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新人教版初中英语语法知识要点吴宇航

发布时间:2013-10-03 12:33:33  

吴宇航 复兴中学

初中英语语法知识考查要点(1)

1. 名词

(1) 不规则名词的单、复数形式要特别记忆:

man—men, woman—women, child—children, foot—feet, tooth—teeth (2) 单数、复数同形的名词:

fish, sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese

(3) 常用复数形的名词:

trousers, shoes, glasses

(4) 只有复数形的名词:

thanks, clothes

(5) 单数形式但其意为复数的可数名词:

people, police

(6) 有生命的名词所有格形式:

单数名词加’s, 复数名词加s’, 不是以s结尾的复数名词加’s, 如: children’s room

(7) 无生命的名词所有格用of结构表达:

如: the capital of China

(8) 表示并列名词各自所有,在各名词词尾加’s:

如: Tom’s and Mary’s bikes (两人各自的自行车)

(9) 表示并列名词共同所有,则在后一个名词的词尾加’s:

如: Tom and Mary’s mother (即Tom与Mary是兄妹)

(10) 关于时间、距离、长度、重量、价格的所有格:

如: ten minutes’ walk, ten miles’ journey, a boat’s length, two pounds’ weight, ten dollars’ worth

(11) 双重所有格:

a friend of my father’s

2. 形容词与副词

(1) 原级,比较级,最高级词形变化:

① [单元音+单辅音]的单音节词

fat—fatter—fattest

thin—thinner—thinnest

hot—hotter—hottest

big—bigger—biggest

② 以y结尾的双音节词

easy—easier—easiest

heavy—heavier—heaviest

pretty—prettier—prettiest

初中英语语法知识考查要点(2)

③ 劣级比较

less+形容词/副词原级+than

例: She is less beautiful than Mary.

④ 两者之间用比较级,在比较级前加定冠词,三者以上用最高级 例: He is the taller of the two.

She is the best player of the three.

⑤ 越……越……的表达法

例: The days are getting hotter and hotter.

The more you study, the more you learn.

⑥ 修饰比较级的词有:much, by far, even, a little, a great deal… 例: She is much better now.

 切记不要用比较级来修饰比较级。

3. 连词

(1) 动词与靠近的主语一致:

这样的连词有: or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also。 (2) or的用法:

① 作或者讲

例: You or your friend has to go to the teachers’ office.

② 作否则讲

例: Hurry up, or you will be late for school.

(3) and与but:

例: He has no money and he is poor.

He is poor but he is honest.

4. 介词

(1) 表示时间:

at: 表示某一时间点

如: at noon

on: 表示特定的日子

如: on Christmas

in: 表示一段不具体的时间

如: in the morning, in the Second world war

 如表示在某一特定的早上、下午则用on

如: on a cold morning, on a hot afternoon, on Sunday morning during: 表示期间内的某个时期

如: during the night, during the Second World War

for: 其后接表示一段时间长度的词

如: for three days

through: 表示在整个期间没有间歇

例: It snowed through the night.

till/until: 表示动作持续的终点

例:I studied hard till twelve o’clock last night. by: 表示动作完成期限

例: I’ll be back by five o’clock.

since: 表示某动作的起始点

例:I have studied English since 1990. (2) 表示地点:

at: 表示较小的地点

如: arrived at the school gate

in: 表示较大的地点

如: arrived in Shanghai

for: 表示目的地

例: I’ll leave for Shanghai.

above: 表示上面,上方,其反意词是below over: 表示垂直上方,其反意词是under

例: The dog jumped over the table.

through: 表示穿过

如: through the forest

across: 表示平原上的跨越

例: I want to walk across the road.

初中英语语法知识考查要点(3)

5. 动词

(1) 动词的时态:

① 一般现在时

一般现在时的主要用法有两点:其一表示一经常发生的动作,如: I always go to scho ol at seven. 其二表示某一真理,事实,如: The earth moves around the sun. ② 现在完成时

现在完成时的主要用法有两点:其一表示某一动作发生于过去,并持续下来,到现在完成

。如: I have studied English for two years. 其二表示某动作发生于过去并已结束,但其影响到现在。如: I haven’t had my lunch. I’m hungry now.

与现在完成时连用的词语有:yet, already, before, since, ever, never等。 其考查要点:

其一: Have been表示曾经去过,如:I have been to America twice. 说此话的人应

已经回到国内。而He has gone to Japan.则此人目前已到日本去了。

其二: 截止性动词可以有现在完成时,但不可与表示一段长度的词连用,如: The clas s has begun. The class has been on for five minutes.

③ 一般过去时

表示过去发生的动作,过去的习惯或反复发生的动作。如: Who broke the window? In those days, I studied hard at night every day. 与过去时连用的时间状语有: at that time, ago, in 1949, just now (刚才), last night, yesterday

④ 一般将来时

纯将来时的表示法: shall/will+动词原形

例: I’ll leave for Shanghai this evening.

表示按计划要做或可能做的事: be going to+动词原形

例: I’m going to help you tonight.

将来时的特殊表示法

a. be+coming/leaving/going/starting/arriving

例: Don’t worry. I’m coming.

b. be about to+动词原形

例: He is about to leave, when the telephone rings.

c. 状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来

例: If it rains tomorrow I won’t go to the party.

(2) 情态动词:

can: 能,会

例: He can do it very well.

may: 许可,可能性

例: May I use your pen?

must: 必要,禁止(多表示主观看法)

例: You mustn’t play with fire.

have to: 不得不(多表示客观之事)

例: I have to go, because I have a meeting.

could与would:二者用于现在时表示语气的委婉 例: Could you help me?

初中英语语法知识考查要点(4)

6.句型

(1) 宾语从句:

由疑问代词或副词引出的宾语从句

例: Could you tell me where the post office is?

Could you tell me what he said? (what作said的宾语)

由that引出的宾语从句

例: They said that they would give me some help. (that 仅作引导词)

 宾语从句中的疑问句要用陈述语序。

例: He asked when we would leave home.

(2) 状语从句:

状语从句可包括:时间/地点/原因/结果/目的等状语从句。

例:I will come when I am free.

I’m late because my bike is broken.

He went so early that he got a good seat.

She studied hard so that she would pass the exam.

 状语从句要用一般现在时表示将来。

例: If it rains tomorrow I shall not go to the cinema.

 表示在一长动作进行过程中某一动作突然发生则长动作要用进行时态,而突发性 动作要用一般时态。

例: When I’m reading a book, the telephone rings.

(3) 反意疑问句

例: She can swim across the river, can’t she?

It’s a fine day, isn’t it?

Marry needs to have a rest, doesn’t she?

You have nothing to do, do you?

He seldom does homework, does he?

Don’t open the door, will you?

Open the door please, will you?

Let us have a rest, will you?

Let’s go, shall we?

(4) 感叹句:

例. What a hot day it is!

How hot the weather is!

7. 不定式

(1) 不定式在句中作宾语,状语:

 例: It has begun to rain.

I want to go to the cinema.

(2) 不定式与疑问词连用:

 例: I want to know how to work.

 I want to know what to do.

(3) 不定式的否定句:

 例: He told me not to do it.

④ 省略to的不定式:

 例: I saw him come this morning.

这样的动词有see, hear, watch等感官动词,及have(作让、使讲) make, let.

初中英语语法指导--指示代词

英语中表示指示概念的代词叫指示代词,指示代词用来起指示作用,或用来代替前面已提到过的名词。指示代词包括:this,that,these(这些),those(那些),其用法如下:

(1)指示代词在时间或空间上对所指人或事物有远近之分。 this和these常用来指时间和空间上较近的事物。而that和those则相反。

(2)指示代词在指事物时有单数、复数之分。this和that用来表示单数概念,系动词be用is。there或those用来表示复数概念,系动词be用are。

(3)当含有this或that的特殊问句指人时,其回答仍可以用 this或that;但不指人时,单数用it,复数用they回答。 例: ①Who’s that? That’s Liu Hua.那是谁?那是刘华。

②What’s this? It’s a cup. 这是什么?这是一个茶杯。 ③What are those? They are pens.那些是什么?那些是钢笔。

(4)在介绍人时,我们常用this指下面要提到的人, 而不用其它指示代词。

(5)打电话时通常用this表示自己,that表示对方,而不用代词I和you。

全力直击英语语法:主谓一致

主谓一致是指:1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致;2)意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致;3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。

例:There is much water in the thermos.热水瓶里有很多水。

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

例:Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.去年产碳1万吨。

1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数

例:Reading and writing are very important.读和写非常重要。注意:主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.铁和钢对我们的生活非常重要。

2.主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例:a) There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.桌上有一只笔,一把刀和几本书。b) There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班上有20个男生,23个女生。

2)当either… or…与neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例:a) Either you or she is to go.你或她会去。b) Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.这儿有一只笔,一些信封和给你的几张纸。

3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致

当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。例:

a) The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.老师正在和一些学生参观工厂。

b) He as well as I wants to go boating.我和他都想去划船。

4.谓语需用单数

1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every,谓语需用单数。例:

a) Each of us has a tape-recorder.我们每个人都有一台录音机。

b) There is something wrong with my watch.我的表出了点儿问题。

2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。例: The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. <<天方夜谭>>是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。

3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)例:

a) Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.有三周的时间来做必要的准备。

b) Ten yuan is enough. 10元钱就够了。

5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数

1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例:

a) All is right.一切顺利。

b) All are present.所有人都到齐了。

2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew,

crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。例:

a) His family isn't very large.他家不是一个大家庭。

b) His family are music lovers.他的家人都是音乐爱好者。

但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。

Are there any police around?周围有警察吗?

3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。A number of +名词复数+复数动词。The number of +名词复数+单数动词。例:a)

A number of books have lent out.许多书已经借出去了。b) The majority of the students like English.大多数学生都喜欢英语

6.与后接名词或代词保持一致

1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。例:a) Most of his money is spent on books.他的大多数钱都用来买书了。b) Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.大多数学生都积极参加体育运动。

2)在一些短语,如many a 或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例:

a) Many a person has read the novel.许多人都读过这本书。

b) More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。

主谓一致原则考点举要与应考对策

考点举要

1. Miss Chen____________ English on the radio the day before yesterday.

A. teaches B. taught C. will teach D. had taught (2003北京)

2. That place is not interesting at all.

____________of us wants to go there.

A. Neither B. Both C. All D. Some (2003河南)

3. Maths____________my favourite subject.

A. be B. is C. am D. are (2003青海)

4. Everyone except Tom and John____________there when the meeting began.

A. are B. is C. were D. was(2003宁夏)

5. The boy with the two dogs____________ when the earthquake rocked the city.

A. were sleeping B. is sleeping

C. was sleeping D. are asleep (2003新疆)

6. Sorry, we already have four people in the car. There____________for the box.

A. is a little room B. are no rooms

C. is no room D. are few rooms (2003内蒙古)

(Key:1.B 2.A 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.C)

应考对策

―主谓一致‖是近几年中考设题的热点之一,它在初中英语教材中未被列入专项语法内容。因此,同学们对此常不知所措,为了帮助老师们更好地为学生搞好复习,现归纳如下:

l、表示时间、距离、重量、长度、价值等的复数名词作主语表示整体概念时,其谓语动词常用单数形式。如:

Two months is quite a long time. 两个月是相当长的一段时间。

2、以-s结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。如news,maths,

physics等。如:

No news is good news. 没有消息就是好消息。

Maths is very popular in our class. 在我们班数学很受欢迎。

3、family,class,team,group等集体名词作主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式;若指具体成员时,谓语动词用复数形式。试比较:

My family is a very big one,with ten people in it. 我家是一个大家庭,有十口人。 My family all like watching TV.我们全家人都喜欢看电视。

4、people, police等集体名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

People here are very friendly. 这儿的人们很友好。

The police are having a meeting. 警察们正在开会。

助动词专题(一):be的助动词用法

be作助动词用的形式如下:

①am, is, are, was, were

②助动词+be:shall be, will be, can be, etc.

③have/has/had + been(完成时)

④am, is, …being(进行时)

(1)表达进行时态

句型 be + V-ing…(进行时态)

例:What are you reading?

(你正在阅读什么?)

I am reading a magazine.

(我正在阅读杂志。)

例:He will be taking a walk in the park at this time tomorrow morning.

(明天早晨此时他将会正在公园散步。)

例:She has been teaching English in our school for years.

(她已在我们学校教英语许多年了。)

解说:第一例句是表达现在进行时,第二例句是将来进行时,第三例句是现在完成进行时。

(2)表达被动语态

句型 be +p.p. …(被动语态)

例:English is spoken in both Canada and the United States.

(加拿大和美国都讲英语。)

例:Those keys were found in your drawer.

(那些钥匙是在你的抽屉里找到的。)

例:It can be done much faster in this way.

(这件工作用这个方法可以更加快速地做好。)

规则动词的三种词形变化

1、第三人称单数一般现在时形

(a)原形动词词尾+―-s‖:

help(帮助)→helps

come(来)→comes

(b)原形动词词尾―ch,sh,o,s,x‖+―-es‖:

teach(教)→teaches

wash(洗)→washes

go(去)→goes

kiss(吻)→kisses

fix(安装)→fixes

(c)原形动词词尾为―辅音字母+y‖时,去―y‖后加―-ies‖,若是―元音字母+y‖,只加―-s‖: study(学习)→studies

play(游戏)→plays

注:本项规则的―第三人称单数‖是指句子的主语。例如:

I go to school on a bicycle every day .

You go to school on a bicycle every day.

She goes to school on a bicycle every day.

2、现在分词(也称―-ing‖形)

(a)原形动词词尾+―-ing‖。

speak→speaking(说)

study→studying(学习)

go→going(去)

(b)原形动词词尾为―-e‖时,去―-e‖后+―-ing‖。

live→living(住)

make→making(制造)

(c)原形动词词尾为―-ie‖时,先把―-ie‖改为―-y‖后+―-ing‖。

lie→lying(卧,躺)

die→dying(死)

(d)原形动词词尾为―短元音+辅音字母‖时,先双写词尾辅音字母后再+―-ing‖。 plan→planning(计划)

kid→kidding(开玩笑)

get→getting(得到)

stop→stopping(停止)

put→putting(放臵)

shut→shutting(关闭)

注:双音节动词若其词尾的词形如本项的情形,但重音落在第一音节者直接加―-ing‖,若是重音落在第二音节者则依本项规则加―-ing‖。

visit →visiting(访问)

begin →beginning(开始)

(e)原形动词词尾为―元音+l,r‖并为重读音节时,常重复词尾后再加―-ing‖。

compel →compelling(强迫)

prefer→preferring(宁要)

3、过去式和过去分词

(a)原形动词词尾+―ed‖。

rain →rained(下雨)

walk →walked(走)

need →needed(需要)

(b)原形动词词尾为―e‖时,加―-d‖。

live →lived(住)

like →liked(喜欢)

(c)原形动词词尾为―辅音字母+y‖时,去―-y‖后加―-ied‖,若是词尾为―元音字母+y‖,只加―-ed‖。

study →studied(学习)

play →played(游戏)

(d)原形动词词尾为―短元音[$,!,-,&,)]+辅音字母‖时,先双写该辅音字母后再+‖-ed―。 chat →chatted (闲谈)

kid →kidded(开玩笑)

beg →begged(恳求)

stop →stopped(停止)

bud →budded(萌芽)

注:双音节动词若其词尾的词形如本项的情形,但重音落在第一音节者直接加―-ed‖,若是重音落在第二音节者,则依本项规则加―-ed‖。

visit →visited(访问)

omit →omitted(省略)

(e)原形动词词尾为―元音+l,r‖并为重读音节时,常双写词尾后再加―-ed‖。

compel →compelled

prefer →preferred

英语字母―c‖后面接―e,i‖时通常都发[s]音,例如: face,city。因此,如picnic作动词使用时,其词形变化为了要保住其词尾的[k]音,通常都先加―-k‖之后再加―-ing‖或―-ed‖。例如: We went picnicking last Sunday.

(上星期天我们野餐去了)。

We picnicked in a park by a lake.

(我们在湖边的一处公园野餐了。)

介词in和at在课本中构成的短语

in a hurry 匆忙

in a loud voice 大声地

in a low voice 低声地

in a minute 一会儿,立刻

in a month 一个月后

in a short while 不久

in English(Russian) 用英(俄)语

in fact 实际上

in far-away villages 在遥远的村庄

in front of 在……前面

in hospital 住院

in life 一生中

in line成一直线

in (great)need of (很)需要

in no time 立刻,很快

in order to 为了

in prison 在监狱中

in public 当众,公开地

in school 在学校

in space 在空间

in surprise 惊奇地

in the day 在白天

in the daytime 在白天,在白昼

in the fields of 在……领域里

in the end 最后,终于

in the face of 在……当中

in the fields 在田地里

in the middle of 在……当中

in the morth (south)在北(南)方

in the past fifty years 在过去的五十年里 in the sky 在天上

in the 17th century 在第十七世纪

in the street 在街上

in the tree 在树上

in time 及时

in town 在镇上

in those days 在那些日子里

in trouble处于困境(苦恼)中

at a street corner 在街道拐角处

at first 起先,开始的时候

at home 在家(里)

at last 最一,终于

at nieght 在夜里

at noon 在中午

at once 马上

at that time 在那时

at the age of 在……岁时

at the cinema 在电影院

at the doctor’s 在医生诊所,在医务室

at the end of 在……的末梢,在……的尽头

at the foot of 在……脚下

at the railway station在火车站

at the university 在大学

at work在工作

―before‖的常见错误用法:错用 "before"常会产生误会。一次某同学在作文中写道: We had our summer holidays before we had the final examination.

在我们期终考试前,我们先放了暑假。

上面的句子,从语法角度看,完全正确。但按情理,我们通常是选先考试,后放暑假的。这个同学犯的错误与前面的班长所犯的错误一样。他的原意是:"我们放暑假前,期终考试了。"但因受中文句子的结构影响,他把"前"用 "before"代替,代入句子,结果写出不合情的句子。 他的句子应写为:

Before we had our summer holidays, we had the final examination. OR: We had the final examination before we had our summer holidays.

我们放暑假前,期终考试了。

留意 "before" 所引导的从句(Clause)是叙述后发生的事情。 "before"亦可用于句子中间,后面引导的从句(Clause)仍是用叙述后发生的事情。

(1) Before Tom leaves home for school, his mother checks his school bag. = Tom's

mother checks his school bag before he leaves home for school.

汤姆离家上学前,他母亲总为他检查书包。

(2) Before I give my answer, I will ask you some questions. = I will ask you some questions before I give my answer.

在我没有作答前,我要先问你几个问题。

short Quiz:

Rewrite the following sentences using before.

1. After I took a hot bath, I went to bed.

2. After she had finished her homework, she went to bed.

3. John's father died. Then Johe was born.

4. He had been very self-confident until he failed in his business.

一般过去时与过去进行时的区分

一.一般过去时叙述旧事,过去进行时描述背景。

A、一般过去时

1)叙述过去状态、动作或事件

He went to Beijing the other day.(带具体时间)

2)表示过去的习惯

a) would ,used to与过去时

would 表间断性不规则的习惯,常带频率时间

used to 表一贯性有规律的习惯

They used to meet and would sometimes exchange one or two words. He smoked a lot two years ago. (过去行为)

b) Would 用于文中不用于句首,只表过去习惯。

Used to 表今昔对比的含义,叙述习惯动作可与would 换用。

When he was a boy , he would often go there . (叙述过去)

She isn’t what she used to be. (今昔对比)

c) 表示状态时一般只用used to

Tom used to be fat /There used to stand a tree there. (状态)

d) was (were) used to +ving表示―合适于,适应于…..‖

He used to work at night . (―习惯‖表经常)

He was used to working at night. (习惯表适应)

3)表示过去的经历,平行动作,依此事件用一般过去时。

He sat there and listened to the radio.(依此发生)

4)表示客气委婉的语气,用于情态动词,助动词和want , wonder , hope 等 How did you like the film? / Could you help me?

B. 过去进行时

-表示在过去某阶段或某一时刻正在发生

What were you doing at 8:30 last night? (过去某时刻正在发生)

-短暂性动词用过去进行时表示按计划、打算

During that time he was going with us.(表示打算)

-与always ,often ,usually 等连用表喜爱,讨厌等感情色彩。

He was always Changing his mind.

二、过去进行时与一般过去时的区别

A. 进行时表某一行为的―片断‖一般时表示行为的―整体‖和存在的状态。

I was reading the book at that time. (未读完,―读‖的片段)

I read the book yesterday. (已读完,表整个―读‖)

B、一般持续时间状语多与进行时连用

It was raining all night.(优先用was raining ,rained 为持续动词,故也可使用)

He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon. (短暂动词与持续时间连用,表反复,连续发生,不可用一般过去时)

C、while 时间状语从句中用短暂动词时只能用进行时。

例:He broke a chair while he was jumping up and down.

D、While 所在主从句动作大致持续相等时主从句一般都用进行时,但若是持续动词可都用一般过去时,两个动作一长一短时短的用一般时,长的用进行时。

I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano.(平行)

I cooked the dinner while he played the piano.

I saw him while I was walking to the station.

