班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
Let’s cut up the water melon. 让我们切开这个西瓜吧。 11. make a toast 敬酒 12. set n. 一套 v. 设置
13. can’t stop doing 忍不住做某事 I can’t stop laughing. 我忍不住笑 Unit12 You are supposed to shake hands.
Shake, custom,, bow, kiss, relaxed, towards, greet, rude, point, manner, fork, full, unfamiliar, chatline, online,type, mostly, form, mark, e-mail, experiment, proper, queue, normally 重点短语：
make (a) noise, after all, drop by, shake hands, go out of one’s way to do sth., make sb feel at home, table manners, learn...by oneself 重点句型：
1. be supposed to do .应该
We are supposed to stop smoking. 我们应该停止吸烟。 表示应该的词还有：should, ought to 2. shake hands 握手
3.. be relaxed about sth. 对某事随意、不严格 They are relaxed about the time. 他们对时间很随意。 4. pretty adv. 相当,很＝very She is pretty friendly. 她相当友好。 adj. 美丽的 （专指女性） handsome(男性) She is a pretty girl.她是一个美丽的女孩。 5. drop by 访问, 看望, 拜访, 串门
We just dropped by our friends’ homes.我们刚刚去朋友家串门。 6.after all 毕竟, 终究
You see I was right after all.你看，毕竟还是我对了。 7. point at 指向 point at...with...用??指向?? 8. stick v. 剌, 截 n. 棒，棍
chopstick 筷子 是由chop(砍)＋stick(棒)合成，通常用复数形式：chopsticks 9. go out of one’s way to do 特意，专门做某事
He went out of his way to make me happy. 他特意使我高兴。 10. cut up 切开, 切碎
14. make faces 做鬼脸 15.face to face 面对面 16. learn…by oneself 自学
I learn English by my self. 我自学英语。
17.If you’re even fifteen minutes late, your friend may get angry. 18.He greeted Paul’s mother thr wrong way. Good morning is a common greeting. 19.Everything was unfamiliar.
Unfamiliar, A be familiar to B.= B be familiar to A，A熟悉B His name is familiar to us. We are familaiar with his name.
Similar,相似的 be similar to 和??相似 Your bike is similar to mine. 20. And I had not just one set to use. A set of rulers.
21.You are supposed to type quickly... type n & v n (=kind), v 用打字机打字 22.E-mail English mostly uses two types of words. mostly=mainly主要地，多半，基本上
The remaining population is mostly children and old people.
Unit 13 Rainy days make me sad.
scientific, pink, serve, fair, endangered, shiny, product, beauty, advertising, specifically, truth, confusing, misleading, tenth, home-made, purse, purple, guilty, taste, saying, thought, count, lighting, therefore, silky
aim at, pros and cons, for instance, at times, to start with, heavy traffic 重点句型：
1. I’d rather go to the Blue Lagoon Restaurant... 我宁愿去Blue Lagoon餐厅，?? would rather宁愿干??，表示句子主语的愿望、选择，后接省去to的不定式。 He’d rather join you in the English Group. 他宁愿加入到你的英语小组中来。 Which would you rather have, bread or rice? 面包和米饭，你更喜欢哪一个？ would rather do1 than do2 = prefer to do1 rather than do2 宁愿（可）??也不愿??
