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词语辨析(1)

发布时间:2013-10-03 11:00:44  

词语辨析1

一、学习目标

掌握常见动词的词义辨析

二、知识讲解

第一组词语辨析:come, be here

? [误] He has come here for three hours.

? [正] He came here three hours ago.

? [正] He has been here for three hours.

与此同类的还有borrow/lend-keep; join-be in/at; die-be dead; buy-have; leave-be away等.

如何把短暂动词变成持续的状态呢?

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第二组词语辨析:spend, cost, take

(1)spend的主语通常是人,往往用于以下句型:

(sb) spend some money/some time on sth.

(sb) spend some money/some time (in) doing sth.

例句:

1. I spent fifty yuan on the coat.

= I spent fifty yuan (in) buying the coat. 我花50元买了这件大衣。

2. He spent three days on the work.

= He spent three days (in) doing the work. 他干这项工作用了3天。

(2)take常用于“占用、花费”时间,其主语通常为形式主语 “it”或物。 往往用于以下句型:

It takes/took sb.some time to do sth=sth.takes/took sb.some time. 例句:

It took me three years to draw the beautiful horses.

The work will take me two days.

(3) cost的主语必须是某物。

往往用于以下句型:sth.cost (sb.) some money。

例句:The dictionary cost me £20.

(4) pay的主语必须是某人。

往往用于以下句型:sb. pay some money for sth.

例句:I paid 200 yuan for that pair of shoes.

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小测试:请用spend, take, pay, cost进行填空练习。

1. How much does the ticket _____ from Shanghai to Beijing?

2. It will _____ us several years to learn a foreign language well.

3. How much money did you _______ on the dictionary?

4. I _____ 15 yuan for this new book last year.

第三组词语辨析:join, join in, take part in

(1)take part in 意为“参加,参与(某事物或某活动,如:movement, revolution, meeting, conference, conversation, war等)”。

例句:

1. Switzerland didn't take part in this war.

瑞士没有参加这次战争。

2. How many countries will take part in the World Cup?

有多少个国家要参加世界杯?

(2)Join意为“参加(某组织),加入(某处任职),参加到某个人群中去,从而成为其中一员”。

例句:

1. She joined a Health Club. 她参加了一个健身俱乐部。

2. We both joined the Labor Party. 我们俩都加入了工党。

(3)join in sth. / doing sth.意为“参加”,后面接的宾语一般是表示竞赛、 娱乐、游戏等活动的名词或V-ing。

例句:

1. Can I join in the game? 我可以参加这个游戏吗?

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2. They all join in singing the song. 他们一起唱这首歌。

总结:

? join指“参加”组织,成为一个成员,

? join in 参加活动, 游戏,竞赛

? join sb.意思是“加入某人”,

? take part in指参加活动特别是大的运动;

如指“参加…多长时间”就要用延续动词be in或be a …member, 而不能用join。

小测试:

1.判断下列句子正误

? He joined the League for two years.( )

? He joined the League two years ago. ( )

? He has been in the League for two years. ( )

? He has been a League member for two years. ( )

2. 请用join, join in, take part in进行填空练习。

? My brother ________ the army in 2002.

? I didn't want to ________ the sports meeting.

? We are playing football. Do you want to _____?

? You are welcome to ________ us.

第四组词语辨析:borrow, lend, keep

borrow / lend

(1)二者都有“借”的意思,使用时应注意以谁为中心的问题,borrow是 4

以“我”为中心,“借进”的意思,常与from连用。

例句:I’ve borrowed two books from the library.我从图书馆借了2本书。

(2)lend是以“你”为中心,意为“借出”,常跟介词to搭配。

例句:Can you lend your dictionary to me? 能借你的字典给我吗?

(3)这二者都可有这样的结构:borrow sb. sth; lend sb. sth.

注意:

keep 这个单词可以表示延续性的动作,所以可以在需要表示延续性动作的句子当中表示借了多长时间。

小测试:请用borrow, lend, keep进行填空练习。

1. -- How long can I ________ the book?

---For three weeks. But you can’t _____ it to others.

2. You can ________ books from the library.

3. The library _________ books to the students.

第五组词语辨析:lie, lay , lain

1.“说谎”: lie lied lied;

2. “躺,卧;位于”: lie, lay, lain,现在分词是lying。

3.“放;孵(蛋)”: lay, laid, laid。

小测试:请用lie, lay进行填空练习

1. I saw an old man ______ on the street.

2. Don’t believe him. He always ______.

3. I can’t find my book anywhere. I remember that I ______it on the desk last night.

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第六组词语辨析:

be made in, be made of , be made from, be made up of ? [误] The table is made from wood.