三、英语中有四类动词一般不用进行时(不用现在进行时和过去进行时)

1)表心理状态、情感的动词,如love ,hate ,like ,care ,respect ,please ,prefer ,know 等,若用进行时则词意改变。

I’m forgetting it . (=beginning to forget )

2)表存在、状态的动词,如appear ,exist ,lie ,remain ,stand ,seem等

3)表感觉的动词,如see ,hear ,feel ,smell ,sound ,taste等.

4)表一时性的动词,如accept ,allow ,admit ,decide ,end ,refuse ,permit ,promise等。

[示例]

考题1 As she ____the newspaper ,Granny ____ asleep .(95)

A. read /was falling B .was reading /fell

C. Was reading /was falling D. read/fell

分析 时间从句的动作长,而―入睡‖动作短,故前者用过去进行时,而较短动词用一般过去时,选B

考题2 Tom ___ into the house when no one ___ .

A. slipped/was looking B. Had slipped /looked

C. slipped/had looked D. was slipping /looked

分析 此题先要理解好when ,表―此时‖,说明主句中slipped是较短行为,而look是较长行为的片断,即汤姆溜进房子,此时没人瞧见,故选A为正确。

[训练]

1. –Is Smith in America ? ----Yes, he ___ in China for there years.

A. lives B. Has lived C. Lived D. was living

2. The method he had stuck -___ right .

A. to prove B. To proved C. To be proved D. were proved

3. –Why didn’t Miss Green go there ?

-She would have gone there expect ____ enough time.

A. she had B. She had had C. She didn’t have D. she would have

4. Am didn’t see me wave to her , she ____ in other direction.

A. looked B. Was looking C. Has looked D. is looking

5. Tom burnt his hand when he ____ the dinner.

A. cooked B. Was cooking C. Has been cooking D. had cooked

6. Mary ____ a dress when she cut he rfinger.

A. made B. Is making C. Was making D. had made

初三英语句型转换模拟训练

1.The girl could hardly understand what he said, ______ __________?(反意问句)

2.How many sheep are there in Australia. ?(宾语从句)

She asked ______ ______ _______ _______ ______ in Australia.

3. They have sold out the light green dresses.(被动句)

The light green dresses _______ ________ _________out.

4. He got too angry to speak. (同义句)

He got _______angry ______he ________speak

5. Tom may be on the team ,or Jack may .(简单句)

_________Tom _______Jack may be on the team.

6. She didn’t reach the top of the mountain.

Her brother didn’t reach it ,either.(合并成简单句)

______ _______ __________her brother reached the top of the mountain.

7. The sweater costs 200 yuan .(划线提问)

_______ ________ _________the sweater __________?

8. Think hard ,and you’ll have an idea.

_________ __________think hard ,you’ll have an idea.二、完成句子。

1.美国和澳大利亚都是说英语的国家。

________America _________Australia_______ ________ _________

2.我们俩都不知道他的电话号码。

_______of us______his telephone number.

3.尽管医生已经劝了他戒烟,他仍然和以前抽得一样多。

_______the doctor has told him to ________ ________, he still_______ ______ ______ ______before.

4.艾尔斯山位于澳大利亚东南部。

Ayers Rock lies ________ _________ ________ _________Australia.

5.那天早晨我们在太阳出来之前就起床了。

We ______ ________early in the morning before the sun ________.

6.山顶上有多少人?一个也没有。

_______ _______ ________are there _______ ______ ______the rock?

7.她想要与汤姆谈谈有关他在校学习的事。

She feels_______ _______ a talk with him_______ his study at school.

8.就在那时他似乎听到窗外有奇怪的声音。

At that moment he_______ _______ _______ a strange voice _______ the window.

9.他请求我呆在那儿直到他回来。

He asked me_______ _______ _______ _______ he came back.

10.会议还有多久会结束?

How _______ will the meeting _______ _______ ?

11.一个人一辈子干好事是不容易的。

It's not easy _______ one to do good _______ _______ _______.

12.汤姆的母亲决定让他们停学几天。

Tom's mother_______ _______ _______ him _______ _______ _______ for a few days.

13.万事开头难

_______ _______ a hard _______ .

14.世上无难事,只怕有心人。

_______ is difficult if you _______ _______ _______ _______ it.

答案:

一、1.could she 2. how many sheep there were 3. have been sold

4. so, that, couldn’t 5. Either ,or 6. Neither she nor

7. How much does, cost 8. If you二、1.Both ,and ,are Enghlish-speaking countries

2. Neither, knows

3. Though ,stop smoking ,smokes, as much as

4.in the southeast of

5. got up, rose

6. How many people, on top of, None at all

7. like having, about

8. seemed to hear, outside

9. to stay there until

10. soon, be over

11. for, all one's life

12. decided to keep, away from school

13. Everything has, beginning

14. Nothing, put your heart into

情态动词英语语法解析1 情态动词有can(能),may(可以),must(必须),have to(不得不),ought to(应该),dare(敢),used to(过去经常),had better(最好),would rather(宁愿)。在肯定句中它们后边都要接 动词原形 。在否定句中,can,may,must和dare后边加not;have to和ought to分别在have和ought后加not;used to的否定式可用used not to,也可用didn't use to,但后者用得较多;had better和would rather的否定式分别是had better not和would rather not。这些情态动词与现在完成时连用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。

肯定句和否定句中的情态动词

一、情态动词的现在式在肯定句中的比较

1. can表示体力或脑力方面的"能力"、"技能"或根据客观条件能做某种动作的"可能性"

1) Mild forms of execrise can some of the loss of flexibility that accompanies aging.

[A] stop[B] to stop[C] stopping[D] be stopped但表示人体力或智力的具体动作时须用 be able to

He was able to do that without any help.他不需要任何帮助就能完成这项工作。

2. may表示"允许,可以",相当于be allowed to

2) If there is social or political change in a region [A] where a standard language [B] is spoken, local varieties [C] of the language may developing

[D] .

may或might可和as well连用,表示"建议",译为"还是……的为好"

You may as well keep a certain distance from that mad man. 你们还是离

那疯子远点为好。

You might as well go home now.你还是现在回家为好。

3. must表示"必须"或"应当"、"一定"

3) The formation of snow must be occurring [A] slowly [B] , in calm air, and at a temperature near [C] the freezing point [D] .

4. have to 加动词原形,表示"不得不","必须",它比must更强调客观

Tom had to work into the deep night everyday to earn a living. 汤姆为了生计每天都得工作到深夜。

5. should 表示"劝告","建议"或"义务"时,译作"应当",或表示"预测"和"可能"

He should take care of his parents as they are old enough not to live on themselves. 由于父母亲老了,不能自理,他应当照顾他们。

He should be there now. 他可能到了。

should have done在虚拟语气中表示"责备或后悔"

6. ought ,只有一种形式,即ought后必须加to,然后跟接动词原形表示"有义务"或"必要"做某事,译为"应当,应该"

4) The traditional goal of science is to discover how things are,not how they ought .

[A] to[B] to be[C] be[D] have been

5) You are quite right;I am inferring in my comments [A] that McGraw had not ought to [B] have broken [C] in the room without his permission

[D] .

7. dare 可以用作情态动词,后面跟不带to的动词不定式,这主要用于否定句中,它本身可有现在时第三人称单数,词尾加s,它还可以有ING分词形式(daring)和

过去式及ED分词形式(dared)

6) Although Oriental ideas of woman's subordination to man prevailed in those days,she meet with men on an equal basis.

[A] did not dared [B] dared not [C] dared not to [D] did dare not to

二、情态动词在一般时否定句中的用法

can't(can not, cannot) 表示"不可能", may not 表示"不可以", mustn't(must not) 表示"一定不要","不许可",needn't (need not) 表示"不必",dare not +动词原形 表示"不敢"

He can't finish his essay by this time. 现在他不可能写完论文。

He may not sleep now. 他或许现在没在睡觉。

You mustn't criticize her in that way. 你不应那样批评她。

You needn't come tomorrow. 你明天没必要来了。

He dared not meet his fiancée. 他不敢见女朋友。

三、例题解析

1) 正确答案为A。由于情态动词can要求跟动词原形,所以B和C都不对,can后虽然有被动形式,但在意义上和语法上与横线后部分都无法衔接,所以D也错。

2) D错。改为develop。may后要求跟动词原形,而developing是现在分词,显然不符合要求,所以应改为develop。

3) A错。改用 must occur,此处叙说的是客观现象,而非强调正在发生的事,故用一般现在时。

4) B为正确答案。

5) B错。改为ought not to。

6) B为正确答案。

情态动词英语语法解析2

情态动词有can(能),may(可以),must(必须),have to(不得不),ought to(应该),dare(敢),used to(过去经常),had better(最好),would rather(宁愿)。在肯定句中它们后边都要接 动词原形 。在否定句中,can,may,must和dare后边加not;have to和ought to分别在have和ought后加not;used to的否定式可用used not to,也可用didn't use to,但后者用得较多;had better和would rather的否定式分别是had better not和would rather not。这些情态动词与现在完成时连用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。

情态动词与完成时的使用

一、must+have+ED分词:用于肯定句,表示对过去情况的一种肯定推测,表示"肯定,一定"

1) It around nine o'clock when I drove back home because it was already dark.

[A] had to be [B] must have been [C] was to be [D] must be

2) John's score on the test is the highest in the class;

[A] he should study last night

[B] he should have studied last night

[C] he must have studied last night

[D] he must had to study last night

3) After searching [A] for evidence in the house,the police concluded [B] that the thief must have come in [C] through the window and stole [D] the silver while the family was asleep.

二、may (might)+have+ED分词:用于肯定句和否定句,表示对已发生事情的不肯定的推测,相当于"可能,大概,"其中might较may 语气更弱,把握更小

She might have gone to see her doctor last week, but I am not sure.

上星期或许她去看医生了,但我不敢肯定。

Don't worry, your husband may not have been hurt seriously.

别急,你丈夫也许伤得不厉害。

三、should(ought to)+have+ED分词:肯定句表示过去本应发生的事却没有发生;否定句表示已发生了本不该发生的事。前者可译为"本应,"后者为"本不该"

You should have apologized to her for not soon replying to the letter. 你本应向她道歉,说明为什么没能及时回信。(可你没这么做)

4) You yesterday if you were really serious about your work.

[A] ought to come[B] ought to be coming[C] ought to have come[D] ought have come

四、can(not) +have+ED分词

He is an hour late -- He can have been delayed by fog. Of course,that's a possibility.他迟到了1小时,可能因为大雾而耽搁了。当然这只是可能性问题。

The poem can not have been written by her since she was only five years old then.这诗不可能是她写的,因为她那时才5岁。

五、"could+have+ED分词"有时用于表示过去的时间,说明某事可能或不可能已发生;有时

可表示过去本来可以做某事,但却未做

I simply can't understand how he could have made such a mistake. 我简直不明白他怎么会犯那样的错误。

He walked there,but he could have taken a taxi. 他走着去了,可当时完全可以坐出租。 "couldn't+have+ED分词"还表示无论如何也不可能或没有做到

I couldn't have called you. I wasn't near a telephone. 反正我也不可能给你打电话,我附近没有电话。

5) "We didn't see him at the lecture yesterday.""He it."

[A] mustn't attended[B] couldn't have attended[C] would have not attended[D] needn't have attended

六、needn't+have+ED分词:表示对过去不必做的事情却做了,可译为"其实不必"

6) You all these parcels yourself.The shop would have delivered them if you had asked a shop assistant.

[A] didn't need to carry[B] needn't have carried[C] needn't carry[D] didn't need carry

七、used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在,在否定陈述句中,一般用didn't use to,也可用used not to;在疑问句中用"Did…use to"。used to还可never,often,always等连用。注意used to与be used to的不同,后者表示be accustomed to "习惯于某种状态",而且跟接名词或ING形式,而used to后接动词原形,试比较

He used to drink. 表示"他过去经常喝酒"而现在不喝了。

He is used to wine (He is used to drinking wine) at each meal.

表示"他现在已养成习惯,每顿饭喝点葡萄酒。"

八、had better表示"最好……",后接动词原形,其否定式为had better not+动词原形 You had better not follow his behavior. 你最好不要学他。

九、would rather 意思是"宁愿",表示选择。它有两种用法,一是在肯定句中后边直接跟动词原形,其否定句是在would rather 后加not,即 would rather not+动词原形;二是它后边可以跟接从句,该从句的谓语动词用一般过去式表示虚拟语气。由于would rather表示选择,它后边可跟接than

She would rather sleep than talk rubbish. 她宁愿睡不愿闲聊。

7) "Did you criticize him for his mistakes?"--"Yes,but it."

[A] I'd rather not do[B] I'd rather not doing[C] I'd rather not have done[D] I'd rather not did

[注] would rather和had rather都表示"宁愿",在用法上也没有区别。但如果说would rather与had rather完全一样(Longman Dictionary of Comtemporary English 如是说),这一说法有争议。其实had rather在现代标准英语中几乎已经不用了。这对我们考试来说是比较重要的,因为一般考题作为标准英语是不用had rather的。

十、例题解析: 1) B为正确答案。2) C为正确答案。

3) D错。改为stolen。这里C处和D处是并列的谓语,D处相当于must have stolen。

4) C为正确答案。5) B为正确答案。6) B为正确答案。7) C为正确答案。

动词不定式英语语法详解1 内 容 提 要

动词不定式是一种非限定性动词,由to+动词原形构成,但它还是属于动词,所以它本身可以带宾语和状语。动词不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语,还可用在复合结构中,而且有完成式、进行式、完成进行式和否定形式。动词不定式的被动形式除了一般形式外还有其完成式和进行式。动词不定式的特殊情况也要掌握。

第一节 动词不定式的构成与形式

一、动词不定式的概念:动词不定式指由to 加上动词原形(而且只能是动词原形)所构成的一种非限定性动词,但在有些情况下to可以省略。动词不定式在语法功能上可作主语1) 、宾语2)、表语3)、定语4) 和状语5)

1) education is the principal way of gaining status in a culture that generally stresses achievement,skillfulness,and upward mobility.

[A] To acquire[B] Acquire[C] Acquires[D] Have acquired

2) We are planning for the entrance examination for postgraduate.

[A] registering[B] register[C] to register [D] registered

3) The most urgent problem now we are facing is to learn the needed materials for the matriculation of postgraduate.

[A] make our every effort[B] to make our every effort

[C] to our every effort[D] made our efforts

4) -Where should I send my application?

-The Personnel Office is the place it to.

[A] sends[B] be sended[C] to be sended [D] to send

5) from others, one should take his promise.

[A] To get confidence [B] To getting confidence

[C] To get confidences[D] Getting to the confidence

说明:以上五句中的斜体是其动词不定式的附属部分。

二、动词不定式的构成与形式: 动词不定式可以作以上各种成分,但它毕竟是动词,所以有动词的属性

动词不定式及其短语还可以有自己的宾语[2]和4]中的斜体部分]和状语[5]中的斜体部分]。虽然动词不定式在语法上没有表面上的直接主语,但它表达的意义是动作,这一动作一定由使动者发出。这一使动者我们称之为 逻辑主语 。考研题中,语法中所考动词不定式部分包括检测考生是否掌握动词不定式与其逻辑主语之间的一致,其中主要包括它们之间 主动和被动 的关系以及 它们在时间上的一致 ,同时动词不定式还有其否定形式。所有这些涉及到动词不定式的各种形式。现以动词make为例,其形式如下:

主动形式 被动形式

一般式 (not) to make (not) to be made

完成式 (not) to have made (not) to have been made

进行式 (not) to be making

完成进行式 (not) to have been making

6) Some [A] types of naphtha(石油脑) are employed to dissolving [B] rubber [C] and to thin paints and [D] varnish.

7) The Statue of Liberty was originally [A] proposed [B] in 1865 to commemoration [C] the alliance [D] of France with the American colonies during the American Revolution.

8) The purpose [A] of inductive logic [B] is to inferring [C] general laws

from particular occurrences [D] .

三、例题解析

1) A为正确答案。2) C为正确答案。3) B为正确答案。4) D为正确答案。5) A为正确答案。

6) B错。改用动词原形"dissolve",不定式符号"to"后只能出现动词原形。

7) C错。改为"commemorate"。8) C错。改为"to infer",注意句子的主语为"purpose"(目的) 。

动词不定式英语语法详解2 第二节 动词不定式的用法

一、 不定式结构作主语

1. 不定式前臵

1) Derive [A] mineral resources from [B] sedimentary rock [C] is a [D] major modern industrial activity.

2) in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time is realy a hard nut.

[A] To make high scores[B] To make low goal[C] To the high scores[D] Make the low goals

2. 上述形式一般情况不多见,作为考试的规范英语,如果不定式较长,显得头重脚轻,则可由代词"it"作形式主语(形式主语"it"不能由"that"或"this"等其他代词代替),而将不定式放到后面 It is really a hard nut to get high scores in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time.

3) John admitted that it's always difficult .

[A] for him being on time[B] being on time for him

[C] for him to be on time[D] on time for him

4) It is difficult for me [A] to be concentrating [B] while someone [C] is using [D] a vacuum cleaner.

3. 不定式后臵的情况不仅限于动词是系动词,也适用于其他动词

It took us a great deal of efforts to finish that task.

It made him extremely happy to get contact with his family in Taiwan since they separated more than 40 years ago.

4. 不定式结构所表示的动作是谁做的,即不定式的逻辑主语,通常可以在特定的上下文中能

看出,也可以通过带"for +名词短语"辨出

It is quite important for us to read good books during the period of general review(总复习).

It is not difficult for those who study maths well to pass the exam.

5. 在某些形容词(如careless,clever,considerate, foolish, good, impolite, kind, naughty, nice, silly, stupid等)作表语时,不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语

It is very kind of you to help me./It is stupid of him to do such a silly thing. 间或也可用for + there to be 表示(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.

二、 不定式作宾语

不定式作宾语有两种:一种是及物动词后直接跟带to的不定式;另一种是"动词+疑问词+带to的不定式"

1. 动词+带to的不定式结构

只能跟动词不定式的动词,常见的有:afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, believe, care, claim, decide, decline(拒绝), demand, desire, determine, endeavor, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, long, manage, mean(想要), offer(表示愿意做…), pretend, promise, refuse, seek(试图), swear, undertake, wish(想要)等。

5) We refuse that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults(银行保管库) of this nation.

[A] to believe [B] to be belived[C] beliving

[D] have belived6) The green turtle has been known over 2,000 miles to return to a nesting site.

[A] in the navigating [B] the navigation [C] to navigate [D] navigation

7) For the [A] first time Venusian scientists managed landing [B] a satellite on the planet Earth, and it has been sending [C] back signals as well as [D] photographs ever since.

8) The day is past when Chinese universities and colleges to give high school diplomas to all who sit through four years of instruction, regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned.

[A] afforded[B] affording[C] to afford

[D] can afford从上例我们可以看出afford一般与can和can't或could和couldn't连用。

2. 动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式

这类动词常见的有:advise,decide, discuss, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, regard, remember, see, settle, teach, tell, think(=consider), understand, wonder等。这些疑问代(副)词有what, when, where, which, how, whether等,但不包括why,如: He does not know how to go there

when to speak before strangers.

who(m) to visit.

which one to choose.

You can decide whether to go forward or stay here.

when to see a doctor.

I will show you what to do.

where to go.

how to deal with it.

其中,1)和2)中不定式的逻辑主语仍是句子的主语,分别为He和You;而3)中不定式的逻辑主语则不是句子的主语I,而是宾语you。

9) The director of this organization must know .

[A] to manage money, sell his product and beable to satisfy stockholders

[B] managing money, selling, and be able to satisfy the stockholders

[C] how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders

[D] money management, selling and being able to satisfy the stockholders

10) To tell you the truth, I really don't know how deal with a man like him.

[A] can I[B] well[C] to[D] much

3. 有时,不定式跟作主语时一样,可由it来代替,而把不定式放到后面去

He makes it a rule to take a walk before breakfast.

I think it interesting to play football while it is snowing hard.

We find it difficult to get everything ready before the time you require.

She cosiders it important to make friends with them.

I don't think it necessary to argue with them on this problem.

4. 有时THERE和TO BE连用表示"有"或"存在(某情况)"等

It is impossible for there to be any more.

Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the problem?

I expect there to be no argument about this?

有时在个别的介词后可用"疑问词+不定式结构"作其宾语

He has his own decision of how to do it.

动词不定式英语语法详解3 三、 不定式作表语

1. 一种情况为主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)

To see is to believe/ To work means to earn a living.

2. 另一种情况主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式表语对主语起补充说明作用

His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future. / The boss's plan is to start building the skycraper immediately. / What I want to say is to get rid of the plan forever.

11) The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was providing [A] large uninterrupted floor areas [B] and to allow ample light [C] into the interior [D] .

12) The most important [A] thing is negociate [B] with them about [C] the future of

[D] the plant.

四、 不定式作定语

1. 不定式作定语修饰名词或代词,它只能放在它所修饰的名词或代词后面。这时被修饰的名词与不定式之间有逻辑上的主谓关系

13) The flexibility of film allows the artist unstrained imagination to the animation of cartoon characters.

[A] to bring[B] bringing[C] is brought[D] brings

14) Billie Holiday's reputation as a great jazzblues singer rests on her ability emotional depth to her songs.