The brave soldier would rather die than give in.那个勇敢的士兵宁死不屈。 He’d rather work than play. 他宁愿工作也不愿玩。 They preferred to die of hunger rather than take his bread. 他们宁愿饿死也不愿接受他的面包。
2. Loud music makes me happy. 嘈杂的音乐使我很开心。
Loud music always makes me want to dance. 嘈杂的音乐总是使我想去跳舞。
这两句是动词make的使役用法，make me后分别接了形容词和不定式短语。make的这种用法常见于以下结构： make+宾语+省略to的动词不定式
My parents often make me do some other homework. 我父母常让我做些其他的作业。 特别提示
She was made to work for the night shift. 她不得不上夜班。 make+宾语+-ed分词短语
What made them so frightened? 什么使他们这样害怕？
Can you make yourself understood in English?你能用英语把意思表达清楚吗？ make+宾语+介词短语或名词短语
She made him her assistant. 她委派他做自己的助手。
Sit down and make yourselves at home, everyone.大家请坐，不要拘束。 make+宾语+形容词（短语）。
The good news made us happy. 这条好消息使我们很高兴。 类似的结构有：
keep+宾语+形容词（短语）， get+宾语+形容词（短语） find+宾语+形容词（短语）， think+宾语+形容词（短语） 3....small restaurants can serve many people every day. ??小饭店每天就可以多接待些顾客。
serve vt 服侍，侍候，招待，常用于以下结构中： serve+宾语
They were busy serving the day’s last buyers.他们正忙着接待这天的最后一批顾客。 Nobody can serve two masters. 一人不能侍奉二主。 serve sb sth, 或serve sth to sb
Mrs Turner served us a very good dinner.=Mrs Turner served a very good dinner to us. 特纳太太招待我们吃了一顿丰盛的晚餐。 serve sb with sth
We served them with beer and wine. 我们用啤酒和红酒招待他们。 注意：serve for sb （错） serve tea/a dish上茶/菜 4. However, some advertising can be confusing or misleading. 可是，一些广告可能会混淆黑白或误导消费。
They can be some confusing or misleading advertisements. 它们可能是一些混淆黑白或误导消费的广告。
What he said made us confusing.他说的话令我们感到困惑。 5. At times an ad can lead you to buy something you don’t need at all. 有时，一则广告会诱导你去买你根本就不需要的东西。
at times=sometimes有时，不时。两者在句中的位置较灵活，可位于句首，句中或句末。 At times I make mistakes when I speak English. 我说英语时有时会出错。
They went to town at times during the cold winter.在寒冷的冬天，他们有时候进城去。 Sometimes they walk to school. 有时候，他们步行上学。
He sometimes plays football with his friends. 他有时和朋友一起踢足球。
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
6. To start with, it was raining, and rainy days make me sad. 起初，天在下雨，雨天使我心情很不好。
to start with首先，在句中常常以插入语的形式出现。 To start with, the computer room must be kept very clean. 首先，计算机工作室必须保持清洁。
Our group had five members, to start with.刚开始，我们小组只有五个人。
start with=begin with从??开始；先从某事做起。反义词组是end with“以??结束”。He started/began with the aim of injuring others only to end up by ruining himself.他本想损害别人，结果只害了自己。
The meeting ended with a speech given by the chairman.会议以主席的讲话结束。 He wanted to start/begin with the smallest country and end with the largest one. 他打算先去最小的国家，最后去最大的国家。 start... with=begin... with用??开始?? Usually we start/begin sentences with big letters. He started/began his party with a song.
7. I prefer to receive a gift... 我宁愿接受一件??礼物。 prefer表示选择时，可用两种句型。 （1）prefer+宾语1+to+宾语2。
They preferred to blue.与蓝色相比，他们更喜欢红色。
I preferred doing something to doing nothing.我喜欢做点什么，而不喜欢闲着。 （2）prefer+to do+rather than+do
He preferred to walk there rather than go by bus.他喜欢走着去那儿，不喜欢乘公共汽车。She prefers to read rather than sit idle.她喜欢读书而不愿闲坐着。 （3）prefer+名词+rather than+名词 I prefer English rather than Chinese.
8.yes and no是也不是，yes or no是还是不是
9.Restaurant owners have to know how to make food, ...how to make money. 10.Here are some things they’ve learned from scientific studies.
11.Many fast food restaurants,therefore, have red furniture or walls. therefore adv, so conj因此，所以
The new trains have more powerful engines and are__________faster. =The new trainshave more powerful engines, ______they are faster.
12.Hard seats also make customers want to leave quickly. seat n座位
vt(seated, seated)使坐下，使就坐 He seated us in the front row. She seated herself in a chair. 13.They don’t even keep out the sun. keep out把??保持在外面，使??不进入 Close the door to keep out the wind.
keep... out of... 把??保持在??外面，使??不进入?? Close the door to keep the wind out of the classroom. keep off（使）不踩（说、谈），使避开 Keep off the grass勿踏草坪！
Keep the ship off the shore不要让船靠岸。 14.In the modern world, advertising is everywhere! advertise vt 做广告
Many movie stars advertise the products. advertisement（=ad.） n 广告
We can see all kinds if advertisements everywhere because all products need advertising. advertising n 广告业
Advertising is more and more popular. 15.This picture makes me feel tense. tense=nervous=stressed (out)
16.early morning 凌晨，,mid morning上午的中间时分,late morning 上午的晚些时分17.to be honest=to tell the truth. 18. This made me feel guilty.
