用,但是它们的具体含义不同。

both ——表示“两者都”,作主语时,谓语动词常用复数。

例句:Both of you are right. 你们两个人全对。

Either——表示“两者中的任何一个”,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

例句:You can park on either side of the street. 在街道的哪边停车都可以. neither ——表示“两者都不”,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

例句:Neither of the girls is tall. 这两个女孩都不高。

第四组:all, none & any

这三个词都指三个或三个以上的人或物。它们的具体含义为:

All——表示“三个或三个以上的人或物都”。

例句:All of the books are interesting. 所有的书都很有趣。

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none ——表示“三个或三个以上的人或物都不”。

例句:I like none of the films. 这些电影我都不喜欢。

any ——表示“三个或三个以上的人或物中的任何一个”。

例句:You may take any of these magazines.

在这些杂志中你可以随便拿一本。

第五组:other, the other, the others & another

Other——表示“别的,另外的”,只能作形容词,后面加复数可数名词。

the other——既可以作形容词,后面加单数或复数可数名词,也可作代词,单独充当句子成分。

one ... the other ... 是一个固定短语,表示“一个……,另一个……” 例句:If you work hard, you are sure to catch up with other students.

如果你努力学习的话,你肯定会赶上其他学生。

My parents have two children. One is me and the other is my sister. 我父母有两个孩子, 一个是我,一个是我妹妹。

the others——作代词,后面不能加任何的名词或代词,它强调“其余所有的(人或物)”,表示特指。

some ... the others ... 是一个固定搭配,表示“一些……,另一些……”。 例句:There are twenty boys in our class; the others are girls.

我们班有二十名男生,其他的是女生。

Another——常指不定数目中的“另一个”,既可作形容词修饰单数名词,也可作代词单独使用。

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例句:I don't like this skirt. Please show me another (one).

我不喜欢这条裙子,请给我再拿一条看看。

注意:

another后的名词有数词或few修饰时,其后也可接复数名词。“another + 数词 + 名词”相当于“数词 + more + 名词”。

例句:We still have another twenty trees to plant.

= We still have twenty more trees to plant. 我们还有二十棵树要种。 中考链接:

1.(2011中考〃枣庄) Did you see Peter and Mike?

No, I saw ______of them.

A. neither B. either C. both D. none

2.--- It was a heavy snow last night. Are we all here now?

--- Yes, and _____ of us was late for school.(2011中考〃三亚)

A. all B. either C. neither D. none 小测试:请用黄框内的词语填空

1. This dress is too small. Please give me _________ one.

2. This is your football sock. Where is ___________ one?

3. We study Chinese, math, English and _______ lessons.

4. In that school, ________ student has a computer.

5. There are a lot of people in the park. Some are walking, some are 5

looking at the flowers, _______ are boating.

6. Alice didn't like that dress, so she asked to see some ______.

7. There are 50 students in our class. 32 of us are boys, and ____________ are girls.

8. Two children went, but ___________ stayed.

9. Joey sits on one side and Martin sits on __________.

10. She has two dogs and she is very fond of _____ of them.

11. We can't buy any food now because ______ of the stores are open.

12. I have two brothers and I like _____ of them.

13. We are ___ very different in my family. _____ of us has our own personality.

14. Alice and Janet are _____ married but ________of them has any children.

15. Would you like _________ cup of tea?

第六组:few,a few & little,a little

Few & a few——用来修饰可数名词

few表示否定意义,没有,几乎没有;

a few表示肯定意思, 有几个。

例句:He has few friends here, and he feels lonely.

他这里没朋友,他感觉寂寞。

There are a few eggs in the basket.

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篮子里有几个鸡蛋。

little &a little——用来修饰不可数名词

little表示否定意思,没有,几乎没有;

a little 表示肯定意思,有一点儿。

例句:There is little ink in my bottle; can you give me a little ink?

我的瓶子里没有墨水了,你能给我点儿墨水吗?

小测试:

1. My father has many books, but he has_____ English books.

A. little B. a little C. few D. a few

2. The twins can speak only ___ French.

A. a few B. few C. little D. a little

第七组:sometimes & sometime& some time & some times Sometime——

(1)副词:某个时候。可指过去或将来的某个时候。

① Would you come to the cinema with me, sometime?

找个时间和我看场电影好吗?(将来)

② I bought this sometime last summer.

这是我在去年夏天买的。(过去)

(2)形容词:前,过去的。意思类似former。

① This is our sometime general manager.

这是我们的前任总经理。

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② Our sometime classmate, Rose, is now a pop star.

我们以前的同学罗斯,现在是明星了。

sometimes ——

副词:有时候。顺便提一下,at times也是“有时”的意思。

① Every man is a fool sometimes, and none at all times.

每个人有时都会犯傻,但没有谁会一直都傻。

② I sometimes have letters from him.

有时我会收到他的来信。

Some time ——

某段时间,常与for连用。

① We plan to stay in Hainan for some time.

我们打算在海南呆上一段时间。

② I will keep the computer for some time, so you can use it.

这部电脑我会留着一段时间,你可以用。

Some times ——

表示几次,several times也可以表示“几次”,但比 some times较确定。time作可数名词时可作“次数”解;表示“时间”时是不可数名词。

① I am sure that we have met some times before.