[A] be giving[B] are given[C] being given[D] to give 另外,有些词的不定式定语有主谓关系,如除了上述例句以外,还有些词常跟不定式作定语。这些词主要有decision (to make), (a)

need (to eat), opportunity (to speak),reason(to learn a foreing language), time (to sth)等。

2. 动词不定式作定语往往有一层动宾关系,即所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语

15) Alice was having [A] trouble to control [B] the children because there were [C] so many [D] of them.

16) There are so many reference books for matriculation of postgraduate and I haven't decided which book .

[A] to buy[B] buy[C]to be buying[D] buying

17) Astronauts can be affected by loneliness for they have to sit in the spacecraft for weeks with very little and no one .

[A] to do … to talk[B] doing … to talk to

[C] to do … to talk to[D] doing… to talk

3. 因为不定式所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语,所以如果不定式动词是不及物动词,那么就要在动词后加上相应的介词

He has a lot of trifles to deal with./ I had got no place to live in./That girl has nothing to worry about./the subject to concentrate on. / He has a strict teacher to listen to. / She has four children to look after. / She had a sick mother to live with. / This is the very person to sell your ticket to.

18) Although the lecture had already been on for five minutes, I still was not able to find a chair .

[A] to sit[B] for to sit on[C] to sit on[D] for sitting

4. 一些表示企图、努力、倾向、目的、愿望、打算、能力、意向等意义的名词后面要求接不定式作其定语,如:ability, attempt, effort等

19) During [A] the 19th century scientists found [B] that when certain parts of the brain were damaged [C] men lost the ability doing [D] certain things.

20) What is new, however, is the scientific attempt whether other planets beyond our own have given birth to advanced civilizations.

[A] discover[B] discovers[C] discovering[D] to discover

21) Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort her?

[A] please [B] pleased [C] to please [D] having pleased

五、不定式作状语

注意作状语的动词不定式要与其逻辑主语在意义上和数上的一致。

1. 表示目的

22) its plans to promote disarmaments,the party has decided to establish a campaign headquarters with Benjamin Seaman as its leader.

[A]Although[B]To carry out[C]Except that[D] Make

23) pure lead,the lead ore is mined,then smelted,and finally refined.

[A] Obtaining[B] Being obtained[C] To obtain[D] It is obtained

24) When they met,Leonardo and his enemy were fighting .

[A]killed each other[B]killing each other[C]to be killed each other

[D]to kill each other

2. 表示结果,在这种情况下,不定式的逻辑主语也是全句的主语

He must be cripple not to walk by himself./It seems that the employee didn't sleep at all to be so sleepy in the early morning. / What have I done for you to deserve such an amount of money?

还有固定搭配的不定式表示结果:so…as to; such(…) as to …; enough to…; too…to…; in order to … 等

We have got so plenty of food as to treat our guests./ Is that room big enough to seat all of us?/ He is too young to fit that job.

3. 表示原因

It's very kind of you to say so. / I am pretty pleased to hear the news that you are elected as the president of the club. / I'm sorry to interrupt you. / They are quite surprised to see the great changes taking place in the area.

4. 伴随状况

在下列表示能力、愿望、倾向等语义的形容词后边也要接不定式:able(但其同义词" capable"后面要接"of+动名词"),anxious, eager, glad, inclined(倾向于),liable, likely, pleased, ready等。

25) Certain [A] minerals are magnetic and are able to detected [B] by instruments that measure [C] differences in the Earth's magnetic fields [D]

动词不定式英语语法详解4

六、 在复合结构中的不定式

不定式的复合结构是指有些动词带宾语后再带上不定式,作宾语的补足语。前边已提到过,在这种结构中宾语是不定式的逻辑主语。

1. 有很多这样的动词可以跟宾语及其(或)补足语不定式,如:advise, allow, ask, enable, beg, cause, drive, encourage, expect, forbid, force, hate, get , intend, invite, like, permit, persuade, pretend, remind, say, teach, tell, trust, urge, want, warn等表示"致使"等意义

26) The company manager may enable the men who tend the machines a large panorama(全景) of possibilites.

[A] to see[B] see[C] seeing[D] seen

27) Did you intend us the new method?

[A] to use [B] using [C] our having used [D] the using of

28) The teacher encouraged good compositions.

[A] us write[B] us writing[C] us to write[D] our wrting

2. 在某些成语动词如 arrange for, call on, care for, count on, count upon, depend upon, long for, prepare for, prevail upon, rely on, vote for, wait for等后面,也可以跟宾语加不定式的复合结构

We are waiting for the bus to come./ They voted for Wang Gang to be the monitor. / Don't count on me to do that.

3. 另外,表示感觉的动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe和have, let, make后的宾语可接不带to的不定式(help后不定式可带to也可不带to)

29) I often heard him that his family was well descended.

[A] said[B] say[C] to say[D] to be said

30) We must have a person them build the house.

[A] see[B] to see[C] will see[D] shall see

31) You would become irritated [A] if you watched [B] the correspondence to pile up [C] on your desk day by day [D] .

4. 表示心理状态的动词像consider, declare, find, prove, think, know , believe, discover, feel(=think), imagine, judge, pretend, suppose, understand等词的宾语补足语不定式一般是to be(或动词的完成时态)

32) "You've been taking a lot of nice photographs.""Thanks. I'm considering a professional photographer."

[A] becoming[B] about become[C] to become[D] over becoming

而且,在consider, declare, find, prove, think等动词后的to be 是可以省去的。如: She considered me a scholar. / They found him gulty.

七、不定式的完成式、进行式和完成进行式:这三类在考研题中出现的频率很高,

要特别注意不定式的这三种形式

1. 如果不定式所表示的动作与主要谓语所表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生或发生在主要谓语之后,那么用不定式的一般形式

He received a warm welcome from the Australians and from his family who had flown there to meet him.

In 1967, he arrived back in England, where a quarter of a million people were waiting to welcome him.

After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.

Now suddenly she began to sob, holding herself in as if weeping were a disgrace.

2. 如果不定式所表示的动作(状态)发生在主要谓语动词或特定的某时间之前,那么不定式就要用其完成式

She feels relaxed to have finished writing her thesis before the deadline.

33) The Vikings are believed America.

[A] to have discovered[B] in discovering[C] to discover[D] to have been discovered

34) The students were to at the auditorium before 1:30 pm, but the lecture was cancelled at the last minute.

[A] assembled [B] have assembled [C] assembling [D] be assembled

35) He was to the new ambassador, but he fell ill.

[A] having telephoned[B] have telephoned[C] has telephoned[D] telephoning

3. 不定式进行式表示主要谓语动词所表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在发生

When he came in, I happened to be doing my experiment in the lab.

Why do you stand here? You are supposed to be working in the workshop.

4. 不定式完成进行式表示其动词所代表的动作,在主要谓语动词所代表的动作之前一直在进行

The students from the Department of Sociology are said to have been investigating the possibility of producing the new product.

They are quite happy to have been cooperating harmoniously with us till now.

动词不定式英语语法详解5

八、不定式的被动形式

当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,这个不定式要用被动式,包括它的一般式和完成式

36) Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed blown off the mountain.

[A]to have been[B]to be[C]that it was[D]that it had been

37) For twelve years, Spanish censorship did not allow Lorca's name or his works .

[A] to mention; to be published[B] to be mentioned; to publish

[C] being mentioned; being published[D] to be mentioned; to be published

38) There is,it seems [A] , no [B] limit to the satisfaction to be finding [C] in the pursuit of knowledge [D] .

九、不定式的否定形式:否定形式是在不定式的标志to前边加not

39) that new information to anyone else but the sergeant.

[A] They asked him not to give[B] They asked him to don't give

[C] They asked him no give[D] They asked him to no give

40) Please remember lights on in the future.

[A] don't leave [B] not to leave [C] not leaving [D] don't to leave

41) The teacher told [A] the students to don't [B] discuss [C] the takehome exam with each other [D] .

十、介词except和but(作"只有……,只能……"讲时)跟不定式结构(but与不带to的不定式连用)

He seldom goes back home except to ask for money from his parents. He did nothing there except watch TV for the whole night.(不带to的不定式)

I had no choice but to stay in bed.

Last night I did nothing but prepare my lessons.

42) Lots of empty bottles were found under the old man's bed.He must have done nothing but .

[A] drink[B] to drink[C] drinking[D] drunk

43) When the streets are full of [A] melting [B] snow, you cannot help but getting [C] your shoes wet [D] .

十一、例题解析

1) A错。 改为To derive。

2) A为正确答案。

3) C为正确答案。

4) B错。改为to concentrate。

5) A为正确答案。

6) C为正确答案。"to be known"后通常接不定式,与此类似的尚有"to be said"等。

7) B错。改为to land。因为manage后只能跟带to的不定式作宾语。

8) D为正确答案。

9) C为正确答案。因为know须接带特殊疑问词的动词不定式。

10) C为正确答案。

11) A错。改为to provide,根据平行原则,A处和"to allow…"是并列的表语,故A处也应用不定式。

12) B错。改为to negociate。

13) A对。不定式短语"to bring…characters"充当宾语"the artist"的定语。"allow sb.to do sth."是固定搭配,还有类似的其他动词。这句话的意思是:在动画片摄制过程中,影片的灵活性能使艺术家充分施展其想象力。

14) D为正确答案。名词"ability"(能力) 后要接不定式,表示哪一方面的能力。

15) B错。改为"controlling",此处的"to control"与"trouble"并没有这层关系。

16) A为正确答案。17) C为正确答案。18) C为正确答案。19) D错。改为to do。20) D为正确答案。

21) C为正确答案。22) B为正确答案。23) C为正确答案。24) D为正确答案。

25) B错。改为"be detected"。

26) A为正确答案。27) A为正确答案。28) C为正确答案。29) B为正确答案。

30) A为正确答案。

31) C错。改为pile up。32) C为正确答案。33) A为正确答案。34) B为正确答案。35) B为正确答案。

36) A为正确答案。37) D为正确答案。

38) C错。本句不定式所表示的动作"发现"(find) 逻辑上的主语为"满足"(satisfaction), 而"满足"只能被"发现",故C应改为ED分词"found","to be found"为不定式被动态。

39) A为正确答案。

40) B为正确答案。

41) B错。改为not to。

42) A为正确答案。

43) C错。改为get。如果去掉C前的"but", 本句应为: When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help getting your shoes wet.

动词不定式用法汇总

中考英语复习指导:动词不定式用法汇总

动词不定式(todo)是初中英语课的一个重点,也是中考要考查的一个项目。动词不定式属于非谓语动词的一种形式,很多同学经常把它和谓语动词混在一起,掌握起来有困难。下面我们对动词不定式的用法做简单归纳,帮助同学们记忆:

一、动词不定式在句子中不能充当谓语,没有人称和数的变化。

二、动词不定式是由―to+动词原形‖构成(有时可以不带to)。动词不定式的否定形式是―not+动词不定式‖(not不与助动词连用)。

三、动词不定式短语具有名词、形容词和副词等的功能,可在句中用做多种句子成分。

1、主语:常臵于句末,而用it代替其做形式主语。

例:Togoinforsportshelpsyou

stayfit.(book4,L28)Ithelpsyoustayfittogoinforsports.Itisdangeroustoswiminthedeepseaonyourown.

注:此句式中不定式逻辑上的主语可由for或of引出,逻辑主语由of引出时,表语的形容词为kind,nice,good,polite,clever,foolish,right,wrong等表示

评价的形容词。例:It’srightofhimtorefusethe

invitation.(him为逻辑主语)

2、表语:Ourdutyistoprotecttheenviroment.

3、动词宾语:此种情况可按固定搭配或句式去记。

例:wouldyouliketoseemyphotos?Kevinplannedtovisithisuncle.(book4,L11)

和plan用法一样的词还有:start,want,agree,hope,begin,decide等。 Ifounditverydifficulttogeta

job.(it为形式宾语)4、宾语补足语:(1)在多数复合宾语及物动词后要带to:

例:Iaskedafriendtoreadittome.(book4,L2)(2)在表示感觉、致使等意义的动词 (see,watch,hear,feel,notice,observe,

make,let,have,help等)后不带to。

例:Theyheardhimsingapopsonginthemeetingroom.

5、定语:动词不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词的后面。

例:Vinnyisthefirstdisabledper鄄sontosailaroundtheworld.(book4,

L1)6、形容词补足语:在表示心理、感情、评价等的形容词后,对其进行补充说明。 例:Weareverygladtomeetyouagain.

7、状语:表示目的、原因、程度等。

例:Theybroughtinphotosoftheir

familiesformetolookat.(book4,L2)

8、―疑问词+不定式‖用法:不定式前可带what,who,which,where,when,how等疑问词,这种不定式短语在句中多用做宾语。

例:Hedidn’ttellmewheretogo.9、在初中阶段还涉及到―不定式被动语态一般式(tobe+过去分词)‖

例:Therearetwentymoretreestobeplanted.

代词英语语法详解1 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

人 称 代 词

一、主格人称代词有I, we, you, he, she, they, it,主格人称代词就是在句中充当主语和表语的代词

二、宾格人称代词有me, us, you, him, her, them, it,宾格人称代词即在句中充当宾语(含介词宾语)的代词

三、同步练习

1) Archibald Motley's artistic talent [A] was apparent [B] by the time him

[C] enrolled [D] in high school.

2) Legends often contain an element [A] of fact, but [B] sometimes it is

[C] totally [D] untrue.

3) Unlike [A] road vehicles, Hovercrafts have no physical [B] contact with the surface over which [C] them [D] travel.

4) Let you and I [A] promise that we shall always [B] dare to do [C] what is [D] right.

5) Most of we [A] know that conductors direct their orchestras with a baton, but how many [B] are aware that [C] they also direct with their faces, hands [D] , and shoulders?

四、例题解析

以下内容跟帖回复才能看到

1) C错。him是宾格,而此处却需要作主语的人称代词,故应将him改为主格he。

2) C错。 改为they are。C处代替的是"Legends"而不是"an element"。

3) D错。them也是宾格,应改用主格they,作定语从句中的主语,谓语为travel。

4) A错。 改为me。

5) A错。改为宾格us,因为前面是介词of,us作其宾语,故用宾格。

物 主 代 词

一、表示人的物主代词用my, our, your, his, her和their,指无生命的东西用its(但指国家时一般用she或her),它们在句中作定语

二、名词型物主代词能作表语(It's theirs)、主语(Mine is there)、宾语(I don't like hers),与of连用可以作定语(the food of theirs)。

三、同步练习

1) A scientist bases its [A] work on hypotheses that [B] have been checked [C] through careful [D] experimentation.

2) Crude rubber is an [A] elastic(有弹性的) solid with a specific gravity of 0.911 and a refractive index(折射率) of 1.591, though it [B] composition varies with different latexes(橡浆) as well as [C] with the way it is prepared

[D] at the plantation.

3) Manufacturers [A] of consumer goods [B] often change [C] the styles of them [D] products.

四、例题解析

1) A错。 改为his。

2) B错。 改为its。

3) D错。 改为their。

代词英语语法详解2

代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

反 身 代 词

一、反身代词有myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself。主语与宾语为同一人或物时,要用反身代词(否则就不能用反身代词),反身代词也可放在名词或代词(主格)后面(也可放在句尾)起强调作用

1) All [A] the scouts(童子军) got theirselves [B] ready for the [C] long camping trip by spending their weekends living [D] in the open.

2) Various [A] animals have shells that keep themselves [B] from growing beyond

[C] a certain [D] size.

3) Benjamin Banneker's aptitude [A] in mathematics [B] and knowledge of astronomy enabled himself [C] to predict the solar [D] eclipse of 1789.

4) The president announced that he himself [A] would act upon [B] the evidence as presented [C] to himself [D] by the congressional committee.

5) Garrett [A] Morgan died in Cleveland, Ohio, the city that [A] had awarded himself

[B] a gold medal for his devotion [C] to public [D] safety.

6) Plants rid them [A] of excess water through [B] transpiration, the evaporation of extra [C] moisture from their [D] leaves.

7) When Jonathan went [A] to Spain with his [B] sister, he bought a [C] leather coat for her and another for him [D] .

二、例题解析

1) B错。 改为themselves。

2) B错。B处明显指代animals,而它前面的主语that却指代shells,也就是说"that"和"themselves"指的不是同一事物。由于主语与宾语不是同一物,故不能用反身代词,应改为宾格them。

3) C错。本句的主语为aptitude,而非Benjamin Banneker(在这里它作aptitude的定语),而C处的代词却指上文提到的人名"Benjamin Banneker",由于主语与宾语并非指同一人,故不能用反身代词,应改用宾格him。

4) D错。 改为to him。动词"presented"的(逻辑)主语是"evidence",而不是A处的"he,"所以D"himself"处与C处"presented"的主语"evidence"不一致,所以不能用反身代词。

5) B错。 改为him。同上。

6) A错。此处的them指主语plants,rid是及物动词,由于主语与宾语指同一物,故应使用反身代词themselves。

7) D错。 改为for himself。

代词英语语法详解3

内 容 提 要

代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

不 定 代 词

一、"every"(每一个)只作为定语使用,即必须在其后加上单数可数名词构成名词短语,它不可与everyone(每一个)混淆。 everyone相当于名词,它不可修饰其他名词,只作主语或宾语

1) Every [A] knows that hospitals are institutions where the sick are treated, but how many [B] realize that they were once [C] homes for the indigent and the friendless

[D] ?

2) Everyone [A] child in the United States must [B] receive [C] some form of educational instruction [D] .

例题解析

1) A错。every不可单独充当句子成分,应在其后加上person或改为everyone。

2) A错。改为Every,修饰child。

二、"much"和"many"分别修饰不可数名词和可数名词,可作为代词(如much of)和形容词使用

3) Food seasoning plays an important [A] role in the cooking [B] customs of much

[C] cultures in [D] the world.

4) The general sales tax has been [A] a major source of income for state governments, much [B] of which derive more than half [C] of their budgets from [D] it.

5) Data received from [A] two spacecraft indicate that there is many evidence [B] that huge thunderstorms are now occurring [C] around the equator [D] of the planet Saturn.

例题解析

3) C错。应改为of many,因为被修饰词cultures为可数名词,故其修饰语应用many,而much要修饰不可数名词。

4) B错。应改用many,因此处所指代的是可数名词governments(复数),many在本句中为代词,作非限定性定语从句的主语。

5) B错。应改为much evidence,因为evidence(证据,迹象)为不可数名词,故应用much来修饰。

三、 "some"和"any"是表示不定数量的代词,相当于汉语的"一些",作定语可修饰可数名词复数或不可数名词,其中some(包括它的合成词something,someone, somebody)多用于肯定句,而any(包括它的合成词anything, anyone, anybody)则用于疑问句和否定句中,其中any在否定句中相当于汉语中的"任何";形容词修饰something, someone, somebody, anything, anyone, anybody, nothing, nobody时,形容词要放在这些词的后边

6) Historians [A] have never reached some general [B] agreement about [C] the

precise causes of the [D] Civil War in the United States.

例题解析

6) B错。应为any general,因为本句为否定句(否定副词never),应该用any,此处表示"(没有达成过) 任何共识"。

四、"another"和"other"分别表示"另外的一个"(an+other)和"另外的""其余的"意思,可以用作定语修饰名词或单独作主语与宾语,其中前者只用来修饰或指代单数可数名词,后者修饰单复数名词和不可数名词,二者不能相互混淆

7) Lizards lack [A] the builtin body temperature control [B] many another [C] creatures possess [D] .

8) Some bacterium are extremely [A] harmful, but anothers [B] are regularly [C] used in producing cheeses, crackers, and many other foods [D] .

9) Like [A] most another [B] art forms, the Greek tragedy had [C] its origins in religious [D] observances.

例题解析

7) C错。应改用other来修饰可数复数名词creatures。本句是一个省略了关系代词that(或which)的定语从句,control为名词作主句中及物动词(谓语)lack的宾语,同时又受其后面定语从句的修饰。

8) B错。 改为others。

9) B错。 改为other。

五、one与other "one"作为代词代替前面提到的人或物,它前边加the; "other"作代词修饰复数名词。 "one…another"表示"一个…另一个"的意思,或表示多个(三者以上)之中的"另一个","又一个"; "one…the other"表示两者之中剩下的"另一个,又一个"

10) I'd like to [A] buy a coat similar [B] to one [C] you are wearing [D] .

11) Though [A] Art Tatum was totally blind in one eye and had only slight [B] vision in another [C] , he became [D] an internationally renowned jazz musician.

例题解析

10) C错。改为to the one。

11) C错。应用the other,因为此处表示两者之中的另一个,Art Tatum为人的名字,他只有两只眼睛,故提到"另一只"时应用the other。

六、 "few"和"little"两者分别为"many"和"much"的反义词,表示"少,很少"的意思,有否定含义,即等于"几乎没有",如若表示肯定的含义,则应在little和few前加不定冠词"a",即变为"a few"和"a little"

12) Because they are generally [A] taken simply to obtain a recognizable [B] and relatively clear [C] image, most nonprefessional photographs demand few [D] equipment.

例题解析

12) D错。应改用little,因为equipment为不可数名词,故其修饰语应用little,few后面只接可数复数名词。

七、 "a great deal (of)" (大量)只作为限定语修饰不可数名词或在句中指代不可数名词作主语或宾语

13) of giftgiving, barter, buying and selling goes on among the Narvjos.