Unit 14 Have you packed yet?
wood, light, anyway, hit, appear, lead, poem, root, overseas, govenment, step, southern, villager, purpose, strongly 重点短语：
get back to sb, lead singer, clean out, be off, so far, thanks to, look forward 重点句型：
1. Sorry I couldn’t get back to you sooner. 很抱歉我没能尽快给你回复。
这是在E-mail message回复中的常用语,句中“get back to sb”的意思是“以后再答复”。 I can’t give you a definite answer now but I’ll get back to you about it soon. 我现在不能给你一个明确的回答，但我很快会给你答复的。 get back to sp.
2. In the past twelve months, they’ve had three major concerts and made a hit CD. 在过去的十二个月里，他们举办了三场较大的音乐会，出版了一张很受欢迎的CD唱片。
（1）“in the past+时间段”常用于完成时的句子中，表示“在过去的??时间里”，past是形容词，可以用last来替换，而past/last的后面通常要使用“数字+名词”的结构。 In the past/last two years, she has studied English very hard. 在过去的两年里，她一直在努力地学英语。
（2）短语make a hit表示“大获成功”、“（演出等）大受欢迎；受到赞扬”等，hit是名词，表示成功而风行一时的事物，如电影，歌曲，演出等。
Zhou Jielun has just made a hit CD. 周杰伦刚出版了一盘轰动一时的CD。 His song was a great hit. 他的歌曲轰动一时。
He made a great hit in teaching. 他曾在教学上获得了巨大的成功。
3. And then they’re going to go on a world tour in which they will perform in ten different cities. 然后，他们将去世界各地旅行并在十个城市巡回演出。
...in which they will perform in ten different cities是定语从句，先行词是tour。 perform vt &vi表演
The magician performed wonderful tricks. 魔术师表演了精彩的魔术。 He performs perfectly on the piano. 他的钢琴演奏太棒了。
4. Be sure not to miss them if they come to a city near you — if you can get tickets, that is. 如果他们来到你附近的城市，千万不要错过——当然，如果你能弄到票的话。 that is确切地；换句话说；也就是，用来表达一个准确的说法，即对前面的内容加以准确地说明。
She’s a housewife — when she’s not teaching English, that is. 她是个家庭主妇——是指她不教英语的时候。
miss vt错过，后接名词、代词或v-ing形式，不可接不定式。 They missed the train by two minutes. 他们差两分钟没赶上火车。
I came late and missed seeing the beginning of the movie. 我来晚了，没有看见电影的开始部分。 miss vt思念，想念 I”ll miss you forever vi丢失、失去，lose vt I lost my pen=My pen is missing
5. ...but we really hope to have a number one hit some day.
some day= someday, 将来某一日,与one day是近义词。some day/someday只表示将来，不表示过去。而one day用在过去时的句子里是“有一天”的意思，用在将来时的句子里是“将有一天”，与some day/someday可互换。 He will be a scientist some day.总有一天他会成为科学家。 I hope to see you one day/someday.我希望有一天会看到你。
One day last summer they made a trip to the country.去年夏天某日他们到乡间旅行。 试译：你一定要有一天来看我。 You must come one day to see me. You must come some day to see me. You must come to see me someday. 他有一天来看了我。
误：He came some day to see me., 正：He came one day to see me. 6. ...as a part of the“In Search of Roots” summer camp program.
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
in search for是固定短语,for 后面的名词同样必须是“寻找的目标”，不是“搜寻的对象”。search前常出现a 或one’s等词对search加以限定或修饰，这个短语也常作目的状语。
The soldiers were sent in a search for the missing aircraft.士兵们被派去搜寻失踪的飞机。 到现在为止有多少旅客到过迪斯尼乐园？ So far, we haven’t got any news from them. 到目前为止，我们还没有得到他们的任何消息。
8. Most, like Robert, can hardly speak any Chinese, and have never been to China before. 像罗伯特一样，大多数人几乎都不会说中文，而且以前从来没有到过中国。 hardly是一个否定副词，表示“几乎不，简直不”，相当于almost not，含有否定的意义。切莫将hardly误认为是由hard+ly构成的副词。此外，hardly 位于句首时，要用So far, they have been unlucky in their search for gold and have no money at all. 到现在为止，他们寻找金子的运气一直不好，而且他们身上也没钱了。 知识拓展 search的基本用法 （1）search的动词用法。 search vt 搜查，
He even searched my home without any reason.他甚至毫无理由地搜查了我的家。 I’ve searched my memory, but can’t remember that man’s name. 我苦思良久，仍然记不起那人的名字。
They searched every part of the building. 他们对全楼进行了搜查。
search vi search for/after vt，搜寻，寻找,两者可以通用，只不过search for 更常见些。For a whole day they searched for/after the lost child.他们找了一天这个丢失的孩子。 7. ...and so far has brought thousands of overseas Chinese students... ??到目前为止，它带来了成千上万的海外华裔学生??