我肯定我们之前见过几次了。

② The newly bought microwave oven failed to work some times. 新买的微波炉坏了几次了。

小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

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1. We’ll take our holiday __________ in August.

2. I spend ___________practicing speaking English every day.

3. ____________ he goes to the cinema on Sunday.

4. He has been to Beijing ____________ before.

第八组:in, to & on(表示位置的)

1. in 表示在某地范围之内。

例句:Shanghai is/lies in the east of China. 上海在中国的东部。

2. to 表示在某地范围之外。

例句:Japan is/lies to the east of China. 日本位于中国的东面。

3. on 表示与某地相邻或接壤。

例句:Mongolia is/lies on the north of China. 蒙古国位于中国北边。

第九组:at, for, by(表示计量的)

1. at 表示“以……速度”“以……价格”。

例句:It flies at about 900 kilometers an hour.

它以每小时900公里的速度飞行。

2. for 表示“用……交换,以……为代价”。

例句:He sold his car for 500 dollars. 他以五百美元把车卖了。 注意:at表示单价(price) ,for表示总钱数。

3. by 表示“以……计”,后跟度量单位。

例句:They paid him by the month. 他们按月给他计酬。

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小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. I sold my car _____ a high price.

2. Here eggs are sold ______ weight.

3. My mother sold her coat ______ 200 yuan.

第十组:by, with, on(表示工具或手段的)

1. by用某种方式,多用于交通。

例如:by bus乘公共汽车,by e-mail. 通过电子邮件。

注意:表示搭乘交通工具时,用by时不用冠词,用in时要用冠词。 例句:I went there by bus/in a bus. 我是坐公共汽车去的那儿。

2. with表示“用某种工具”。

例句:He broke the window with a stone. 他用石头把玻璃砸坏了。 注意:with表示用某种工具时,必须用冠词或物主代词。

3. on表示“以……方式”,多用于固定词组。

例句:They talked on the telephone. 他们通过电话进行交谈。

小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. She learns English _____ the radio/TV.

2. You can see it ________ a microscope.

3. We go to school ______ bus every day.

第十一组:because & since & as & for

Because——通常表示说话人认为这种理由或原因是正式的理由。在含10

because的句子中,全句强调的重点在原因上,不在主句的结果上。因此,回答why提出的问题时,只能用because,不能用since、as或for。because of后面只能跟短语,不能跟从句。

例句:I stayed at home because it rained.

—Why is she absent?

—Because she is sick.

Since——表示的原因,指人们已知的事实,常译为“既然”,引导的从句只是一种附带的说明原因,不是对原因的强调。because与since不能与so连用。 例句:Since he asks you, you'll tell him why.

Since everyone is here, let's start.

As——表示原因与since差别不大,只是语气更弱,是显而易见的理由,常表示伴随原因。

例句:We all like her as she is kind.

As I had a cold, I was absent from school.

For——表示因果关系时,可与because替换使用,所不同的是它只能放在主句之后,不能放在句首。在含for的句子里,for从句有时只是对主句补充说明理由或推断原因,与前一分句不存在因果关系。

例句:It must have rained, for the ground is wet.

(从“地面潮湿”作出“下过雨”的推测,但地湿并不一定是下雨所致, for不可以换为because。)

小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. ________Lingling was ill, she didn't come to school.

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2. ________I understood very little Japanese, I couldn't follow

the conversation.

3. ________Xiaowang was not ready, we went without him.

4. The days are short, ________it is now December.

第十二组:how long, how soon, how often,

how far, how many times

1. how long“多久,多长时间”,主要是对一段时间进行提问,可用于任何时

态。常与延续性的动词连用。如: (for) three days/weeks/months

例句:How long do you stay in Beijing every year ?

How long have they lived here ?

—— How long were you not at school last year ?

—— About two weeks.

2. how soon “还要多久”,对某个时间到将来某动作发生这段时间提问,常

用在一般将来时态的句子中。 答语通常为:“in + 一段时间”。

例句:—— How soon can you finish the work ?

—— In half an hour.

3. how often “多久……次;是否经常”,对频率提问,常用来提问在某一特

定时间进行某个动作的次数。常用于现在时或过去时。答语通常为:always, usually, often, sometimes, twice a week。

例句:—— How often do you go to the Shanghai Library?

—— Usually.

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—— How often do you see a film ?

—— Once a week.

4. how far “多远”,对距离提问。

例句:How far is it from your school ?

5. how many times 对次数提问,常用于完成时。

例句: He has been to the supermarket to buy something for 3 times this week. How many times has he been to the supermarket to buy something this week ?

小测试:请用以上所学词组进行填空

1. — ____ did the meeting last ?

— About half an hour.

A. How soon B. How long C. How far D. How much

2. — ____ will that bridge be finished ?

— In a few months.

A. How soon B. How long C. How far D. How often

3. — ____ will it take you to get to the post office ?

— About half an hour.

A. How old B. How long C. How soon D. How often

4. — ____ do you write to your mother ?

— Once a month.

A. How soon B. How often C. How many times D. What time is it 13

5. — ____ does your school have sports meeting ?

— Twice a year.

A. How soon B. How long C. How often D. How many times

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