[A] A great deal [B] A great many [C] Much greater [D] Many

例题解析

13) A为正确答案。空白后为不可数名词"giftgiving, barter, buying","[B] A great amny"和"[D] Many"修饰可数名词,而"[C] Much greater"本身是形容词,空档后不应有"of", 所以填"[A] A great deal of"。

八、"nothing but"表示"只不过,就是,只有"

He is nothing but a singer. 他只不过是个唱歌的。

Nothing but a miracle can save us. 只有奇迹才能救我们。

九、"anything but" 表示"根本不,并不"

She is anything but beautiful. 她并不美。

John is anything but a liar. 约翰决不是个骗子。

十、"something of" 表示"略有"

He has seen something of life. 他略有阅历。

I'm something of a cook. 我略懂烹饪。

(试比较)

He is not much of a scholar. 他算不上个很好(高明)的学者。

十一、"none other than"表示"就是"

The new arrival was none other than the President. 刚到的那人就是总统本人。 我们要注意none other than 与 other than 的区别,后者表示"与……不同"

I do not wish him other than he is. 我不希望他改变现状。

The truth is quite other than what we think. 事实与我们所想的不一样。

十二、"none"有时可作副词,表示"一点也不"

We did the work none too well. 我们活干得一点也不好。

十三、nowhere可用以成语:be nowhere一无所得,一事无成;get nowhere一事无成,nowhere near离……很远。

十四、有些不定代词同时也是形容词,或有其他的含义

He is all attention, and she is all eyes. 他十分留意,她也注意力集中。

Everybody who is anybody (somebody) at all will be at the dance.

[句中的"anybody(somebody)"在此当"大人物,重要人物"讲。]

代词英语语法详解4

内 容 提 要

代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

指 示 代 词

一、指示代词this,that,these和those用来代替上文已提到或指示眼前的人或物,在句中可充当主语、宾语和定语。做定语的指示代词要与所修饰的词在数上一致

1) Today's libraries differ greatly from .

[A] the past [B] those of the past [C] that are past [D] those past

2) The amount of money spent on cosmetics, according to some authorities, has exceeded spent on public health.

[A] one

[B] those

[C] it

[D] that

3) The culture and customs of America are more like of England than of any other country.

[A] that

[B] what

[C] which

[D] those

例题解析

1) B为正确答案。此题中的differ from意为"不同于",相比较的对象为"现代的图书馆"与"以往的图书馆",故应选B ,用those代替前面提到的libraries(复数)。

2) D为正确答案。"has exceeded""超过,超越",空档后"spent on public health"作定语,而空档处是代词代替"The amount of monay",这是不可数名词,所以"[A] one"和"[B] those"均不符合条件。"[C] it"也不对,it代词代"the amount of money spent on cosmetics,"那么空档后的"spent on public health"显然与"spent on cosmetics"相矛盾。所以C也不对。

3) D为正确答案。"what"和"which"为连接和关系代词,"that"指代单数,而空档处是代前边的"The clture and customs of America",所以应当用复数代词those。

二、为了避免重复,that或those来代替前边的名词或代词,that表示事物,those表示人。一般来讲that表示单数或不可数,而those表示复数。但those可以和who连用,由who引导一个定语从句,这时those就不是代替前边的某词

4) Numerous efforts have been made [A] to improve [B] the laws governing [C] air pollution, but none have been as successful as them [D] devised by the state of Oregon.

5) An internationally famous ballerina [A] , Maria Tallchief demonstrated [B] that

the quality of ballet in the United States could equal those [C] of the ballet in Europe

[D] .

6) Since the job was going to be [A] difficult, he asked only [B] them [C] he trusted to assist him [D] .

7) Forest animals [A] utilize the sense [B] of smell less [C] than them [D] in the countryside.

例题解析

4) D错。 改为those。这里"those"与"none"同指,都代"the laws"。

5) C错。 改为that,代"the quality。"

6) C错。改为those。C处作"asked"的宾语,又作"he trusted to assist him"的先行词。

7) D 错。 改为those。

三、such修饰可数名词须与a连用,也可修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词

8) Let us take a serious, reasonable look at what the results might be if proposal were accepted.

[A] so many

[B] a so many

[C] a such

[D] such a

9) Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing dishonesty?

[A] so

[B] those

[C] such

[D] such a

例题解析

8) D为正确答案。

9) C为正确答案。

代词英语语法详解5

内 容 提 要

代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

关 系 代 词

关系代词有who, whom, whose, that, which,as。它们用来引导定语从句。它们既代表所修饰词,又在从句中担任一定的成分。

一、who和whom代表人,who在从句作主语而whom在从句中作(动词或介词的)宾语

1) Human beings are social [A] animals whom [B] usually prefer not to live in physical [C] or psychological isolation [D] .

二、whose表示"某人的",在从句中作定语

2) There was a teapot fashioned like a China duck out of open mouth the tea was supposed to come.

[A] which [B] its[C] that[D] whose

三、that既可代表事物也可代表人,which代表事物或前边整个句子所表述的情况;that在从句中作主语、宾语和表语;which在从句中作主语或宾语

3) The first doll say "mama" was invented in 1830.

[A] that it could [B] could [C] it could [D] that could

四、代表物时多用which,但在带有下列词的句子中用that而不用which,这些词包括all, anything, much等

4) Probably he had come down in the world and this sampling was all was left him from the time when he could afford to come and select his favorite pudding.

[A] what[B] that[C] which[D] who

5) Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much we can learn from him today.

[A] as[B] when[C] who[D] that

五、在非限定性定语从句中,不能用that,而用who, whom代表人,用which代表事物

6) After a while I recognized him as "Big Jim," used to sit behind me in maths class in high school.

[A] which[B] who[C] he[D] that

7) I have often wondered whether some people, had no intention of making a purchase, would take advantage of this privilege of having a sample puddings without buying them.

[A] whom[B] who[C] which[D] what

8) This means we shall have to carry our own water, will add even greater weight to the saucer."

[A] that[B] although[C] why[D] which

六、which引导非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分,而不是一个名词

9) One can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an English-speaking country, amounts to washing one's hands of English complex structures.

[A] whom[B] which[C] when[D] that

七、在引导限定性定语从句时,that有时相当于in which, at which, for which或at which Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变,这与人们对夜间做梦的看法的变化有非常相似之处。

I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislikes it. 我出于某种原因喜欢这种音乐,而他恰恰与我相反。

We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 刚好我们到的那天他们走了。

八、有时as也可用作关系代词

Sam set out to improve efficiency at the shirt factory but, as we find out later in this unit, his turned out not quite as he had expected.

九、例题解析

1) B错。改为who。2) D为正确答案。3) D为正确答案。4) B为正确答案。5) D为正确答案。

6) B为正确答案。7) B为正确答案。8) D为正确答案。9) B为正确答案。

代词英语语法详解6

内 容 提 要

代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句子中承担不同的功用。

连接代词:是用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,连接代词有 what, who, whom,whose, which。

一、what可引导名词性从句,作主语和表语。"what"兼具先行词和关系代词的性质,what=the thing(things)that

1) Continue to be you are before you find an exercelent job!

[A] who[B] that[C] what[D] which

2) would be a fairly long speech in a play is often presented as a recitative(宣叙部) in opera.

[A] That[B] There[C] It[D] What

二、代词who(m), which和what可以和ever构成复合代词(whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever),它们起强调作用,都兼具先行词和关系词的作用。表示"所有,一切"意。whoever和whomever作为复合代词,前边有介词,如果单纯作介词的宾语用whomever;如果介词后边的复合代词引导从句,则用whoever

3) it is you have heard, you'd better ask him about it in person.

[A] Whatever [B] However[C] That[D] Although

4) The government will sell public houses to provides enough amount of money for the government further investment.

[A] whoever [B] those[C] people[D] who

三、有时这些复合代词还可以引起状语

5) the size or nature of a business,its main goal is to earn a profit.

[A] Whatever[B] Of[C] Whereas[D] Because

四、例题解析

1) C为正确答案。2) D为正确答案。3) A为正确答案。4) A为正确答案。5) A为正确答案。

冠词的用法专题精讲及同步练习

-命题趋势

冠词虽小,只有a,an和the三个,但却是历年各地中考必考语言点之一。就考查题型而言,以单项选择为主,有时在完形填空中出现。从命题意图看,以考查不定冠词a和an的用法区别、不定冠词和定冠词的用法区别为主。同时考查冠词的各种不同用法。

-考查重点

冠词的考查重点包括不定冠词a和an的用法,定冠词the的用法和零冠词的用法等。其中,不定冠词与定冠词的用法区别以及在具体语言环境中冠词的应用是历年中考试题考查的热点,也是今后的考查方向。

一.冠词概述

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义

冠词分为不定冠词和定冠词两种。不定冠词仅用在单数可数名词前面,表示“一”的意义,但不强调数目观念,只表示名词为不特定者。

定冠词则表示名词为特定者,表示“这”,“那”,“这些”,“那些”的意思,在可数的单复数名词或不可数名词前面都可以用

二.a和an的区别

不定冠词有a和an两种形式,a用于辅音(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an用于元音(不是元音字母)开头的词前。

例如:a boy,a university,a European country;

an hour,an honour,an island,an elephant,an umbrella

三.不定冠词的用法

1.泛指某一类人、事或物;相当于any,这是不定冠词a/an的基本用法。

2.泛指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。

3.表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。

4.表示“每一”,相当于every. 例如,I go to school five days a week.我一周上五天课。

5.用在序数词前,表示“又一”,“再一”。例如,I have three books. I want to buy a fourth one.我已经有三本书,我想买第四本。

6.用在某些固定词组中:a lot(of)许多,大量;after a while过一会儿

四.定冠词的用法

1.特指某(些)人或某(些)物,这是定冠词的基本用法。

2.指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。例如:Open the window,please.请打开窗户。

3.指上文已经提到的人或事物。例如:I have a car. The car is red.我有一辆小汽车,它是红色的。

4.指世界上独一无二的事物。 例如:Which is bigger,the sun or the earth?

哪一个大,太阳还是地球?

5.用在序数词,形容词最高级前。例如:The first lesson is the easiest one in this book.第一课是这本书最简单的一课。

6.用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。例如,the Great Wall 长城,the United States美国

7.用在某些形容词前,表示某一类人。例如:the poor穷人,the blind盲人 8用在姓氏复数形式前,表示“全家人”或“夫妻俩”。例如:the Greens 格林一家或格林夫妻俩

9.用在方位词前。例如:on the left在左边,in the middle of在中间

10.用在乐器名称前。例如:She plays the piano every day.她每天弹钢琴。

11.用在表示海洋,河流,山脉,群岛及国家和党派等名词前。

例如:the Black Sea黑海,the Yangzi River长江

12.用在某些固定词组中:all the same仍然;all the time一直;at the moment此刻;at the same time同时;by the way顺便说;do the shopping/washing买东西/洗衣服;in the morning/afternoon/evening 在上午/下午/晚上;in the open air 在户外,在野外

五.零冠词的用法

1.在专有名词和不可数名词前。例如,Class Two二班,Tian’an Men Square天安门广场,water水

2.可数名词前已有作定语的物主代词(my,your,his,her等)、指示代词

(this/these,that/those)、不定代词(some,any等)及所有格限制时。

例如my book(正);my the book(误)

3.复数名词表示一类人或事物时。

例如,They are teachers.他们是老师。

Tigers like meat.老虎喜欢吃肉

4.在星期,月份,季节,节日前。例如:on Sunday在周日,in March在三月,in spring在春天,on Women’s Day在妇女节

(特例:如果月份,季节等被一个限定性定语修饰时,则要加定冠词:He joined the Army in the spring of 1982.他在1982年春季参军。)

5.在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前。例如:Tom汤姆,Mum妈妈

6.在学科名称,三餐饭和球类运动名称前。例如:I have lunch at school every day.

特例:当football,basketball指具体的某个球时,其前可以用冠词:I can see a football.我可以看到一只足球。Where’s the football?那只足球在哪儿?(指足球,并非“球类运动”)

7.在表特定的公园,街道,车站,桥,学校等之前。例如:No.25 Middle School

8.某些固定词组中不用冠词。

(1)与by连用的交通工具名称前:by bus乘公共汽车;by car乘汽车;by bike

骑/坐自行车;by train乘火车;by air/plane乘飞机;by sea/ship乘船,但take a bus,in a boat,on the bike前需用冠词

(2)名词词组:day and night日日夜夜;brother and sister兄弟姐妹;hour after hour时时刻刻;here and there到处

(3)介词词组:at home在家;in surprise惊奇地;at noon在中午;on foot步行;at night在晚上;on duty值日;at work在工作;on time准时;for example例如;in class在上课;on show展览;in bed在床上

(4)go短语:go home回家;go to bed上床睡觉;go to school去上学;go to work去上班;go shopping/swimming/boating/fishing去买东西/游泳/划船/钓鱼

六.用与不用冠词的差异

in hospital住院/in the hospital在医院里

go to sea出海/go to the sea去海边

on earth究竟/on the earth在地球上,在世上

in front of在??(外部的)前面/in the front of在??(内部的)前面 take place发生/take the place(of)代替

at table进餐/at the table在桌子旁

by sea乘船/by the sea在海边

in future从今以后,将来/in the future未来

go to school(church?)上学(做礼拜?)/go to the school(church?)到学校(教堂?)去

on horseback骑着马/on the horseback在马背上

two of us我们当中的两人/the two of us我们两人(共计两人)

out of question毫无疑问/out of the question不可能的,办不到的 next year明年/the next year 第二年

a teacher and writer一位教师兼作家(一个人)/a teacher and a writer一位教师和一位作家(两个人)

七、例题剖析

例1.He gave my sister ____useful book yesterday.

A. an B. a

C. / D the

【答案】B useful的第一个音素为[ju] 故选B。

例2.My brother is____ honest boy, so he has many friends.

A. a B. an

C. the D /

【答案】B honest 的第一个音素为元音。

例3.More college graduates would like to work in____ west part of country____ next year.

A. the; the B. /; /

C. /; the D. the; /

【答案】A 方位名词前加the,in the west part;由句意可知为第二年,即the next year。

例4.There is a big tree____ the house.

A. in the front of

B. in front of

C. in front

D. at class

【答案】B 由句意可知是物体外部的前面。

例5.Jim always answers the teacher’s questions _______.

A. in class B. in the class

C. after class D. at class

【答案】A 课上回答老师的问题,故选in class。

八、同步练习

1.There is _____ apple on the desk.

A. a B .the C. an D./

2.The girl under ____ tree is my sister.

A. a B .the

C .an D./

3.Mary is from _____ USA.

A. a B. the

C. an D./

4.He met _____ friend of his on the road.

A. a B .the

C .an D./

5.Mr Black will go back to England______.

A .by air B .by a plane

C. by trains D. at a train

6.Yesterday I went to____ work on ____foot.

A. /, / B ./, the

C .the, / D. the, the

7.There is ____“h” in the word “hour”, but____ “h”doesn’t make a sound.

A. a, a B. a, the

C. the, ,an D .an. the

8.I’m going to see my mother. She is ill ____.

A. in hospital

B. in the hospital

C. in a hospital

D. at a hospital

9. We have three meals ____day. We have breakfast at 6:30 in ____morning every day.

A. the, the, the

B. the, /, the

C. a, /, the

D .a, the, the

10.——This is____ film I’ve told you about several times.

——It’s great. I’ve never seen ___ more moving one.

A. a, a B. the, the

C. the, a D. a, the

11.——Tina,could you please play____ piano for me while I’m singing? ——With pleasure.

A .a B. an

C. the D. /

12.I want to try again. Please give me____ third chance again.

A .a B. the

C. an D. /

13. ——What’s the matter with you?

——I caught____ bad cold and had to stay in____ bed.

A. a; / B. a; the

C. a; a D. the; the

14.____ sun is shining brightly.

A. A B. An

C. The D. /

15. Swimming is____ in summer.

A. a great fun B. great fun C. great funs D. great a fun

参考答案:

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11-15CAACB</P< p>

形容词和副词英语语法详解1: 形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和最高级。形容词和副词的构成形式基本上一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比较级的基本用法分为同级比较、比较级和最高级三种形式。但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。

一、形容词比较级和最高级的构成

形容词的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下

构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 最 高 级

① 一般单音节词末尾加er est strong stronger strongest

② 单音节词如果以e结尾,只加r st strange stranger strangest

③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,

须先双写这个辅音字母,再加er和est sad

big

hot sadder

bigger

hotter saddest

biggest

hottest

④ 少数以y,er(或ure),ow,ble结尾的双音节词,

末尾加er和est(以y结尾的词,如y前是辅音字母,

把y变成i,再加er和est,以e结尾的词仍

只加r和st) angry

clever

narrow

noble angrier

cleverer

narrower

nobler angrest

cleverest

narrowest

noblest

⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词moremost different more

different most

different

二、形容词比较级或最高级的特殊形式:

和和和

1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加more和most

只能说 more beautiful而不能说beautifuller; 只能说the most beautiful而不能说beautifullest。

但是,以形容前缀un结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如unhappy,untidy,我们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest

2. 由ING分词和ED分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如know→known)只能加more或most来表示它们的比较级和最高级

more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。

3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式

absolute fatal main right universal

chief final naked simulta- utter

entire foremost perfect neous vital

eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

三、不规则形容词的比较级和最高级形式

good

well better best

bad

ill worse worst

many

much more most

little

few less least

far farther farthest

further furthest

副词比较级和最高级的形式

副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样

一般 副词

hard→harder →hardest fast→faster →fastest

late→later →latest early→earlier →earliest

特殊 副词: well →better →best much →more →most

badly →worse →worst

little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或est,如 quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly [注]: early中的ly不是后缀,故可以把y变i再加er和est

形容词和副词英语语法详解2

形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法

一、原级比较的基本用法

1. 原级比较由"as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as "构成"原级相同"比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即"程度不及"比较句型为"not so(as) +形容词或副词+as",而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰

2. "as (so)+名词+as+名词"进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as

二、比较级

1. 比较级由"形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,"构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方"更加…"。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、ING结构和ED结构,有时也可省去than。

2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致

三、最高级

1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是"定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句"(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)

2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词the

四、同步练习

1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

[A] to run for fifteen minutes

[B] running for fifteen minutes

[C] you run for fifteen minutes

[D] fifteenminute walking

解析

:B为正确答案。

2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] a problem.

解析:B错。改为 as ,和前面的as和形容词原形curious 一起构成同程度比较。

3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas. 解析:B错。 改为as large。

4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.

[A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than

解析:C对。动词rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分achievements(成

果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用as,使前后对比成分一致。

5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.

[A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as

解析:B为正确答案。

6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica.

解析:C错。应改为比较级cheaper。比较级后并不一定跟接连词than,有时在其间有名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。

7) She is older than .

[A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group

[C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

解析:A为正确答案。"She"作为单个不能跟全组比(C和D不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,因为"她"也是其中一员,自然"她"不能跟自己相比。这里"She"比较的是"这组中的任何一个",所以A对。

8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the "Santa Cruz Sentinel" in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.

解析:B错。应改为比较级later,因此处实为与1905年相比晚15年,故应使用比较级。

9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .

[A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us

解析:D为正确答案。

10) Sound travels air.

[A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and

[C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through

解析:A为正确答案。

11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] .

解析:D错。 改为his master's。

12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

解析:A错。 改为most。

13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

解析:C错。改为the, significant是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的"of all… "。

14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

[A] All the activities [B] The activities

[C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

解析:C为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A和B全为名词短语,不符合条件;D为句子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有C正确,和后面的最高级the most familiar前后呼应。

形容词和副词英语语法详解3

形容词和副词的特殊表达法

一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由"as(so)…as"引出,其否定式为"not so…"或"not as…as",此外还应注意下列含有"as"结构或短语的句子

1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人

He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。

2. as much:表示"与…同量"

Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。

I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。

He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。

3. as many:表示"与…一样多"

I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。

二、表示"几倍于"的比较级:用twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上as … as 结构

This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大三倍。) Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。

He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。

三、"the same +名词+as"表示同等比较

四、比较级前可用a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still表示程度或更进一步

五、与比较级有关的特殊词用法

1. no more than …表示"只不过","并不比…"(等于not any more than)

Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine. 人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。

There is no difficulty with this task any more than with that one.

这项任务没有困难,那项任务也没有困难。

2. no less than 表示"不亚于"

There are no less than five hundred people present at the New Year party. 出席新年晚会的有五百人之多。(出席的人较多)

3. not less than 表示"不少于"

There are not less than five hundred people present at the New Year party. 出席新年晚会的只有五百人。(出席的人较不多)

4. more often than not 表示"多数情况下"

On Friday mornings, he comes late more often than not.

多数情况下,他星期五来得晚。

5. all the more 因而更加

We really admired him all the more for his frankness. 我们更加钦佩他的坦率。

6. (be) better off 较富裕,环境较好

7. had better 最好……

Come, you had much better have the thing out at once. 来,你最好把这东西弄出去。

8. less than 不到

The first steam locomotive could have a top speed of only thirteen mph(miles per hour) and the great sailing ships of the time labored along at less than half that speed.第一列蒸汽火车最快每小时只有13英里,那时的大船还不到这个速度的一半。

9. little more than 差不多

The grain in their barn is little more than that of ours.