so far 到目前为止，常用于完成时，表示动作从过去开始一直延续到现在，强调到目前为止的情况,可位于句首，也可位于句末。 so far 反义结构： from now on 而 from now, for now.是？ overseas adj 只作定语，adv=abroad They found it difficult to live abroad/overseas So far, no man has traveled farther than the moon. 到现在为止，还没有人到过比月球更远的地方。 How many travelers have been to Disneyland so far?
I hardly know what to say. 我简直不知道说什么好。
Hardly can I move this heavy desk. 我简直移不动这张重桌子。 —Can you catch what I said? 你能听懂我说的话吗？ —Sorry, I can hardly understand it. 对不起，我几乎听不懂。
（2）have been后面接to表示某人“去过某地，现在已经回来了”，可用于各种人称。Have you ever been to Shanghai? 你曾经去过上海吗？ He has been to America twice. 他到美国去过两次。 have gone to与have been in的用法
have gone 表示某人“去某地了”，不论是在途中还是到了目的地，重点是强调这个人已经不在说话人所在的地方了，常用于第三人称；have been in，则表示一直“呆在某个地方”，常与表示一段时间状语连用。 Henry has gone to London.亨利到伦敦去了。
They have been in Beijing for two weeks. 他们在北京已经有两个星期了。 10. Thanks to In Search of Roots... 多亏“寻根”?? thanks, thanks to与thanks for的用法
thanks是名词thank的复数形式，意为“感谢”。表示“感谢”之意，可以说： Thanks a lot.， Many thanks.， A thousand thanks. Thanks to=with the help of 多亏
=because of 由于 在句中作原因状语。
Thanks to the old man, we found the lost child at last. 多亏那个老人，我们最后找到了失踪的孩子。
Thanks for sending me such a nice present.谢谢你寄来这么好的礼品。 A thousand thanks for your help.非常感谢你的帮助。 11.Not yet.
12.Have you been on TV yet?
13.We’ve had a few songs in the top ten. 14.Good luck to the Nw Ocean Waves! good luck to sb.祝某人好运！ 15.Have you said goodbye to Grandma?
say goodbye to sb.， say hello to sb.， say sorry to sb. 16. The telephone is busy.电话忙 17.One more thing.还有一件事。 once more=again 再一次，又一次
18.During the two-week camp=During the two weeks’ camp.
19….and so far has brought thousands of overseas Chinese students to China to look for their families’ roots
Unit 15 We’are trying to save the manatees!
enormous, playful, gray, feed (n), weigh, tiny, pound, suitable, expression, recycle, roof, planet, spare, model, business, plastic, national flag 句型：
1. In 1972, it was discovered that they are endangered. 1972年，人们发现它们已经濒于灭绝。
was discovered是一般过去时的被动语态，discover发现，近义词为find和invent。discover, invent与find
Coal was first discovered and used in China.中国首先发现并使用了煤。 Columbus discovered America on the 12th of October, 1492. 1492年10月12日，哥伦布发现了美洲。 invent发明，即创造出以前从未存在过的东西。 Edison invented the electric lamp.爱迪生发明了电灯。
Radio had just been invented then.那时无线电刚刚发明出来。
Today, corn is found all over the world. 今天，全世界都有了玉米。 She found him a very good pupil.她发现他是个非常好的学生。 2. Some of the swamps have become polluted. 一些沼泽地受到了污染。
have become polluted 中的become是连系动词，polluted是过去分词。这种“系动词+过去分词”结构，意思上也接近被动语态。
The slodier got wounded(接近were wounded)in the battle. 这几名战士在这场战斗中受了伤。
A few minutes later, the ground became/was covered with snow.几分钟后地上尽是雪。 3. They provide homes for many endangered animals... 他们为许多濒临灭绝的动物提供家园?? provide vt提供，供给。
provide sb with sth=provide sth for sb
The school provides us with all the materials we need.学校提供我们所需要的一切资料。 We are provided with everything we need for work.我们被提供了工作所需要的一切。 The school provides all the books we need for us.学校为我们提供我们需要的书籍。 provide for供养
He has a large family to provide for. 他要养活一个大家庭。 4. ...and help to educate the public about caring for them. ??并且帮助教育公众关爱它们。
care for喜欢，关心，后接名词或v-ing形式作宾语，take care of也有这个意思。 In our class, we care for each other. 在我们班上，我们相互关心。 Maria takes good care of everybody. 玛丽亚很关心大家。