? [正] The table is made of wood.

小测试:

请用be made in, be made of , be made from, be made up of进行填空练习.

1. This bottle of wine is made______ grapes.

2. My favorite scurf is made _____ China.

3. Bottles are made ______ glass.

4. Our class is made _________ six groups.

第七组词语辨析:stop to do & stop doing

例句:

He was too tired, so he stopped to have a rest.

Look! The teacher is coming. We must stop talking.

注意:stop to do 停下来去做

stop doing 停止做某事

小测试:请用stop doing , stop to do 和stop sb. (from) doing进行填空练习.

1. We stopped ____________. 我们停下来休息。

2. I stopped _______ and looked at him. 我停止吃东西, 看着他。

3. They stopped me ___________ out of the door. 他们阻止我出门。

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第八组词语辨析:speak、talk、say、tell

1. speak“讲话、发言、演说”是不及物动词,涉及人时要加介词to。speak作及物动词时后面跟语言名称。

2. talk“谈话、闲谈”是不及物动词,涉及人时用介词with、to等。涉及事情时后面跟介词about等。

3. say是及物动词,后面跟名词、代词、从句等,表示说的内容。

4. tell是及物动词,后面首先要跟人,然后再跟从句或者介词短语等。

例句:

1. Do you speak English? 你讲英语吗?

2. Who spoke at the meeting? 谁在会上发了言?

3. Our teacher is talking to Lin Tao’s parent.

我们的老师正在跟林涛的家长讲话。

4. Can you say it in English? 你能用英语说出它吗?

5. Please tell me something about the strange flying object.

请跟我讲讲那个奇怪的飞行物的事情吧。

小测试:请用speak, talk, say, tell进行填空练习.

1. Don’t forget to ______“Thank you”when someone has helped you.

2. Granny often ______ me funny stories.

3. We can _______ both Chinese and English.

4. They are __________about their friends now.

第九组词语辨析:dress, put on, wear, in

1. dress, 动词,“穿,给……穿”,后面跟人。

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例句:He is too young to dress himself.

2. put on, 动词,“把……穿上”,强调“穿”的动作。

例句:It’s cold, please put on your coat.

3. wear 动词,“穿,戴”,强调“穿着”的状态。

例句:He is wearing a blue jacket.

4. in介词,“穿着,戴着,通常接颜色或衣服”, 强调状态。

例句:a girl in red 一个穿红色衣服的女孩。

a boy in hat 一个戴帽子的男孩

小测试:请用dress, put on, wear, in进行填空练习.

1. Oh, Danny. It's raining outside. You'd better _________your raincoat.

2. --Nancy, don’t always ________ that old jacket. It looks terrible. --But I think it’s cool, Mom.

3. My little brother is too young. Mom _________him every morning.

4. The man ___ black is my father.

第十组词语辨析:arrive in/at、reach、get to

1. arrive是不及物动词,到达具体地点时后面加介词at,到达一个大的地方(国家、城市)时后面加介词in,arrive后面可以直接跟地点副词here/there/home等。

2. get表示“到达”时是不及物动词,涉及地点(无论大小)时后面加to,get后面可以直接跟地点副词here等。

3. reach是及物动词,后面直接跟地点名词。

例句:

1. He arrived in San Francisco last Sunday.

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上个星期天他抵达旧金山。

2. How did you get there in the night?

你是怎样在夜间到达那里的?

3. We hurried all the way and reached the station just five minutes before the train left.

我们一路狂奔在火车启动前5分钟到达车站。

小测试:请用reach, arrive in/at, get to进行填空练习.

1. With the help of the computer, news can ____ every corner of the world swiftly(快速地).

2. We have already ______ in Shanghai.

3. I ______the Capital Cinema at 9:00.

4. When did you ______ home?

第十一组词语辨析:beat, win

1. beat (打败),后面跟“人”

2. win(赢得),后面跟“比赛、竞赛”等

例句:

1. Who won at last? (最后谁赢了?)/

2. Class three beat us 5-0. (三班以5∶0打败了我们。)/

3. I am sure to win the match. (我一定能赢得比赛。)

小测试:请用beat, win进行填空练习.

1. In the 49th World Table Tennis Championship, Wang Liqin______ Ma Lin and ______the champion of the men’s singles.

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2. Our football team ________ theirs by 3 to 1.

3. Our football team _________ the football game by 3 to 1.

三、练习环节

1.(2011, 天津)I ______ some of my free time playing basketball for my school team.

A. spend B. cost C. take D. pay

2.(2012, 浙江温州) I like soft and gentle music. It ______nice.

A. tastes B. looks C. sounds D. feels

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