他们仓的粮食跟我们仓的粮食差不多。

10. more than 超过,不止

I have waited for your for more than two hours. 我等了你两个多小时。

11. more or less 大体上,或多或少

The work is more or less finished. 工作大体算完成了。

Most of them came here to near money, more or less Mr.Wang worked for his cause.他们大都来挣钱的,但王先生有点像为事业而工作。

12. other than 除了

They imposed no pre conditions other than that the meeting should be held in their capital. 除了会议要在他们的首都开之外,他们没有提出任何先决条件。

13. rather than 而不是,与其…宁愿(rather than表示"与其…宁愿"时,如果位于句首引导句子,有虚拟的成分,相当于"… would rathe than,"所以rather than后面跟动词原形)

Read what interests you; read what you have time for magazines and newspapers rather than novels.

读你感兴趣的东西,读你有时间读的东西,如杂志和报纸而不是小说。

Rather than allow the potatoes to go bad, she sold them at half price.

她以半价把土豆给卖了,而没有让它们烂掉。

Rather than cause trouble, he left.

为了不惹事,他还是走了。

14. so much the better 就更好了

If she will help us, so much the better.

如果他能帮我们,那就更好了。

15. so much the worse 就更糟了

So much the worse for you if you still are absent from class.

如果你继续逃课的话,就对你更不利了。

16. the more…the more(less)"越是……,就越……"

六、比较中的省略

1. 在as…as中,as从句可省略整个谓语部分,保留主语

She sings as well as her sister. 她跟她的姐姐唱得一样好(省去了does)。

2. 可以省去谓语部分,保留主语和be、have等助动词

Susan has done as much housework as you have. (省去了done。)

3. 可以省去主语和谓语,只剩下状语

It is not as cold in Beijing as in Datong. 北京的天气没有大同冷。

4. than从句也可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语

They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others. 他们说血浓于水,亲属对我们来说比其他人更重要。

5. than从句省去部分谓语,保留主语和be,have或助动词

The white collar workers earn more than the blue workers do.

白领工人比蓝领工人挣得多。

这时 我们可以进行倒装,即将than后从句中的be,have或助动词移到该从句的前边 After all, big changes are relatively easier to make than are small ones.

相对来说,大变动比小变动毕竟容易些。

The fact is that some drug addicts are much better able to cure addiction in each other than are psychiatrists; some convicts can run better rehabilitation programs for convicts than do correctional officers; some patients in mental hospitals are better for each other than is the staff.

事实上,有些吸毒成瘾者与吸毒成瘾者之间戒瘾比精神病医生的作用还好;有些罪犯在改造其他罪犯方面比教改人员强;医院里的病人与病人之间的沟通比医务人员与病人间的沟通还强。

6. than从句可以省去主语和部分谓语,保留宾语

Grandma gives more candies to her grandson than her granddaughter. 奶奶给孙子的糖比给孙女的多。(省去了she gives candies to)

7. than从句可以省去主语和谓语,保留状语

There are more books in this library than in that library. 这个图书馆的书比那个多。(省去了there are many books)

She is much better than yesterday. 她比昨天好多了。(省去了she was)

Signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past. 近些年来在学校、商业和政府中欺诈的迹象比以前更多。

8. than从句可以省去主语,保留谓语部分

His speed of doing the work was much faster than had expected. 他干此事的速度远比想象的快。(省去了he或we)

9. 有时可以省去整个than从句

He is much healthier and happier. 她比以往任何时侯都健康幸福。(省去了than he was ever before)

10. 为了避免重复,我们经常用that代替不可数名词, those代替复数名词,one代替可数名词单数

七、隐含比较级

有时比较级并不一定出现than,这时通过上下文可喑示出,如:-Of the two oranges, which do you choose? -I like the larger one.这里的larger one是指前边提到的两个当中的较大的一个。而且有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟"to"而不用"than"

1. prior to 较早的,较重要的

The task is prior to all others. 这项任务比其他所有的任务都重要。

I called on him prior to my departure. 动身前我去看了他一趟。

2. superior to优越,高于

In math he felt superior to John. 他觉得自己数学比约翰强。

They were resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. 他们决心战胜一切困难。

3. inferior to 下等的,次的

These apples are inferior in flavour to those. 这些苹果的味道不如那些。

4. senior to 年长的,地位高的;junior年幼的,地位低的,迟的

He is two years senior to me. 他比我大两岁。

Her appointment is junior to mine by six weeks. 她的任命比我迟六星期。

5. preferable to 更好的

Health without riches is preferable to riches without health.

贫穷但健康要比富有却多病更可取。

6. prefer…to 更倾向于…

I prefer this to that. 我喜欢这个而不喜欢那个。

八、最高级在特殊短语中的使用:在有下列短语的句子中,往往使用最高级

1. one of…

3. in the world(或群体名词)

九、其他有关比较的习惯表达法

1. "as +形容词(副词)+as possible"结构,表示"最…,尽可能…":"as quickly as possible"(尽量快)

2. " sooner or later"是成语,表示"迟早、早晚"

3. "would rather +动词原形+than …"是惯用句型,表示"宁愿…而不愿…",由于连词than 要求前后所比较的成分要一致

十、most表示"非常": 有时most并不表示"最……",而是作副词表示"非常"之意。其实它是much的最高级,作形容词用是"大多数"之意,前边不加the。另外much与to构成介词词组,表示"在很大程度上使……"that也可以作副词用,表示"如此,那么"相当于so

十一、形容词与副词的修饰关系: 一般来说,形容词用来作表语(与系动词连用,注意taste, feel, become等词作系动词用时,它们后的表示应该是形容词,包括ed分词)或作定语修饰名词,而形容词不能修饰形容词包括ED分词;但副词可以修饰形容词(包括ED分词),副词还可以修饰副词、动词或短语

十二、形容词与副词的位臵

1. 当几个形容词共同修饰同一名词时,它们的先后顺序是:限定词→数词→描述性形容词→大小、长短、形状的形容词→色彩形容词→类属形容词→表材料形容词+被修饰的名词;或只记住限定词像a, the, my, their等词在最前边,其他词根据它们与被修饰名词关系的远近进行安排

2. 一般来说,单个副词修饰形容词时,副词放在形容词前;但enough修饰形容词时要放在形容词之后

good enough, mysterious enough

3. so修饰的是副词,而such修饰的是名词

4. 形容词修饰名词时放在前边,但修饰复合不定代词(something, someone, somebody; anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, noone, nobody)时,则放在这些词之后

something important, anything possible

十三、关于hardly, rarely, scarcely与seldom的用法

hardly"刚刚,不完全",表示程度:I hardly know him. "我几乎认不出他了",表示还是能认出或者说"我刚刚能认出他";hardly与any连用表示"几乎没有",与ever连用表示"几乎从来不"; scarcely的意思与hardly更接近。rarely"不经常",表示事物发生的频率:He rarely goes there. 他很少(不经常)去那里。seldom"很少,不经常",它与rarely更接近。

同步练习

1) The fiveyear deal obligates [A] the country to buy nine million tons [B] of grain a year [C] , three million more as [D] the old pact's minimum.

解析:D错。 改为than。

2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye.

[A] in the same function [B] the same function as

[C] the function is the same as [D] and has the same function

解析:B对。本句的汉语意思是"照相机的镜头和眼睛的水晶体所起的作用相同"。

3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would

have as the amount of money borrowed.

[A] as the same value [B] the same value

[C] value as the same [D] the value is the same

解析:B对。本句的汉语意思是"消除通货膨涨会保证还的钱与借时的钱同值"。

4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.

[A] more sophisticated than

[B] much more sophisticated

[C] much sophisticated

[D] sophisticated

解析:B为正确答案。

5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.

[A] clearest

[B] the clearest

[C] much clearer

[D] more clearer

解析:C为正确答案。

6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered [A] migratory, although [B] some do move [C] to more warmer [D] waters in winter.

解析:D错。 改为warmer。

7) During observations made over a fiftyyear period, the power output of the Sun has than a few tenths of one percent.

[A] varied by no more [B] varied no more by

[C] not varied more by [D] more varied by not

解析:A为正确答案。

8) Few of the people who live on the cooperatives than they were as laborers.

[A] is well off financial

[B] financially well off

[C] are better off finanically

[D] financial better off

解析:C为正确答案。

9) He came all the way to China for promoting friendship for making money.

[A] other than [B] better than [C] more than [D] rather than

解析:D为正确答案。

10) He preferred to write the letter by hand .

[A] to typing it

[B] than type it

[C] to type it

[D] rather than type it

解析: D为正确答案。

11) The harder he tried, [A] the worst [B] he danced [C] before the large [D]

audience.

解析:B错。 改为worse。

12) The quicker a loan [A] is repaid [B] , the least [C] it will [D] cost.

解析: C错。 改为less。

13) Hot objects emit do cold objects.

[A] rays more than infrared(红外线) [B] rays are more infrared than

[C] more than infrared rays [D] more infrared rays than

解析:D对。本句中的比较级为形容词more (much 的比较级),被比较的两个事物为"hot objects"和"cold objects",在所释放(emit)的红外线(infrared rays)的量上,前者多于后者。其中more修饰infrared rays,它们不能被分开,故只有D在词序上正确。空白后面为倒装语序,其中的do代替动词emit,本句空白后也可用正常语序,即"cold objects do"。

14) Last year the country had [A] fewer imports as [B] did the year before last [C] due to [D] the energy crisis.

解析: B错。 改为than。

15) Long Island, an [A] island that forms the [B] southeastern part of New York, has a [C] greater population than which [D] of fortytwo of thefifty states.

解析: D错。 改为that,代替population。

16) The grain of rye is longer [A] and slenderer [B] than [C] those of [D] wheat. 解析:D错。 改为that。这里比较的"The grain"不是复数,不能用复数代词those。

17) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than .

[A] the domestic marketer has [B] the domestic marketer does

[C] those of the domestic marketer [D] that which has the domestic marketer 解析:C为正确答案。比较句中,连词than前后,即所比较的成分要一致,应该在同种事物间进行比较。本句所比较的是两种 activities ,故C正确,代词those 代替"the activities"。

18) The grape is cultivated plants.

[A] one of the oldest [B] the oldest one

[C] one which the oldest [D] the one is the oldest of

解析:A对。"one of the oldest…"表示"(历史)最长的栽种植物之一",C和D均不合语法,而B选项中的one多余。

19) , William Shakespeare is the most widely known.

[A] With all writers in English

[B] All writers in English

[C] All of the writers in English

[D] Of all writers in English

解析:D为正确答案。

20) The crane is of the wading birds.

[A] the tallest

[B] the tallest that is

[C] which is the tallest

[D] which the tallest is

解析:A为正确答案。

21) The Appalachians Trail, extending [A] approximately 2,020 miles [B] from Maine to Georgia, is the longer [C] continuous [D] marked footpath in the world. 解析:C错。只有在两者相比较时才使用比较级,而本句出现了状语in the world,明显表示不止两者相比,故应改用最高级 (the) longest 。

22) La Paz, Bolivia is the higher [A] capital city in [B] the western hemisphere and [C] the secondhighest [D] in the world.

解析:A错。 改为the highest。

23) The best way to control rats is by seeing that they have as .

[A] possibly little nourishment [B] nourishment possibly little

[C] little as possible nourishment [D] little nourishment as possible

解析:D 为正确答案,"as little nourishment as possible "意为"尽可能少的养料"。

24) Earlier [A] or later, all lakes are influenced [B] by eutrophication, a process in which lake sediment(沉积物) lowers the depth [C] of the water and drains(除去) oxygen from it [D] .

解析: A错。改为sooner。

25) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf of the telephone.

[A] than inventing [B] than as the inventor

[C] the invention [D] as the inventor

解析:B 为正确答案,两个短语"as a teacher of the deaf"和" as the inventor of the telephone"相比。

26) Wool is characteristic on which to classify breeds of sheep.

[A] most obviously

[B] obvious the most

[C] the most obvious

[D] the most obvious that is

解析:C为正确答案。注意: 空档后的"characteristic"是名词而不是形容词,所以不能填A。

27) The Democratic party has controlled [A] the most [B] of the elected positions at

[C] state and local levels in South Carolina since [D] the Reconstruction.

解析:B错。 改为most。

28) During [A] the seventeenth century the most [B] colonists were primarily concerned with [C] D)] economics [D] and defense.

解析:B错。 改为most。

29) Belgium, in the [A] 19th century, rapid [B] grew into [C] an industrial [D]

country.

解析:A错。改为rapidly。

30) The Lost Colony in North Carolina mysterious [A] disappeared between [B] 1587 and 1590, when its [C] founder returned from a visit [D] to England.

解析:A错。改为mysteriously。

31) Many flatworms have of eyes.

[A] more pairs than one

[B] more than one pair

[C] one more pair than

[D] one pair more than

解析:B为正确答案。

32) Of the two houses the family prefers .

[A] the most isolated one

[B] the one isolated more

[C] the more isolated one

[D] the isolated one more

解析:C为正确答案。

33) Freezing is at present one of the of preserving meats and vegatables.

[A] most methods are important

[B] methods most important

[C] most important methods

[D] most are important methods

解析:C为正确答案。

34) The radio was of so [A] inferior quality that [B] I took it back [C] and asked for a better one [D] .

解析: A错。 改为such。

初中英语九大词类复习攻略-动词

九、动词(verb.)动词表示主语的动作或状态

(一)动词的种类。

(1)及物动词vt,其后接宾语。

eg.She wears a uniform.

(2)不及物动词vi,不接宾语。

eg :She can dance.

(3)连系动词like-v.接表语。

eg.They are nurses.

That sounds interesting.

His mother looks young.

If you keep milk for too long, it goes bad.

(4)助动词aux--V.接动词原形或分词(它无实在意思,只起语法作用)。

eg, DO you like pandas?

He has gone to Australia.

She is looking at the cat.

(5)情态动词mod-v.接动词原形(它不能单独作谓语,有自己的意思,无人称和数的变化)。 Eg. He must go now.

You should clean the classroom after class.

(6)有些动词既可作及物动词,也可作助动词或不及物动词,be也可作助动词。

eg.I do my homework after class.(Vt.)

Do as you like.(Vi.)

She is a little bit quiet.(mod-v.)

She is swimming now.(aux-v.)

二)情态动词的用法

(一)can,could,may的用法

l .can/could

(1)表示具有某种能力,意为―能,能够,会‖(could表过去)。

eg.I can sing English songs.

Lisa can’t speak Japanese.

She could swim when she was four years old.

(2)表示许:可、允许,意为―可以‖。

eg.Can we watch TV now?

You can’t play computer games in the morning.

(3)表示请求某人做某事,意为―能,能够‖(用could使晤气更委婉)。

eg.Can/Could you help me,please?

(4)表示推测―可能‖,多用于否定句和疑问句中。(表肯定推测可用must,might,could等) cg。it can’t be true.这不可能是真的。

Where can he have gone?他可能会去哪儿呢?

2.may/might

(1)表示许可、允许,意为―可以‖,比can更正式。

eg. May l use your pen?我可以用你的钢笔吗?

May l ask you a question?我可以问你—个问题吗?

(2)表示推测―可能‖,用于肯定句和否定句,不能用于疑问句。

eg.He may be at home now.他可能现在在家。

She may not be there today.今天她可能不在那儿。

(二)can与be able to的区别

1.两者都可以用来表示能力。

eg.I can/am able to mend the bike.

2.can只有现在时(Can)和过去时(could),而be able to可用于多种时态。

eg. I will be able to come back in another few months.

He hasn’t been able to get there before dark.

3.can可以表示推测,但be able to不能。

eg.That Can't be Gina's dictionary.

4.can与be able to;不能重复使用

eg.他能做好这件事。

He can be able to do is well.(X)

He can do it well.(√)

He is able to do it well.(√)

(三)must与have to的区别

1.主客观方面不同。

must表―义务‖或―强制‖,表示主观的必要;在肯定句中must还可表推测,语气要比may肯定多。have to表―必须‖或―不得不‖,表示客观的必要。

eg.We must clean the room.(表示我们认为房间太脏了。)

We have to clean the room.(表示没有人替我们打扫房间等客观原因。)

He must beat home before supper。(他晚饭前一定在家。)

2.人称和时态不同。

must无人称和时态的变化,一律用must十动词原形。have to后接动词原形,有人称、数和时态的变化,一般现在时的第三人称单数要用has to,过去时中要用had to,将来时中要用will have to。另外,have to还可与,情态动词和助动词连用。

eg: Tom must practice his guitar every day.

The train has left.We'll have to wait for the next train.

3.否定式及意义不同。

must not=mustn't―决不可/千万不可/务必不要‖; don’t/doesn’t/didn’t/won’t+have to―不必‖

eg.We mustn’t tell jokes on him.我们千万不可与他开玩笑。

We don’t have to tell jokes on him.我们不必和他开玩笑。

在对May I…?作否定回答时用No, you mustn’t/can’t.

eg. May l go to the movies? NO,You mustn't

5.疑问式及回答不同。

Must+主语+动词原形+…? Yes,主语+ must./NO,主语+needn’t.

助动词+主语+have to+动词原形+…?

Yes,主语+助动词./No,主语+助动词+not.

eg.Must l go now? Yes,you must./NO,you needn’t

Does she have to go to the doctor? Yes,she does./NO,she doesn’t.

初中英语九大词类复习攻略-连词

八、连词(conj.用来连接词与词或句与句

(1)并列连词(用来连接平行的词、词组或分句)

①表并列关系:not only...but also,neither...nor,and

②表选择关系:or,either...or

③表转折关系:but,while

④表因果关系:for,so

(2)从属连词(用来引导从句)

①引导时间状语从句: after,before,when,while,as,until,till,since,as soon as ②引导原因状语从句:because,as,since

③引导目的状语从句:so that,in order that

④引导结果状语从句:so that,so…that,such...that

⑤引导比较状语从句:than,as…as

⑥引导宾语从句:that,if, whether

时间介词的用法和辨异

表示时间的介词,在英语介词中占着相当重要的位臵。在初中阶段英语教学过程中,已出现了许多用来表示时间的介词。其中有:at on in during for to till un til after by before等。

1.at on in

a)at用来表示时间时,通常指时间的某一点。例如:at five o’clock atnoon atmidnight

b)on用来表示某一段时间,特指某天或某天的上午 下午或晚上。例如:on Sunday,on October,on Saturday morning.

c)in也可用来表示一段时间,但多指长于一天或不到一天的时间段。例

如:inJanuary,insummer, in1988, in the morning ,in the evening.

2.in与during

a)during用来表示一段时间,其意义大致相当于in的用法。一般来说,凡是能用in的地方,也可以用during.例如:He came to see me during my absence.Don’t go to see his wife in his absence.

B)during与in的区别在于during强调时间的延续性,而in则只是一般指某一时间。试比较:They visited many cities during their stay in China.Her grandpa was killed in the war.

3.in for during

a)―in+时间‖与―for+时间‖都可表示一段时间,但―for+时间‖表示―有多久‖,而

―in+时间‖则表示―在何时‖。例如:We worked there for the winter.They worked

there in winter.

以上两例中,in winter强调―在冬季‖,不一定包括整个冬季时间,而for the winter则强调―整个冬天‖。

b)for用来表示一般时间,常跟具体的时间段。例如 for a few days for 3 weeks for five months等

4.since与after since与after

都可以用来引导表示从过去某一点开始的时间段词组。它们的不同之处在于: a)since引导的词组所表示的时间一直延续到说话时为止,因而要与现在完成时连用。例如:He has been there twice since 1982.I have done nothing since six o’clock.

b)after引导的词组所表示的时间是纯系过去,并不延续到说话时,因此要和一般过去时连用。例如:He went home after school.

5.till until与to

a)介词till/until常用于―from.……till/until‖结构中,表示―一个动作的终结‖。介词to常用在―from.……to‖的结构中,用来表示―一个阶段的终结‖。两者在这种结构中意义十分接近。例如:The Americans stayed here from June to September.He studies from morning till/until night everyday.

b)to可用在表示钟点的词前。我们说It’s six tofive 但不能说It’s six till/until five.反之在某些能用till/until的场合,却不能用to.例如:在―not.……until‖结构中,我们说I didn’t go to bed till/until ten o’clock.却不能说I didn’t go to bed to ten o’clock.

c)till与until也有细微区别。till常用在非正式文体或口语中,而until则常用于

正式文体及比较正式的场合。另外,在句首多用until.

6.by before

a)by表示时间时,意思是―到……以前‖、―不迟于‖、―到……时(为止)‖。例如:by supper time by the end of last term

b)before表示时间,意为―在……以前‖。例如:before liberation the day before yesterday

c)by与before的区别在于,by短语表示时间,强调―终止点‖,而before短语表示时间,强调―起始点‖。例如:Your son will be all right by suppertime.

句中的by suppertime表示从说话时到晚饭前这段时间。而before构成短语则表示从某一时间或事件之前,例如:The poor children couldn’t go to school before liberation.