care for还可以表示“照顾”，“照料”，相当于take care of或look after。 At night he fed and cared for the cattle. 夜里他照料牲口，给牲口喂食。 You must care for yourselves.=You must look after yourselves.你们要照顾好自己。 The children are well cared for in the nurseries.=The children are taken good care of in the nurseries.孩子们在托儿所受到很好的照顾。
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
5. You have probably never heard of Amy Winterbourne. 你可能从来没有听说过Amy Winterbourne。 hear, hear from, hear of与hear that clause：
（1）hear单独使用表示“听见”，“听到”，常用的结构有： hear sb/sth“听到某人或某物的声音”。
I can’t hear you at all. 我根本就听不到你的声音。 Haven’t you heard anything? 难道你没有听到什么声音？ hear sb do sth“听到某人做某事”。
I often hear Li Ping read English in the morning.我经常在早晨听到李平读英语。 hear sb doing sth“听到某人正在做某事”。
I heard him singing in the next room.我听见他正在隔壁房间里唱歌。 （2）hear from意为“收到??的信”；“得到??消息”。
How often do you hear from your father? 你每隔多久收到你父亲的信？ Have you still not heard from him? 你还没有收到他的信吗？ I haven’t heard from him since he telephoned. 自从他打电话以来，我一直没有他的消息。
hear from的宾语是表示人的名词或代词，而不是表示信件的名词。 纠错：我们好几个星期未收到他的信了。 误：We haven’t heard from his letter for weeks. 正：We haven’t heard from him for weeks. 正：We haven’t got a letter from him for weeks. （3）hear of听说，
I’ve never heard of that before.我以前从未听说过那件事。
She disappeared and was never heard of again. 她不知去向了，再未听到她的消息。（4）hear接从句，是“听说”的意思。
One day, the Smiths heard that there was a good doctor in a town not far away. 一天，史密斯一家听说不远的镇里有一位好医生。
I hear that one of the pandas has a baby.我听说其中一只熊猫生了个熊猫宝宝。
6. She is a most unusual woman. 她是一个十分不寻常的女性。 a most, the most与most的用法
（1）a most的用法。在“a most+形容词+名词”结构中，most是副词，意为“很，非常”，相当于very,用来修饰它后面的形容词，本句就是这一用法。 Guilin is a most beautiful city.桂林是座非常美丽的城市。 This is a most interesting story.这是一个非常有趣的故事。 （2）the most 的用法
在“the most+形容词+名词”结构中,most 是副词，表示程度，意为“最”，与其后的形容词一起构成形容词的最高级。
He is one of the most famous writers in China. 他是中国最著名的作家之一。 This is the most difficult (one) of the three. 这是这三者中最难的。
在“动词+the most”结构中，most 也是副词，其作用和意思是“最”其位置通常在动词后。
They like English the most. 他们最喜欢英语。 （3）most 通常有三种用法
在“most+副词或形容词”结构中，most 是副词，意为“很，非常，十分”。 I shall most certainly go there. 我十分肯定会到那里去。
在“most+名词”结构中，most 是形容词，意为“大部分的，大多数”或“最多的”。 Most students like English. 大多数学生喜欢英语。 Who has (the) most books among you?你们中谁的书最多？ 7. The walls are made from old glass bottles that are glued together. 墙是由旧玻璃瓶粘在一起建成的。
be made from/of意为“由??（原料）制成”，后面一般接物质名词。接from则表示某物品制成后，已看不出原材料是什么，原材料在制作过程中已起了化学变化；接of表示某物品制成后，仍可看得出原材料，其原料在制作过程中仅起了物理变化。 Nylon is made from air, coal and water.尼龙是由空气，煤和水加工制成的。 Wine is made from grapes. 葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。 The desk is made of wood. 这桌子是由木头做的。 The shoes are made of cloth.这鞋子是用布做的。
be made up of表示某物或某组织由一种种成分或一个个成员组成。
The world is made up of matter.世界是由物质构成的。 A TV set is made up of hundreds of different parts. 电视机是由数百个不同的零件组装成的。
be made into意为“把??做成??”，主语在意义上为原材料，介词宾语在意义上为制成品。
Bamboo is also made into paper.竹子也可以用来造纸。
be made in意思是“在??（地点）制造”，介词in后接产地。 This kind of computer is made in the USA．这种电脑是美国制造的。 This printing machine was made in Beijing.这台印刷机是北京生产的。 be made by意思是“由??制造”，介词by后跟动作的执行者。
This model ship is made by Uncle Wang. 这个轮船模型是由王叔叔制作的。 8. Amy recently won an award from the Help Save Our Planet Society. 艾米最近获得了“救助地球”协会的奖励。
Have you heard from Michael recently?你最近接到迈克尔的来信吗？ Recently he has made quite a few mistakes. 最近他出了不少错。
（2）won an award中award是 “奖”的意思，相关词语有prize，reward和scholarship，这几个词都与“奖”有关。 （3）win与beat的用法
We won the match months ago. 几个月前，我们赢得那场比赛。 Which side won the battle? 这一战谁打胜了？