浅谈how的用法

how 在初一英语教材中频繁出现,它的基本涵义是―怎样‖。现将其用法归纳如下:

一。 how 用于询问动作执行的方式、手段等,译为―怎样‖。如:

—How do you usually go to school? 你通常怎样去上学。

—On foot. 步行。

二。 how 用于询问动作的执行程度,译为―怎样‖。如:

—How do you like China? 你觉得中国怎么样?

—I like it very much. 非常喜欢。

三。 how 用于询问身体健康状况,译为―怎么样‖。如:

—How are you? 你好吗?

—I'm fine, thank you. 我很好,谢谢。

四。 how 用在第一次见面的问候语中。如: How do you do? 你好!

五。 how about 用于询问或征询意见等,相当于 what about ,后接名词、代词或动词的 -ing 形式,译为―……怎么样‖、―……好不好‖。如: I like playing football. How about you? 我喜欢踢足球。你呢?

六。 how many 用于询问人或物品的数量,后接可数名词的复数形式,译为―多少‖。如:

—How many students are there in your class? 你们班有多少名学生? —There are sixty-five. 六十五名。

七。 how much 既可询问物品数量,后接不可数名词,译为―多少‖;又可询问物品价格,译为―多少钱‖。例略。

八。 how old 询问年龄,译为―多大‖。如:

—How old are you? 你多大了?

—I'm twelve. 我十二岁。

九。 how far 用于询问距离,译为―多远‖。如:

—How far is it from here to the station? 从这里到车站有多远?

—About three hundred metres. 大约三百米。

十。 how long 既可询问时间,译为―多久‖,又可询问物品的长度,译为―多长‖。如: How long is the river? 这条河有多长?

How long does it last? 这要持续多久?

When的用法小结

一、作为副词,它有以下的用法:

1. 作为疑问副词,引导特殊疑问句,意为―什么时候;何时‖。

如: ( 1 ) When will they come back?

( 2 ) What time will they come back?

回答 when 引导的从句,不一定指出具体的时间点。如回答句( 1 )可用 tomorrow, next month 等。而回答 what time 引导的问句,则必须说出具全的时间点,如 at two o'clock, at five past ten 等。

2. 作连接副词,引导名词性从句或不定式,意为―什么时候‖。从句使用陈述句语序,时态根据实际情况而定。

如: ( 1 ) I'd like to know when they will come. 我想知道他们什么时候来。( when 引导宾语从句)

( 2 ) Can you tell me when the bank opens? 你能告诉我银行什么时候开门吗?( when 引导宾语从句)

( 3 ) When she'll be back depends much on the weather. 她何时回来在很大程度上取决于天气。( when 引导主语从句)

( 4 ) Have you decided when to go sightseeing? 你们已经决定什么时候去郊游了吗?( when 引导不定式结构)

3. 作疑问代词,常和介词 since, till, up to 等连用,意为―什么时候‖。

如: ( 1 ) Since when have they had the house? 他们从什么时候起有这幢房子的? ( 2 ) Till when is the library open? 图书馆开放到几点呢?

4. 作关系副词,引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

如: ( 1 ) The days are gone forever when the Chinese people were looked down upon. 中国人民被人轻视的日子一去不复返了。

( 2 ) The main school holidays are from mid-December till early February, when the days are long and warm. 学校的主要假期是从 12 月中旬到 2 月初,这段时间里白天长而且很温暖。

( 3 ) Considering (the time) when these paintings were done, they are in excellent condition. 考虑到这些油画的创作时期,它们保存的状况是极好的。

( 4 ) Do you remember (the time) when the three of us went on a picnic? 你还记得我们三个人去野餐的那段时光吗?

在定语从句中, that 在某些条件下可用来代替 when ,这时其先行词通常是 time, day, moment, year 等。

如: ( 1 ) His mother died on the evening that he was born. 他母亲死于他出生的那晚。 ( 2 ) I stay at home on the days that I am not busy. 在我不忙的时候,我就呆在家里。 在某些含有―时间‖的名词词组后面,由于该名词不表示时间,或整个名词词组已用作连词,所以不用 when 引导。如: the moment, the instant, the minute, the second 等等,意为―一……就……‖,引导时间状语从句。

如: ( 1 ) The first time I went to China, I visited Beijing. 我第一次来中国就游览了北京。 ( 2 ) I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her. 我第一次见到她时就认为她很诚实。

( 3 ) The instant I saw him I knew he was my brother. 我一看到他就知道他是我兄弟。

二、作为从属连词,引导状语从句,表示多种语法意义:

1. 表示时间,意为―当……时;在……的时候‖。

A. 在时间、条件等状语从句里,用一般现在时表示将来时;当需要表达将来完成的意义时,必

须使用现在完成时来代替。

如: ( 1 ) When you see him, please say hello to him. 见到他时,代我问他好。 ( 2 ) When you have finished your experiment, please tidy the lab and put

everything back in the cupboards. 当你们做完实验后,请把实验室整理好并把物品放回柜子中。

B. 表示过去发生的事情,在 when 引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句中,动作发生在先的用过去完成时,在后的用过去时。

如: ( 1 ) When I was in Japan, I bought some beautiful pearls. 我在日本时,买了一些漂亮的珍珠。

( 2 ) When I reached the station, the train had left. 当我到达火车站时,火车已经开走了。

2. 表示前面的叙述所没有提到过的信息。它总是对所描述的事件予以引人注目的强调,意为―这时;突然‖;当位于句末的分句具有引种用法时,大致有以下三种情况:

A. when 分句前面的分句使用过去进行时。

如: ( 1 ) He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in. 他正笑着的时候,门突然开了,他妻子走了进来。

( 2 ) I was thinking of this when I heard my name called. 我正想着这件事时,突然听到有人叫我的名字。

B. when 分句前面的分句使用 was (were) about to, was (were) on the point 等。 如: ( 1 ) We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们刚要出发就开始下雨了。 ( 2 ) He was on the point of leaving when someone knocked at the door. 他刚要走就有人敲门。

C. when 分句之前的分句用过去完成时,其中 sb had hardly / scarcely /barely … when 已成为固定词组。如:

( 1 ) We had hardly fallen asleep when the bell rang. 我们刚刚入睡,铃声就响了起来。 ( 2 ) He had scarcely arrived when he had to leave again. 他刚刚到达就又要离开了。

3. 表示条件,相当于 if ,引导条件状语从句。

如: How can I get a job when I can't even read or write? 如果我连读和写都不会,我怎么能找到工作呢?

4. 表示对比,主要有以下两种情况:

A. 相当于 whereas, while, since, 意为―既然;然而‖。

如: ( 1 ) How can I help them to understand when they won't listen to me? 既然他们不愿听我的,我又怎么能帮助他们弄明白呢?

( 2 ) They have only three copies when we need five. 他们只有三本,而我们却需要五本。

B. when 从句中使用虚拟语气,意为―本来……却……‖。

如: ( 1 ) She paid when she could have entered free. 本来可以免费入场,而她却付了款。 ( 2 ) She stopped trying when she might have succeeded next time. 她本来下次有可能获得成功,但她却不再尝试了。

( 3 ) They were gossiping, when they should have been working. 他们本该工作,却在那里说别人的闲话。

5. 由 when 等引导的状语从句,如果主语与主句的主语一致或是 it ,谓语动词又含 be 动词时,主语和 be 动词常常被省略,就变成― when + V-ing/ V-ed/ adj/ 介词词组‖的结构。 如: ( 1 ) When in Rome, do as Romans do. 入乡随俗。

( 2 ) When (we are ) young, we are full of hope. 年轻时,我们大家总是充满希望。

( 3 ) Don't reach sideways when standing on a ladder. 站在梯子上时,不要侧着身子去够东西。</P< p>

疑问代词what的用法

疑问代词 what 是英语中用法较广、考试中常被测试到的代词。现将其在初一全册中的用法归纳如下:

一。 对年级、班级、排号、号码等提问时要用 what ,并与名词 grade 、 class 、 row 、 number 等连用。如: What number are you? 你是几号呢?

二。 对某事物或某人的姓名提问时常用 what .如: What is your name? 你叫什么名字?

三。 对算式的得数进行提问时用 what .如: What is three plus four? 三加四等于几?

四。 询问―某物有何毛病‖或―某人怎么了‖常用 what .如: What's wrong with your bike? 你的自行车出什么毛病了?

五。 what 与 colour 构成 what colour 来询问颜色。如: What colour is your coat? 你的上衣是什么颜色?

六。 与名词 number 连在一起用来询问汽车或电话号码等。如: What number is Mr Green's car? 格林先生的车牌号是多少?

七。 对职业进行提问时,用 what ,其句式为― What + do / does + 主语 + do ‖或― What + be + 主语?‖。例略。

八。 询问―某地有什么‖用 what ,其后多接― be + 介词短语‖。如: What's on the wall? 墙上有什么?

九。 询问具体的时间(几点几分)常用 what time .如: What time is it? (= What's the time?) 现在几点了?

十。 对价格提问时用 what .如: What's the price of these apples? 这些苹果

多少钱?

十一。 询问―星期几‖时,常用 what 与 day 一起提问。如: What day is today? (What day is it today?) 今天星期几?

十二。 征求意见或询问对方消息时常用 what about .如: What about something to drink? 来点喝的怎么样?

十三。 用来询问对某人或某物的看法时,用― What … think of …‖,译为就是―……认为……怎么样?‖如:

—What do you think of the story? 你认为这个故事怎么样?

—It's very interesting. 它很有趣。

浅谈as的用法

在中学英语课本中, as 多次出现。它的含义较多,且用法灵活。现将其用法分析归纳如下:

1. as 作为副词,常与连词 as 连用,意为―和……一样‖。例如: as easy as ABC (非常容易), as cool as cucumber (沉着的), as stubborn as a mule (非常顽强的,倔强的), as clear as crystal (非常透明的), as poor as a church mouse (非常贫困的), as busy as a bee (非常繁忙的)。在这些短语中,第一个 as 是副词,第二个 as 是连。在否定句中,作副词用的 as 可以用 so 代替。例如:

It's not so easy as I thought. (这不像我想的那么容易。)

2. as 作为连词,其意义和用法主要有:

( 1 )意为―当……之时‖,引导时间状语从句,在意思上相当于 when 和 while 引导的时间状语从句。例如:

As he grew up, he became silent. (他长大以后,变得沉默寡言。)

( 2 ) 意为―既然,因为‖,引导原因状语从句,不过它引导的原因状语从句时所表示的原因不如 because 引导的从句所表示的原因那么直接和强烈。试比较:

As he wasn't ready, we went without him. (既然他没有准备好,我们就自己去了。)

Because he was ill, he couldn't go to school. (因为他病了,所以不能去上学。)(原因状语从句表示―不能去上学‖的直接原因)

( 3 ) 意为―虽然,尽管‖,引导让步状语从句,在意思上相当于 although 引导的从句。 as 引导让步状语从句时,常以下列句式出现:名词 / 副词 / 动词 (原形) / 形容词 +as+ 主语 + 其他成分。例如:

Child as he is ( =Although he is a child ) , he can speak English. (尽管他是个孩子,他却能讲英语。)

Young as you are ( =Although you are young ) , you can do it very well. (虽然你年轻,但你却能做得很好。)

Much as I like it , I'll not buy it. (虽然我很喜欢它,我也不会买。)

Try as he may, he has little hope to win. (尽管他会尽力,但取胜的希望却很小。)

( 4 ) 意为―如,像‖,引导方式状语从句。例如:

You must do as I tell you . (你必须按照我告诉你的那样去做。)

( 5 ) 意为―作为……(某种身份),当做,视为‖。例如:

As a student, you must obey the rules. (作为学生,你必须遵守纪律。 )

3. as 作介词,意为―如同,作为‖。例如:

Unite as one man. (团结得像一个人。)

as 还可以用于 regard , view , treat , acknowledge 及类似意义的动词之后,构成固定搭配。例如:

Most of us regard him as a kind man. (我们大多数人认为他是个好心人。) We treat them as our friends. (我们把他们当作朋友。)

4. as 用作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语等,有―正如……‖或―据……‖的意思;它所引导的从句位臵较灵活,可以位于句首、句中或句末。例如:

As we know from his accent, he is from Shanghai. (正如我们从他的口音中所知道的,他来自上海。)(从句位于句首)

Mary, as we had expected, passed the exam. (正如我们所预料到的,玛丽通过了考试。)(从句位于句中)

as 还可以引导限制性定语从句。若先行词被 the same , such 修饰,关系代词应用 as .例如:

This is such an interesting book as everybody likes to read. (这是一本有趣的、每个人都喜欢看的书。)( as 在从句中作宾语)

This is such a good book as will help you in your study. (这是一本对你学习有帮助的好书。)( as 在从句中作主语)

He is not such a kind boy as he looks. (他看上去地个善良的男孩,实际上却不是。)( as 在从句中作表语)

You must show my wife the same respect as you show me. (你必须尊重我的妻子,就像尊重我一样。)( as 在从句中作宾语)

需要注意 as 引导定语从句时与 so/such……that 引导的结果状语从句的区别。试比较:

This is such an interesting book as everybody likes to read. ( as 引导定语从句,代替先行词 book ,在从句中作宾语)

This is such an interesting book the everybody likes to read it . ( that 引导结果状语从句,因为从句中 read 后面有代词 it 作宾语。)

以上介绍了 as 的一些用法,下面请做巩固性练习:

1. is well known, the earth is round.

A. It B. As C. These D. That

2. is well known that the earth is round.

A. That B. It C. As D. There

3. He is handsome a boy that all of us like him.

A. so B. such C. as D. who

4. He is such a handsome boy all of us like.

A. so B. such C. whom D. as

5. Boy he was, he could write a novel.

A. as B. since C. because D. who

Key: 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. A

welcome用法解析

对外交往的日趋频繁,我们会越来越多地使用 welcome 一词。然而如果我们对该词的用法不甚了解,就常常会出错。一个航空港的出口处就有这样一条横幅赫然入目:― Welcome you to visit …… (城市名)!‖这条横幅错,就错在 welcome sb to do sth 上。因为这不符合英语惯用法。为避免出现这种错误,现将 welcome 一词的常见用法归纳如下:

一 . 作感叹词

1. welcome to Beijing! 欢迎来北京。

2. Welcome, come in, please. 欢迎,欢迎,请进来。

二 . 作名词

意为―欢迎,款待‖,可用 warm (热烈的), cold (冷淡的), enthusiastic (热情的)等形容词作定语加以修饰。例如:

3. The hostess gave us a warm welcome. 女主人热烈欢迎我们。

4. Her suggestion received a rather enthusiastic welcome. 她的建议颇受欢迎。

三 . 作及物动词

意为―欢迎(某人或某事物)‖。例如:

5. They welcome us warmly and showed us to our rooms.

他们热情地欢迎我们,并把我们带到我们住的房间里。

6. He was warmly welcome back to Beijing.

人们热烈欢迎他回到北京。

7. He didn't welcome the suggestion. 他不欢迎这项建议。

四 . 作形容词

意为―受欢迎的‖:―令人喜欢的‖。例如:

8. a welcome guest 受欢迎的客人

9. a welcome rain 甘霖

10. a most welcome suggestion 极受欢迎的建议

另外,用作表语时, welcome 意为―被允许的;可随意使用……的‖。例如:

11. You are welcome to use my car. 我的车你尽管用。

切记不要把作表语用的形容词 welcome 和被动语态中的过去分词 welcome 混用。例如:

12. Anyone who wants to come will be welcome. (不用 welcomed )谁想来都受欢迎。

13. We were heartily welcomed by our hosts. (不用 welcome )我们受到主人的热情欢迎。

通过上面的介绍,你学会使用 welcome 一词了吗?请试译下列句子:

1. 上海欢迎您!

2. 那天上午 2 , 000 多人列队欢迎来访的总统。

3. 欢迎大家来故宫参观。

4. 你可以随意使用我们的工具。

5. 这所大学欢迎世界各国学生的申请。

Key :

1. Welcome to Shanghai!

2. That morning more than 2,000 people were lined up to welcome the visiting president.

3. Welcome to visit the Palace Museum.

4. You are welcome to use any of our tools.

5. This college welcomes applications from students all over the world.

浅谈代词one的用法

代词one的用法很多,且容易误用,现将其常见的用法归纳如下:

一. one可以代替前面刚提到过的同一类人或物,其复数形式为ones.例如:

I haven ' t got a pen. I ' ll have to buy one.(我没有钢笔,我必须去买一支。) I have a new story-book and several old ones.(我有一本新的故事书和几本旧的故事书。)

二. 如果one不带任何前臵修饰语,而是单独使用时,其意义通常是泛指的。例如: I have no recorder. I want to buy one.(我没有录音机,我想买一台。)

三. 不定冠词a/an不可直接和one连用,但a/an后面有形容词时,可以和one连用。例如:

Have you any knives? I need a sharp one.(你有小刀吗?我需要一把锋利的。) Have you any books? I want to have an interesting one.(你有书吗?我要一本有意思的。)

四. 当one(s)代替特指名词时,它前面总有定冠词或其他限定词。例如:

This room and the one upstairs are being cleaned.(这个房间和楼上的那个房间正在打扫。)

The film is not so good as the one we saw last week.(这部电影不如我们上星期看过的那部电影好。)

五. one 只能代替可数名词,如果所代替的是特指的不可数名词,那就不能用―the one‖,而应该用that.例如:

The study of English is as important as that(=the study)of Chinese.(学习英语与学习汉语一样重要。)

六. one(s)通常不用在名词所有格和形容词性的物主代词之后。例如:

他的书放在楼下,他哥哥的书放在楼上。

(误)His books are kept downstairs, and his elder brother ' s ones are kept upstairs.

(正)His books are kept downstairs, and his elder brother ' s are kept upstairs.

七. one(s)不用在own和both之后。例如:

我的狗是黑色的,他的狗是黄色的。

(误)My dog is black, his one is yellow.

(正)My dog is black, his is yellow.

那幢房子是你租的,还是你自己的?

(误)Do you rent the house or is it your own one?

(正)Do you rent the house or is it your own?

浅谈worth的用法

worth意为―值……的,有……的价值的‖等,常常用作形容词,在句中一般作表语,有时也可用作定语,如:a place worth seeing(值得一看的地方),a dictionary worth $50(一本值50美元的词典)等。

worth用作表语时,不能单独使用,其后通常接动词的-ing形式,而不能接动词不定式。常用的句式有:

1. ―主语+be+worth+动词的-ing形式+……‖此时,句子的主语就是worth之后动词-ing形式的逻辑宾语。例如:

Now John is worth talking to.(现在值得与约翰谈一谈。)

He isn ' t worth getting angry with.(犯不上跟他生气。)

注意:动词的-ing形式之后的介词不可省去。worth后面的动词-ing形式一般用主动形式表示被动意义,而不能直接用被动形式。试比较:

正: The film isn ' t worth seeing.

误:The film isn ' t worth being seen.

2. ―It(形式主语)+be+worth+动词的-ing形式+……‖例如:

I ' t isn ' t worth repairing the bike.(这辆自行车不值得修理了。)

Is it worth visiting the city?(这个城市值得参观吗?)

一般来说,worth前面可用well, really, very much, hardly, easily等词语修饰,但一般不用very修饰。例如:

This is really worth doing.(这确实值得一做。)

He has something very much worth saying.(他有些话很值得讲。)

请比较:

正: This book is worth reading.

正: It is worth reading this book.

正: This book is well worth reading.

误: Reading this book is worth.

误: This book is worth being read.

误: This book is very worth reading.

worth的下列用法也值得注意:

(1)表示―值(多少钱)‖的意思时,其后主要接表示钱数或类似的词语。例如:

This picture is worth 100 yuan.(这幅画值100元。)

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.(双鸟在林不如一鸟在手。)(谚语)

(2)表示―值得‖的意思,后接某些名词。例如:

His words are worth notice.(他的话值得注意。)

Is it worth all the trouble?(费那么多事值得吗?)

(3)表示―拥有……价值的财产‖的意思。例如:

He is worth a million dollars.(他拥有百万家产。)

(4)用作名词,表示物质、精神等方面的―价值‖时,worth是不可数名词,如a picture of great worth(一幅价值昂贵的画),a man of worth(很有价值的人)。

(5)用在一些习惯用语中,如for all one is worth (尽力,尽量地),for what it ' s worth(不论真伪),worth one ' s salt(胜任的,称职的,值得雇佣的)worth somebody ' s while(值得某人花精力[时间]的)。

Take的用法

take 是初一下学期出现的一个很重要的动词。它的本义是― carry sb. / sth. from one place to another ‖,即―携带、运载‖。但灵活的它在不同的场合有不同的含义。现将初一阶段 take 所出现的用法归纳如下:

一。 take 表示―乘、坐‖某一交通工具。如:

My father usually takes a bus to work. 我爸爸常乘公共汽车去上班。

Which bus do you often take? 你经常乘哪一路公共汽车?

注意: take 和 by 都有―乘、坐‖之意。 Take 是一个动词,后面接具体的交通工具,且在表示该交通工具的名词前一般应有冠词等修饰语;而 by 是一个介词,它后面所跟的表示交通工具的名词前一般不可用冠词等修饰语。 by 短语在句中修饰动词等作状语。如:

格林先生经常乘火车去上班。

Mr Green often goes to work by train.

Mr Green often takes a train to work.

二。 take 表示―拿、取‖之意,后常接宾语,它强调将某人或某物从说话地点带到其他地方去。如:

Could you take my schoolbag to the classroom, please? 请你把我的书包拿到教室里去好吗?

His mother often takes him to the bookshop. 他妈妈经常带他去书店。

注意:如果表示把某人或某物从别处带到说话地点时,应用 bring .如:

Han Mei, please bring me a cup of tea. 韩梅,请给我端杯茶来。

Don't forget to bring your dictionary here next time. 下次别忘了把你的词典带来。

三。 take 表示―花费时间‖之意,其常用句型为― It takes sb. some time to do sth. ‖,意为

―某人花多少时间做某事‖,注意后面的动词前的 to 不可丢掉。如:

It takes her twenty minutes to walk to school every day. 她每天步行去上学要花二十分钟的时间。

It takes me half an hour to do my homework in the evening. 晚上我要花半小时做作业。

四。 含 take 的短语

take exercise 运动;锻炼

take off 脱掉;(飞机)起飞

take a look (at) 看一看

take photos 照相,拍照

take a seat 坐下,坐坐

take a walk 散步

take a rest 休息

take down 取下

take away 拿走

take out 拿出

half的用法

仅就名词意义而言, half 是一个可数名词,对应词是 whole ,意为―半,一半‖。同学们是否对 half 的全部意义都了解呢?

一。 half 用作名词,意为―一半,半‖,是可数名词,其复数形式是 halves .如:

Cut the apple into halves. 把苹果切成两半。

二。 表示―某物的一半‖用― half a (an) + 单数名词‖结构。如:

half an hour 半小时

half a kilo 半公斤

half an orange 半个桔子

half a day / week / month / year 半天 / 半周 / 半个月 / 半年

三。 表示―半公斤的……‖用― half a kilo of + 名词‖。如: half a kilo of meat (tomatoes) 半公斤肉(西红柿)

四。 half 用于一个或一个以上整数再加一半表示―几个半‖时,用― one (two … ) + 名词 + and a half ‖或― one (two … ) and a half + 名词‖结构,此时要注意名词复数形式的变化。如: 一个半小时 one hour and a half / one and a half hours

五。 ― a half (一半)‖一般不单独使用。如果后面的数量单位名词是单数,如 kilo ,则可说 half a kilo 或 a half kilo .如果这个单位名词是复数,则前面只能用 a half .如: one and a half kilos 相当于 one kilo and a half (不说 one and half a kilo )

另外, in half 相当于 into halves ,意为―…成两半‖。

by half 一半

by halves 不完全地,不完善地

halftime 比赛上半场与下半场之间的休息时间

―begood‖的用法

说起― good ‖的―好‖处来,不少人都会竖起大姆指。 good 意为―好的‖、―有益的‖,可用来说明人和事物。不过,― be good ‖与许多介词朋友相连在一起,还能出现不少新面孔呢。

一。 be good at

be good at 表示―擅长于某一学科知识或技能‖,也可表示―在……方面做得好。‖ be good at 后面接名词、代词、动词的 -ing 形式,相当于 do well in .如: Mike is good at swimming. 迈克擅长于游泳。

I am good at English. 我擅长英语。

二。 be good for

be good for 表示―能……有好处(益处)‖,此短语的反义词是― be bad for (对……有害处)‖。如:

Running is good for your health. 跑步对你身体有好处。

Watching TV too much is bad for your eyes. 电视看得太多对你的眼睛有害。

三。 be good to

be good to 表示―对待……好‖, to 后一般接表示人的代词或名词,其中 good 可用 friendly 代替。此短语的反义词是― be bad to (对待……不好)‖。如:

Miss Li is very good / friendly to us students. 李老师对我们学生非常好。 The son is not good / bad to his old parents. 那个儿子对他年老的父母不好。

四。 ― be good at sth. ‖和― be good at doing sth. ‖表示―善于,擅长于

(做)……‖,― be good at sth. / doing sth. ‖与― do well in sth. / doing sth. ‖结构相同,使用时要注意系动词 be 和谓语动词 do 在主语人称和数不同时的相应变化。如:

我父亲擅长于画马。

My father is good at drawing horses.

My father does well in drawing horses.

Help帮你走天下

Help是中学英语中重要的动词,其热点句型如下:

1. help sb. to do sth.帮助某人做某事。

Can you help me to learn English?

你能帮助我学英语吗?

I can’t help you to lift this stone.

我不能帮你搬这块石头。

2. be of some/ no/ much help to sb. 对某人有些/没有/很有帮助。 This book is of great help to me.

这本书对我很有帮助。

Is this magazine of any help to you?

这本杂志对你有些帮助吗?

3. help oneself (to)自用(食物等)。

Help yourself to the fish. 请随便吃鱼。

Please help yourself to some pork.

请随便吃点肉。

4. help sb. into/ out of搀扶某人进入/走出。

He helped the patient out of the hospital.

他搀扶病人走出了医院。

Can you help the patient into the hospital?

你能搀扶病人进医院吗?

5. help sb. out帮助某人克服困难,渡过难关、解决问题、完成工作。

When I’m in trouble, he always helps me out with money.

每当我处境困难时,他总是用金钱帮助我渡过难关。

Please help me out with this problem.

请帮我解这道试题。

6. with the help of在……帮助下。

With the help of her, he found his lost child.

在她的帮助下,他找到了失踪的小孩。

7. help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事。

Please help me with my French.

请帮我学法语。

Can you help him with this work?

你能帮助他完成这项工作吗?

8. help to do sth. 有助于做某事。

This program helps to improve our English.

这个计划有助于我们提高英语成绩。

His speech helps to understand the policy.

他的演讲有助于理解这个政策。

[巩固练习]

根据中文提示完成下列各句。

1. I’m sorry, I can’t ______ ______ ______ ______ ______(帮助你解)this problem.

2. Don’t you think this book ______ ______ ______ ______(很有帮助)?

3. I’m busy now, and I can’t ______ ______ ______(帮助你做)your homework.

4. I’m sure this movement ______ ______ ______(有助于增加)our understanding.

5. ______ ______ ______ ______(在……的帮助下)Li Ping, I passed the exam smoothly.

6. Don’t worry, if you meet with difficulty, I’ll ______ ______ ______(帮助你克服困难)。

7. Would you please ______ ______ ______(随便吃)some meat?

8. He ______ his grandmother ______ ______(搀扶……从……出来)the car.

[试题答案]

1. help you to work out

2. is of much/ great help

3. help you with/do

4. helps to increase

5. With the help of

6. help you out

7. help yourself to

8. helped, out of

介词at,in与on在时间方面用法辨析

at表示时间的一点;in表示一个时期;on表示特殊日子。如:

He goes to school at seven o’clock in the morning. 他早晨七点上学。

Can you finish the work in two days. 你能在两天内完成这个工作吗?

Linda was born on the second of May. 琳达五月二日出生。

1. at后常接几点几分,天明,中午,日出,日落,开始等。如:

at five o’clock (五点),at down (黎明),at daybreak (天亮),at sunrise (日出),at noon (中午),at sunset (日落),at midnight (半夜),at the beginning of the month (月初), at that time (那时),at that moment (那会儿),at this time of day (在一天的这个时候)。

2. in后常接年,月,日期,上午,下午,晚上,白天,季节,世纪等。如:

in 2006(2006年),in May,2004 (2004年五月),in the morning (早晨/上午),in the afternoon (下午),in the evening (晚上),in the night (夜晚),in the daytime (白天),in the 21st century (21世纪),in three days (weeks/month)三天(周/个月),in a week (一周),in spring (春季)。

3. on后常接某日,星期几,某日或某周日的朝夕,节日等。如:

on Sunday (星期日),on a warm morning in April (四月的一个温暖的上午),on a

December night (12月的一个夜晚),on that afternoon (那天下午),on the following night (下一个晚上),on Christmas afternoon (圣诞节下午),on October 1,1949 (1949年10月1日),on New Year’s Day (新年),on New Year’s Eve (除夕),on the morning of the 15th (15日的早上)等。

seem的常见用法归纳

seem可用作连系动词或不及物动词,意为―似乎;好像‖,其常见用法现归纳如下:

一、―主语+ seem +(to be )+表语‖,表语多为名词或形容词,有时是其他的词或短语,以说明主语的特征或状态。例如:

Tom seems (to be ) a very clever boy. 汤姆看上去是一个非常聪明的男孩。

The man over there seems to be a new teacher. 那边的那个人看上去像一个新老师。 Mr Black seemed to be quite happy. 布莱克先生好像十分快乐。

This small town seems changed a little. 这个小城镇似乎有点儿变化。

二、―主语+ seem + 不定式‖,此句型中的seem与不定式一起构成复合谓语。例如:

Mrs Green doesn’t seem (或seems not ) to like the idea. 格林夫人似乎不太喜欢这个主意。

The children seemed to be eating something in the room. 孩子们好像正在房间里吃东西呢。

The young man seemed to have changed much. 这个年轻人看起来变化很大。

三、―It seems + that从句‖,其中it 是形式主语,that引导主语从句。例如:

It seems that no one knows what has happened in the park. 似乎没有人知道在公园里发生了什么事。

It seems to me that Mr Brown will not come again. 在我看来布朗先生不会再来了。

四、―There + seem to be +名词‖,其中to be 可省略。seem 的单复数形式要根据后面作主语的名词的单复数形式而定。例如:

There doesn’t seem to be much hope of our beating that team. 看来我们战胜那个队没有多大希望。

There seems no need to wait longer. 看来没有再等的必要了。

定语从句的用法以和精练

一、定语从句的概念

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

二、定语从句的关系词

引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that,

which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

三、定语从句的分类

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

四、关系代词的用法

1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)

The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)

2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如: The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火

车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)

The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)

3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:

The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)

Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语)

注意:(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用―介词+which/whom‖结构。例如:

This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。 Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

(2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前臵,只能放在原来的位臵上。例如: This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。

(3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。

(4)关系词只能用that的情况:

a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。 b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:

I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

e.以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:

Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:

There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

(5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

a.先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:

This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。

c.引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.例如:

Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

五、关系副词的用法

(1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:

This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。

(2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:

This is place where he works.这是他工作的地点。

(3)why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:

Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

共2

I.单项填空。

1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father?

-Yes, he’s our headmaster.

A. he B. who C. which D. whom

2. Is this the river _____I can swim?

A. which B. in which C. that D. the one

3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know.

A. where B. which C. that D. it

4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day?

A. that you bought B. you bought it

C. that you bought it D. which you bought it

5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands.

A. which agrees B. who agree

C. who agrees D. which agree

6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing.

A. that B. it C. which who

7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate

A. who’s B. whose C. that of which.

8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister.

A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who; was

9. I love places ______the people are really friendly.

A. that B. which C. where D. who

10. The world ______ is made up of matter.

A. in that we live B. on which we live

C. where we live in D. we live in

Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。

1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.

2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.

3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.

4. The house _____we live in is very old.

5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?

参考答案:

I. 1-5BBCAC 6-10 ABCCD

Ⅱ. 1. that 2. which / that 3. who / that 4. that / which 5. who/ whom/ that

</P< p>

动词+up和动词+out用法大观园

一、―动词+up‖短语

1.catch up with 意为―跟上;赶上‖。

如: If you study hard, you’ll catch up with other students. 如果你努力学习的话,你将会赶上其他同学。

2.cheer up 意为―使……振奋;使……高兴起来‖。

如: He sings for many people at the city hospital to cheer them up. 他在城市医院里为很多人唱歌,使他们振作起来。

3.clean up 意为―清除;收拾干净‖。

如: We should not litter the seas, and should clean up the dirty parts.我们不应该向海洋乱丢杂物,而应清除那些污染的区域。

4.come up with 意为―找到(答案、解决方法等)‖。

如: He couldn’t come up with an answer when I asked him why he was late.当我问他为什么迟到的时候,他答不出来。

5.dress up意为―穿上盛装;乔装打扮‖。

如: Mrs White dressed up and went to Tom’s birthday party.怀特夫人打扮得漂漂亮亮去参加汤姆的生日聚会。

6.eat up意为―吃完;吃光‖。

如: He was so hungry that he ate up all the food on the table.他是如此的饥饿以至于吃完了桌子上的所有食物。

7.fix up意为―修理;修补‖。

如: I fixed my bicycle up yesterday.昨天我修理了我的自行车。

8.get up 意为―起床‖。

如: What time do you usually get up? 你通常什么时候起床?

9.give up意为―放弃‖。

如: Smoking is bad for your health. You’d better give it up.吸烟有害健康,你最好不要吸烟。

10.go up意为―(价格、水平、数量等)上升、上涨‖

如: The price of pork is going up. 猪肉的价格正在上涨。

11.grow up意为―成长;长大‖。

如: What do you want to be when you grow up? 你长大了想干什么?

12.hurry up意为―赶快‖。

如: Hurry up, or you’ll be late for the meeting. 快点,否则你开会将会迟到。

13.look up意为―仰望;查找‖。

如: I looked up into the sky, but saw nothing.我抬头看天空,但什么也没看到。 You should often look up words in a dictionary, especially

learning English by yourself.你应当经常在词典里查单词,特别是自学英语。

14.make up one’s mind意为―下决心‖。

如: She make up her mind to study hard.她下决心努力学习。

15.open up 意为―开设;开业;开放‖。

如: Edison opened up his own lab in New Jersey.爱迪生在新泽西开办了自己的实验室。

16.pick up 意为―拾起;捡起‖。

如: On her way home, Kate found a wallet lying on the ground and picked it up.在回家的路上,凯特发现一个钱包在地上,并捡起了它。

17.put up意为―建起;举起;张贴‖。

如: Please put up your hands if you have any questions to ask.如果你有问题要问的话,请举手。 Here are some mew pictures. Please put them up on the wall.这儿有几张新画,请把它们挂到墙上去。

18.ring up/call up意为―打电话‖。

如: Will you please ring/call me up when you reach Beijing? 当你到达北京的时候,请给我打个电话好吗?

19.stand up意为―起立;站立‖。 如: We all stood up and gave Mr Wang a warm welcome.我们都站起来,热烈欢迎王先生。

20.turn up意为―开大、调大(声音)‖。

如: There is something wrong with the old man’s ears. Please turn up the radio.这个老人的耳朵有点聋,请把收音机的声音调大。

21.think up 意为―想出‖。

如: We need to think up some ideas.我们需要提出一些想法。

22.wake up意为―唤醒;醒来‖。

如: At midnight, he woke up and fell asleep again.半夜,他醒来了又睡着了。

一、―动词+out‖短语

1. give out 意为―分发;发放‖。

如: You could give out food at a food bank. 你可以在食品站分发食品。

2. hand out 意为―分发;发放‖。

如 He even handed out advertisements at a local supermarket.他甚至在当地的一个超市分发广告。

3.work out 意为―得出(结果、总数等)‖。如: This math problem is too difficult. I can’t work it out.这道数学题太难,我算不出来。

4.run out of 意为―用光;耗尽‖。如: It is very important that this

organization does not run out of money.这个组织没有用光钱,这是很重要的。

5.go out 意为―出去;熄灭‖。如: What about going out for a walk? 出去散步怎么样? I was doing my homework when the lights went out.我正在做家庭作业时,灯突然灭了。

6.find out 意为―查明;弄清‖。如: We must find out who broke the window.我们必须查明是谁打碎了窗户。

7.look out 意为―当心‖。如: Look out! A bus is coming!当心!一辆巴士来了! ;

8.sell out 意为―售完‖。如: They have sold out all the coats.他们卖完了所有的外套。

9.take out 意为―拿出‖。如: He took out a pen and began to write.他拿出一支钢笔,开始写起来。</P< p>

学习辅助:初中语法专项

(一)名词、代词、数词

名词

㈠总分:⒈专有名词:个别的人、事等专有的名称。 ⒉普通名词。

㈡事物的性质:

⒈不可数名词。数词+量词(s)+不可数名词 如:two pieces of bread

⒉可数名词:

⑴规则:①一般加 s。②以 sh, s, ch, x, o +es *yo-yo/zoo/photo/radio/piano/kilo+s ③以 e结尾的加 s。 man driver---- men drivers ④辅音字母加 y 去y 为 i 加 es。元音字母+y +s.

⑵不规则:①man-men woman-women child-children tooth-teeth foot-feet people-people sheep-sheep deer-deer mouse-mice

② 以 f 或fe结尾,变为 ves。 thief, wife, self, life, half, leaf, knife, wolf.

小偷妻子自生活,半片叶小刀狼。

③表示民族的名词:复数词形不难记,中日友谊是一致;

英法联盟 a 改 e ,其 佘 一律加 s。

㈢所有格:1.在英语中有些名词可以加 ’ s 来表示所有关系。

⑴单数名词加’s。 ⑵以 s 结尾的复数名词加’ 读音不变。 ⑶不以 s 结尾的复数名词加’s。

2.无生命的用of+名词。 3。表示时间、距离、世界、国家、城镇等名词+―’s/’‖

4. 双重所有格:限定词+名词+of +"’s" /―of+名词性物主代词‖

*A and B’s―两人共用‖ A’s and B’s―一人一个‖

代词

㈠人称代词:表示你们、我们、他们的代词。

⑴主格(作主语)①第一人称:单数:I 复数:we 。 ② 第 二人称:单数:you

复数:you

③第三人称:单数:he,she,it. 复数:they

⑵宾格(作宾语)①第一人称:单数:me 复数:us ② 第 二人称:单数:you

复数:you

③第三人称:单数:him,her,it. 复数:them

*英语中把―我‖排在后

*it指无生命的东西、天气、时间、距离、形式主语、形式宾语。

㈡物主代词:表示所有关系的代词。

⑴形容词性(作定语)①第一人称:单数:my 复数:our ② 第 二人称:

单数your 复数:your

③第三人称:单数:him,her,its. 复数:their

⑵名词性:①第一人称:单数:mine 复数:ours ② 第 二人称:单数:yours

复数:yours

③第三人称:单数:his,hers,its. 复数:theirs

*of+名词性物主代词=of+名词所有格

㈢反身代词:表示我自己、你自己、他自己的代词。

①第一人称:单数:myself 复数:ourselves。 ② 第 二人称:单数:yourself

复数:yourselves ③第三人称:单数:himself,herself,itself.

复数:themselves.

*by oneself―独自地‖/of oneself―自动地‖

㈣指示代词:this,that,these,those,such.

㈤不定代词:all,each,every,both,either,neither,one,none,little,few,many,much,other,another,some,any,no. 由some,any,no,every构成的合成代词。

㈥疑问代词:who(主格),whom(宾格),whose(所有格),what(职业),

which(人/物),how,where,when,why。

*a few/ few/ a little/ little *one/ it / that/this *the others/another/others/the other *everybody/somebody/anybody/nobody

*everything/anything/something/nothing

数词:表示数目多少或顺序次第的词。

㈠基数词(数目)

⒈从1--100的基数词。

基数词不难记,找清规律很容易;十二以内词各异,需要逐个来记忆;十三至十九结尾均是teen,记时千万莫忘记;二十至九十 十词后都有ty,拼写一定要仔细;几十几中间的―-‖莫丢弃;a hundred 是一百,千万别大意。以上口诀全记下,反复练习成绩提。

⒉从 21--99。先说几十,再说几,中间加连字号。

⒊从101--999。千位数加逗号,再加百位数,再加 and , 再加未两位数 。 (hundred/thousand/million/billion)

⒋有时基数词可以以复数形式出现。 hundreds of.

⒌几十的复数形式可表示人的岁数或年代。in one’s thirties. in the 1930s.(thirties) ⒍分数表达法:分子(基数词)分母(序数词)

*分数词+of+名词 *one third/ two thirds/a half/a quarter/three fourths

⒎数学公式的读法:3+8=11 Three plus/and eight is eleven.

9-7=2 Nine minus seven is two.

6×5=30 Six times five is thirty. / Multiply six by five is thirty.

8÷4=2 Eight divided by four is two.

8.时刻的表示法:0---past---30---to---60 * o’clock

half a hour(半小时);two and a half hours/two hours and a half(两个半小时);a quarter (一刻钟)

㈡序数词(顺序)

⒈基序变化的口诀: *either/neither/both/none

第一二三特殊例,词尾字母 tdd ; th 词尾从四起,ve 要用 f 替;

八减七,九减 e, ty 变为 tie; 要是碰到几十几,只变个位就可以。

(the +序数词,a(n)+序数词―又、再‖)如: a third man

⒉注意 Room 201, 1949, May 23(May the twenty-third), 9:15 的读法。

*what month/ what’s the date?/ what day.

情态动词

1。主要词义:can (能、会、可以) ,may(可以) ,must (必须、应该) ,need(需要、不必) , have to(必须、不得不)

2。推测意义:can 用于否定句或疑问句―可能、不可能‖ ,may 用于肯定句或否定句,―可能、也许‖ ,must用于肯定句,―一定是‖。

3。对含有情态动词问句肯定或否定答语:

can(肯:can,否:can’t.); may(肯:may,否:mustn’t/mayn’t); must(肯:must,否:needn’t/don’t have to)

4.情态动词和一些固定短语相互转换:

can----be able to; must----have to; needn’t----don’t have to

介词:是一种虚词,不能单独作句子成分,必须与名词或代词(或相当于名词的其它词类)构成介词短语,才能在句子中充当一个成分。

1。与名词搭配。如:at midnight/at the head of. 2.与形容词搭配。如:be afraid of / be pround of 3.与动词搭配。如:laugh at / agree with. 4.与其他搭配。如:instead of / from now on.