But still we weren’t sure we could beat them.但是我们还不能肯定我们能打赢他们。 Dick beat John and won the game. 狄克打败了约翰，赢得了比赛。 9.Reason why they are endangered. reason n 原因，理由
the reason to do sth.=rhe reason for doing sth.干??的原因。 There is a reason to believe that he is dishonest.有理由相信他不诚实。
Give me your reasons for doing it.
告诉我你做那件事的理由。 reason 做先行词时，关系词用why. 10.---How big are manatees?
---They are about 140 feet long, and they weigh about 1,000 pounds. How big问体积、面积的大小。 A:How big is your room? B:About 30 m2. China is a large country.
This box weighs 1000 pounds=The weight of this box is 1000 pounds. weigh oneself称体重, lose one’s weight 减肥
11.I’m writing to say that I am against building a zoo in our town. against prep 反对，反义词for prep 赞成
12.I urge all of your readers to visit our wonderful zoo soon. urge vt 极力主张，强烈要求urge sb to do sth. The shopkeeper urged me to buy this hat. 13.She built herself out of trash. herself反身代词的用法：
①.作同位语：I ask Tom himself this question. ②.做宾语 You should ask yourself. ③.固定结构中:(all) by oneself, for onself out of =of/with 用??制成
14.It’s not suitable for this hot weather. suitable adj合适的，适当的，适宜的 be suitable for适合??
Do you have a suitable book for a young child? Is he suitable for the job? 15.There aren’t many of them left. left adj剩余的，剩下的（后置定语） There are only five minutes left.
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
主语 + 谓语(及物动词) + 宾语;I hate grammar. 主语 + 谓语(不及物动词); Grammar sucks. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语 Grammar is hell.
Therefore, we read the sentence, no matter how long sentence, whether a compound or a complex sentence, must first distinguish the subject of a sentence, the predicate ( or a ), some sentences are also included in the object. Because the subject, object, predicate in English sentence trunk, captures the sentence trunk, basic sentence meaning clear. 2、并列句：并列句就是两个或以上的简单句，由表示并列关系的连词或标点符号连接而成。常见的连词：and, not only...but also, neither...nor... or, either...or... otherwise，but, yet, while, so, for等。阅读中遇到并列关系的句子，一般情况下是以连词为界限，将句子分成前、后几个部分，并分别来分析，各句的意思一般可以单独理解，最后将各句合并即可。
I hate grammar, / while he loves it. (以while为界，可分为前后两个小句子)
The sad thing is that the ugly man with a lot of money chooses living alone. (表语) What the ugly man chooses is living alone.(主语) We all know that the ugly man chooses living alone.(宾语)
The thing that the ugly man with a lot of money chooses living alone was known to everyone. (同位语)
The ugly man who has a lot of money chooses living alone.(定语) Although the ugly man has a lot of money, he chooses living alone.(状语)
One of the results of the conflict between the two factions was 【that [ what in previous years had been referred to as the "American", "native", or, occasionally, "New York" school (---the most representative school of American art in any genre--- ) 主语从句] ( had by 1890) was firmly established in the minds of critics and public alike as the Hudson River school. 表语从句】首先找到句子主干成分："One of the results was..."很明显的主系表结构，that 引导的显然是个表语从句，表语从句中又有一个由What引导的主语从句，主干结构是"...was firmly established." 最后再加上修饰成分，句子就很容易分析了，也可以轻而易举的翻译并理解了：两个派别斗争的结果之一是：直到1890年，这个曾经被称作"美国的"、"本土的"、或者偶尔被称作是"纽约的"美国艺术题材中最有代表性的学派，以哈德逊河学派命名被稳固的建立在批评家和公众的思想之中了。
一、不定式：动词不定式是动词的一种非谓语形式，没有人称和数的变化，不能单独作句子的谓语。其构成形式为“to 动词原形”，to为动词不定式的符号，本身无意义。动词不定式具有两大特点：1.具有动词的特点，因此，后面可以跟表语、宾语或状语，构成动词不定式短语。2.具有名词、形容词或副词的特点，可以在句子中用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、表语及同位语等。 一、动词不定式作主语