1.表示时间的介词:

*in +一段时间―将来‖/after+一段时间―过去‖

*for +一段时间―多久‖(过去/现在/将来) since―自-----起‖(完成时 )

by―到-----为止‖(过去完成时) during―在-----期间‖

2。表示工具、手段、方法的介词:

*by ―以----方式/方法/手段‖ with ―以----具体的工具/手段‖

in―以----方式/用----语言‖ through―通过----径‖

3。表示地点、位臵的介词:

*at―在 ---- 附近/旁边‖ in ―在---- 范围内‖ on ―在(线、面)附近‖

to―在---- 范围之外‖

*above ―在 ---- 上方‖-反-below over ―在 ----正上方‖-反-under

on与之接触。

4。before―在 ---- 前面(接触)‖ in front of―在---- (外部)的前面‖

in the front of―在 ---- 前面部‖

二)动词句法功能、时态、语态

动词的句法功能:

㈠人称:与主语在人称上一致。

I am writing. You are writing.

㈡数:与主语在数上一致。

He writes well. They write well.

㈢时态:表示动作发生的时间。

I wrote a letter yesterday. I will write a letter tonight.

㈣语态:表示主语是做这动作的人或物还是承受动作的人或物。

The book was written by LuXun. LuXun wrote the book.

㈤语气:表示说话人认为这句话是事实,是要求做的事,还是假想虚拟的事。

He’s written to me.(陈述事实) Write to me, please. (提出要求)

I wish he would write to me.(表示愿望)

动词时态、语态

㈠时态复习:作谓语的动词用来表示动作发生时间的各种形式。

⒈一般现在时

⑴用法:①经常或习惯性的动作。②真理:The earth moves round the sun.

③在时间或条件状语从句中,一般现在时表示将来。Tell her about that when she comes tomorrow. We’ll go there if it doesn’t rain this afternoon.

⑵结构: ①一般加动词原形 。②主语是第三人称单数时,动词词尾加s.

③be和have有特殊形式。 ④在构成否定/疑问时,要借助助动词do/does.

⑶Key words: every, always, often, usually,sometimes,once a year.

⒉一般过去时

⑴。用法:① 在过去某时发生的动作或存在的状态 。②过去习惯性的动作,常与 often,always 连用。 ③在时间或条件状语人句中,可表示过去将来时。He would ring me up as soon as he arrived.

⑵.结构:①动词的过去式。②动词 be ( was, were)

③构成否定或疑问时,借助助动词 did.

⑶ Key words: last, yesterday, just now, ago, in 2000, at that time.

*―used to +动词原形‖

⒊一般将来时

⑴。用法:① 有表示将来时间的状语,有时没有时间状语,要从意思上判断是否指将来的情况。②在时间或条件状语从句中,不用将来时态 ,而用现在时 。

⑵。结构:① shall ( 第一人称问句中,征求对方意见或询问情况) ②。will ( 问对方是否愿意,表客气的邀请或命令 ) ③。be going to ( 打算、准备做的事,即将发生、肯定要发生的事 )④。go/come/start/move/leave/arrive/stay/move 用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。

⑶。Key words: this evening, next, in a week, tomorrow, before long, tonight, later on ) ⒋一般过去将来时

⑴。用法:从过去的某一时间看来将要发生的动作,常用于宾语从句中。

⑵。结构:①。should ②. would ③was/were going to

⑶.Key words: the next.

⒌现在进行时

⑴。用法:① 此时此刻或现阶段正在进行的动作。② 位移动词 ( go, come, leave, start ) 和终止性动词可用进行时表示将来。We are leaving next week. He is dying.

⑵.结构:be 动词+ V-ing.

⑶.Key words: now, look, listen, this time, at 4:00,between 4:00 and 6:00.

⒍过去进行时

⑴。用法:①在过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。I was reading a book this time yesterday. ②没有时间状语,通过上下文暗示判断。She was having lunch when I arrived. ⑵.结构:was/were + V-ing

⑶.Key words: this time yesterday, at that time,at four last Sunday,

from 6:00 to 9:00 last night.

⒎现在完成时

⑴。用法:①表示过去某一动作对现在产生的影响或结果。 He has read the book. ②表示到现在为止这一时期中的情况。I have walked to work these days. ③ 11个终止性动词:( come, go, open, close, leave, arrive, start, begin, become, join,borrow,lend.) A. 不能与 for, since 等表示一段时间的状语连用。 B。在否定句中可以,因为否定式可表示状态 ,而状态是可延续的。I haven’t heard from her for a long time.

⑵结构:has/have + P.P.

⑶.Key words: already, never, ever, just, before, yet, since ( for ) + 从句,in the past…, ever since, these days,so far, by the end of, how long ( how many times ) 引导的疑问句。

*。have been to 与 have gone to 的区别。

⒏过去完成时

⑴。用法:①表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。②通过上下文暗示。 ⑵。结构:had + 过去分词 ( 表示过去的过去 )

⑶。Key words: by, before + 短语或从句, when.

语态复习

语态

⒈主动语态: 表示主语是动作的执行者。

⒉被动语态 (承受者)

⑴。用法:当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或没必要指出谁是动作的执行者时,或只需强调动作的承受者时。

⑵。结构:①一般现在时的被动语态:be + 过去分词 ②一般过去时的被动语态:was/were + 过去分词 ③一般现在时带情态动词的被动语态:情态动词 + be + 过去分词。

⑶。注意点。

①被动语态的主语。

Ⅰ。介词宾语不能作被动的主语。We can change water into ice.→Water can be changed

into ice.

Ⅱ.不定式的宾语不能作被动的主语。We often hear her sing this song.→She is often heard to sing this song.

Ⅲ.宾语补足语不能作被动的主语。They made Li Ping monitor.→Li Ping was made monitor. Ⅳ.直接宾语(物)作被动的主语时,间接宾语(人)前要加 to 或 for. I gave Joan a knife.→A knife was given to Joan by me.

Ⅴ.地点状语不能作被动的主语。Russian is also taught in our school.

②被动语态的谓语。

Ⅰ。两种语态互换时,谓语动词应按变化后的主语而定。Mr Smith teaches them English.→They are taught English.

Ⅱ.使役动词(make,hear/listen,let,watch,feel,see/look)变被动时,要恢复被省略的 to. His father made him do that work.→He was made to do that work.

③被动语态的短语动词保持完整性。She can take care of the old man.→The old man can be taken care of.

④不及物动词或相当不及物动词的短语不能构成被动。Great changes have taken place in my hometown these days.

⑤that 引导的宾语从句变被动时, it 作形式主语。They say that he is much better.→It is said that he is much better.

(三)非谓语动词

动词不定式

㈠结构:⒈肯定式:to +动词原形 ⒉否定式:not+to+动词原形

㈡用法:

⒈作主语(常用 it 作形式主语)It’s+名词(+for sb)+to do sth和It’s+形容词(for/of sb)+to do sth. *It is not easy to learn a foreign language.

⒉作宾语―意愿/企图‖(want/agree/decide/begin/like/afford/plan/try)。They began to read.

⒊作宾补―命令/忠告‖(tell/ask/want/wish/allow;感官动词和使役动词)。Jim asked me to help him with his lessons.

⒋作后臵定语。I have an important meeting to attend.

⒌作状语(目的状语:come/go/live;原因状语:sorry/glad/surprised/pleased/angry;结果状语:too---to/enough----to)。She went to see her grandma yesterday. ⒍疑问词+动词不定式=名词短语。How to learn English well is a question.

7。had better---/Why not---?/Will (Would) you please---?+不带to的不定式 ㈢注意点

⒈不带 to 的动词不定式(表示动作的全过程)或现在分词(表示动作正在进行)作宾补。(一感二听三让四看。feel, listen to,hear,let,make,have,see,watch,notice,observe)

*感官动词和使役动词在被动语态中,其前要加上to。

⒉可跟不定式又可跟动名词。(一记二忘三遗憾,四试五图六停止。remember,

forget,regret,try,mean,stop)+to (全过程) / +Ving(正在进行)

⒊跟动名词作宾语。(妹不识咖啡 mepscafe, mind/miss,enjoy,practise,suggest,consider,admit/avoid,finish,escape)

动词的- ing形式

finish/enjoy/mind/suggest/give up/keep on/can’t help /practise/feel like/be worth+动词的- ing形式

(四)形容词、副词的比较等级

形容词

㈠形容词:用来修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征。

㈡用法:作定语,作表语和宾语补足语。

㈢比较等级:

⒈构成:

⑴单音节词:①一般加 er/est. ②以 e 结尾的加 r/st. ③辅音+y 去 y 变 i 再加 er/est. ④重读 音节的双写,再加 er/est。

⑵部分双章节词的加more/most. 如:careful, useful, friendly, .

⑶不规则的:good--better--best, bad/ill--worse--worst, many/much--more--most, little--less--least, far--farther--farthest, old--older/elder--oldest/eldest. ⒉基本句型:

⑴原级:①主语+谓语+as +形容词原级+as+从句(省略与主句相同部分)、―和……一样‖ ② not as (so) + 原级 +as

⑵比较级:① A +be +比较级 + than + B. ―一方比另一方更……‖( A 和B在句中的功能一致)

② A +be +比较级 + than any other +单数名词。―比任何人/物都……‖

③A +be +比较级 + than anyone /anything else。 ―比其它任何人/物都……‖ ④ less +原级+than+… ―不如……‖ He is less strong than I.

表示程度的词:much(得多) far(得多) even(更)a little(一点) a bit (一点) any(一点) 来修饰。

⑶最高级:①主语+ be +the +最高级+名词+ in/of/among +短语 ―最……‖

② the very +最高级 = much the +最高级

③one of + the +最高级+复数名词 ―是……最……之一‖

④最高级有时不表示比较,―非常,很‖

This is a most interesting story.

*复合形容词:数词+单数名词+形容词 如:12-year-old.

副词

副词:修饰动词、形容词或其他副词。

㈠。用法:⒈地点:here, there, up, down. ⒉时间: now, yesterday, always, never, sometimes. ⒊方式: badly, carefully, slowly. ⒋程度: much, very, so, quite, enough. ⒌疑问:when, where, who, why.

㈡比较等级:

⒈构成:

⑴单音节词:①一般加 er/est. ②以 e 结尾的加 r/st.

③辅音+y 去 y 变 i 再加 er/est. ④重读闭音节的双写,再加 er/est。

⑵部分双章节词的加more/most. 如:slowly, quickly. .

⑶不规则的:well--better--best, bad--worse--worst, much--more--most, little--less--least, far--farther--farthest.

⒉基本句型:

⑴原级:①主语+谓语+as +原级+as+从句(省略与主句相同部分)、

―和……一样‖

② not as (so) + 原级 +as

⑵比较级:① A +be +比较级 + than + B. ―一方比另一方更……‖( A 和B在句中的功能一致)

② A +be +比较级 + than any other +单数名词。―比任何人/物都……‖

③A +be +比较级 + than anyone /anything else。 ―比其它任何人/物都……‖ ④ less +原级+than+… ―不如……‖ He is less well than I.

表示程度的词:much(得多) far(得多) even(更)a little(一点) a bit (一点) any(一点) 来修饰。

⑶最高级:①主语+ be +the +最高级+名词+ in/of/among +短语 ―最……‖

② the very +最高级 = much the +最高级

③one of + the +最高级+复数名词 ―是……最……之一‖

④在副词的最高级前用不用定冠词都可以,不用时更多一些。

He works hardest of all.

(五)冠词

一.概念:不能单独作句子成份,用于名词之前,用来说明名词所指的事.

二.不定冠词(a/an)

1.泛指某一人/物. a+辅音 如: a useful an+元音 如: an hour/f/h/m/n/r/x

2.a+单数可数名词 数量中的"一"

3.such(what)/quite/rather+形容词+单数名词; so/as/too/how+形容词+单数名词 what a bright girl/such an interesting story/too kind a woman

4.词组:a lot of ; 习惯用语: at breakfast/by bus.

三.定冠词(the)

1.独一无二的.

2.双方都知道的/上文提过的人/物.

3.the+特定的人/物/乐器/序数词/形容词最高级

4.习惯用语:in the morning.

四.不用冠词.

1.三餐/球类

2. 日/月份/四季/星期

3.称呼/头衔

4.所有格/代词+名词

5.连系动词+序数词(表语) He is first. 动词+序数词 He comes first.

形容词性物主代词/所有格+ 序数词 his first day

(七)主谓一致

主谓一致:在英语句中,谓语受主语动支配,必须同主语在人称和数上保持一致。

*名词+as well as/no less than/but/except/with/like +其他名词,作主语时,谓语与前面的第一个名词一致.

*few/a few/both/many/several+名词复数/of+名词复数+复数

*不定代词/疑问代词(something/anything/anywhere/somewhere/where/when)+单数

语法一致原则:句子谓语动词的数取决于该句子主语的数。

1。―the+姓氏名词的复数形式‖(---的成员)+复数 2。all/some/half/enough/two thirds +名词(单/复数)+单/复数 3.复数形式的名词:clothes/trousers/shorts(短裤)/glasses/scissors/gloves/chopsticks等+复数

* 计量单位(pair)+ 复数形式的名词+谓语取决于 计量单位

意义一致原则:谓语动词的单、复数形式,取决于主语所表达的概念。

1.集体名词:people/public(公共)/police/crew(船员)+复数 2。复数形式,单数意义。(news/physics/maths/politics) 3.集合名词:class/family/team/Chinese/Japanese强调总体--单数;强调个体--复数。The class has 45 students. The class are planting trees on the hill.

4.时间、距离、价格、重量的复数名词/算式+单数 Ten days is a long time.

5."the +形容词"―表一类人‖+复数; The rich have much money.

6.and/both--- and + 复数 7。one of/each of/none of/either of/neither of +名词+单数 8.a number(许多) +n +复数;the number (---的数量)+n +单数

9。名词+and+名词―表同一人/物用单数‖―表不同人/物用复数‖

The writer and the speaker are from the USA. The writer and speaker is from the USA. 就近一致原则:谓语动词的数要与它紧邻的名词/代词的数保持一致。

1.or/not--- but/either--- or---/neither--- nor---/not only--- but also--- +就近原则

2.There be+并列主语

(八)句子

句子种类(句子在句中的用 )

㈠陈述句:用来说明事实或说话人的看法。⒈ 肯定式 ⒉否定式(do/does/did)。

㈡疑问句( 提问题)

⒈一般疑问句:用Yes或 No 回答的疑问句。

⒉特殊疑问句:以疑问词(when/where/who/how/why/what)开头的疑问句。

⒊选择疑问句:提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择一种。

结构:一般疑问句 + or + 一般疑问句。(把后一部分里和前一部分相同的成 分省略。) ⒋反意疑问句。

①表示提问者有一定的主见,但没把握,希望对方来证实。

②降调(把握较大),升调(把握不大)

⑴在英语口语中,I am后面的疑问尾句常用aren’t.

I’m late, aren’t I?

⑵在肯定祈使句后面用won’t you 表示邀请。

Sit down, won’t you?

⑶在肯定祈使句后面用will you 表示请求。

Give me a hand, will you?

⑷但在否定祈使句后面用will you?

Don’t forget, will you?

⑸在Let us 后面常用will you?

Let us have a short break, will you?

⑹在Let’s 后面常用shall we?

Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

⑺There be 后面的疑问尾句的用there.

There’s something wrong, isn’t there?

⑻含有nothing 做主语的句子用it 避免重复。

Nothing can stop us, can it?

⑼含有nobody做主语的句子用they来代nobody.

Nobody phoned while I was out, did they?

⑽如果陈述句部分主语是everyone,someone,anyone,no one等不定代词,其附加问句部分的主语可以用he,也可以用they.

Everyone knows it, doesn’t he?/ don’t they?

⑾如果陈述部分含有否定副词如:seldom,hardly,never,few,little等,则其附加部分用肯定形式。

You seldom go there, do you?

⑿回答。若事实是肯定的用Yes, 事实是否定的用No。

He doesn’t speak English, does he?

他不讲英语,是吧?

Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.

不,他讲。 是的,他不讲。

(13) "主句+宾语从句"的反意疑问句中与主句一致.

㈢祈使句:(请求,命令) ⒈肯定式:Come in, please. ⒉否定式:Don’t come in, please. * 祈使句(动词)用原形,一三人称 Let 句型; 第二人称省掉 you, 否定开头用Don’t 形;若要客气表请求,please 前后均可行。

㈣感叹句(用来表达强烈的感情。)⒈ How + 形容词/副词 + 主语 + 谓语 (状语)⒉ What + 名词词组 + 主语 +谓语(定语)

句子成份(组成句子的各个部分)

㈠。主语:什么人或什么事情。(名词、代词、相当于名词的词或短语)

㈡。谓语:做什么,是什么,怎么样(动词)

㈢。表语:说明主语是什么或怎么样和连系动词一起构成谓语。(名词、形容词、相当名词或形容词的词或短语。)

㈣宾语:表示动作、行为的对象和及物动词一起说明主语做什么。(名词、代词、相当名词的词或短语)

㈤宾语补足语:帮助补充说明宾语。(名词、形容词、动词不定式)We must keep the room clean. ㈥定语:用来修饰名词或代词。(形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、相当形容词的词或短语)

㈦状语:用来修饰动词、形容词或副词,表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度。(副词、介词短语、相当副词的词或短语)

句子类型

㈠简单句的五种基本句型。(由一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语构成的句子。) ⒈ S + V ⒉ S+V+P ⒊S+V+O ⒋ S+V+IO+DO ⒌S+V+O+C

㈡并列句:由并列连词( and, so, but, or ) 把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起而构成的句子。

联合并列句:and(和、并且) ,not only----but also---(不但----而且----)

转折并列句:but (但是) ,however(然而) ,yet (但是) ,while(而,然而)

选择并列句:or(或者,否则,要不然) ,either---or---(或者----或者---) ,neither---nor---(既不--- 又 不----)

因果并列句:for(因为) ,so (所以) .

㈢复合句:由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子。

⒈宾语从句:在复合句中作主句的宾语。

*。宾语从句的五要点:①确定连词 ②注意词序 ③调整时态 ④留心否定 ⑤句未标点 ⑴。结构:主句+引导词+宾语从句

⑵。标点符号:①主句是陈述式用句号。②主句是疑问式用问号。

⑶。引导词:①从句是陈述句用that. ②从句是特殊疑问句用疑问词。③从句是一般疑问句用 if/whether。

⑷。语序:从句一律采用陈述式。

⑸。从句的谓语动词受主句的谓语动词制约。

主句 从句

现在时态 根据实际需要

过去时态 原来时态 应改时态

一般将来 过去将来

一般现在 一般过去

一般过去 过去完成

现在进行 过去进行

现在完成 过去完成

⑹。特殊情况。

①从句中有特定的某一过去时间状语,不管主句用什么时态,从句仍用一般过去时。 She told me that she was born in 2000.

②从句是一个真理,不管主句用什么时态,从句仍用一般现在时。 The teacher told me that light travels much faster than sound.

③主句的谓语动词是 think, believe, feel 等,从句中否定移到主句来。

I don’t believe that he will come tomorrow.

④转述他人话时,注意人称的变换。

He says,"I am a boy." ---He says that he is a boy.

⑤主句的谓语动词是 find, make, think 等带复合宾语,用―及物动词+it+宾补+宾语从句‖。I think it necessary that we’ll have a meeting tomorrow.

⒉状语从句(意思)

⑴时间状语从句(when, before, after,while,as,since,until,as soon as) ⑵原因状语从句(as,since,because) ⑶比较状语从句(than,as,as---as,not so----as)⑷条件状语从句(if, unless) ⑸地点状语从句(where) ⑹目的状语从句( so that ) ⑺结果状语从句(so/such----that) ⑻让步状语从句(although,though,even though,no matter what/how/when)

3.定语从句

⑴概念:从句作定语.

⑵先行词: that(人/物) which(物) who/whom(人)

㈦构词法:

㈠合成法是把两个或两个以上的词按照一定的次序排列构成新词的方法。如:classroom, something, reading-room.

㈡派生法是指将粘着词素附到自由词素上构成新词。前缀/后缀。如:worker, quickly, unhappy.

㈢转化法:英语中常出现一词多性或多义现象。

⒈名词→形容词 。 help-helpful, care-careful, sun-sunny,snow-snowy.

⒉动词→名词 . run-runner, win-winner.

⒊形容词→副词. easy-easily.

⑴ 以 l 结尾+ ly。如: final -finally ⑵辅音字母 +e +ly 。如:wide- widely

⑶以 le 结尾,去e +ly 。如:terrible -terribly ⑷元音字母+e 结尾,去 e +ly。如:true- truly

⑸以y结尾:①y读[I],去 y为 i +ly。如: busy -busily。②y读[ai]+ly 。如:dry -

dryly。

注:⒈有的单词以 ly 结尾,却不是副词。如: friendly。

⒉有的形容词、副词的词形不变。如:early, late, much, right, straight, fast.

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