1. It's our duty _________ the room every day. A. to clean B. cleaned C. clean D. cleans(甘肃省)
2. It's hard for us _____ English well.A. learn B. learns C. to learn D. learning(江西省) 3. It's very nice _____you to get me two tickets _________ the World Cup. A. for， of B. of， for C. to， for D. of， to(安徽省) keys: 1.A 2.C 3.D
1. He wants ___ some vegetables.A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys (山西省) 2. Don't forget ______ your homework with you when you come to school. A. to bring B. bringing C. to take D. taking (福建省)
3. He found it very difficult ___A. sleeping B. sleepsC. slept D. to fall asleep (湖南省) Keys： 1. C 2. A 3. D 三、动词不定式作宾语补足语
1. Robert often asks us ______ his Chinese, so his Chinese is much better than before. A. help him B. to help him with C. to help with D. helps him with (江苏省) 2. Mr Li often teaches his Japanese friends ______ Chinese food. A. cook B. cooks C. to cook D. cooked (甘肃省)Key： 1. B 2. C 四、动词不定式作状语
1. She went ______ her teacher.A. to see B. looks C. saw D. seeing (江西省) 2. Meimei likes English very much. She does her best ______ English well.
A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learns (四川省) 3. I'm sorry ______ that.A. hears B.
hearing C. hear D. to hear (河北省)
4. I'm sorry ______ you.A. trouble B. to trouble C. troubling D. troubled (吉林省) 5. My mother was very glad ___her old friend.A. to meet B. meet C. met D. meets Keys：1. A 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. A
［简析］＂be 形容词 to do sth＂结构中的不定式作状语，常表示原因或方式。 6. The panda is so fat that it can't go through the hole.(改为意思相同的句子) The hole ______ ______ ______ ______ such a fat panda to go through. (广东省) 7. The ice on the lake was so thin that people couldn't skate on it. (改为意思相同的句子) The ice on the lake wasn't ____ enough __ people ____ ______ ____. (广东省) Keys： 6. is， too， small， for 7. thick， for， to， skate， on 五、动词不定式作定语
1. Would you like something ____?A. drink B. drinking C. to drink D. drinks (湖北省) 2. I have a lot of homework ______.A. do B. doing C. did D. to do (河南省)
3. He is not an easy man ______.A. get on B. to get on C. get on with D. to get on with (山东省) keys:1.C 2.D 3.D
1. We saw him ___the building and go upstairs.A. to enter B. enter C. entering D. entered ( 2. So much work usually makes them __very tired.A. to feel B. feels C. feeling D. feel 3. Your father is sleeping. You'd better ______.
A. not wake up him B. not to wake up himC. not wake him up D. not to wake him up 4. I was made ___ my homework in the afternoon.A. do B. doing C. to do D. did Key： 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C
1. Mr Black asked the man ________ the queue.
A. not to jump B. to not jump C. didn't jump D. not jump (广西壮族自治区)
2. The old man told the child ______ noisy. A. not be B. not to be C. to not be D. be not (湖北省)
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
3. There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have， not to be B. have，not beC. be， not to be D. be， not be (内蒙古自治区) Key： 1. A 2. B 3. C
1. Please stop ____a rest if you feel tired.A. to have B. having C. have D. has (广西) 2. ——Why didn't you buy some bread on your way home?
——Sorry, I forgot ______ some money with me.A. take B. taking C. to take D. took 3. ——Let's have a rest, shall we?——Not now, I can't stop ______ the letters. A. write B. to write C. writing D. and write (湖北省) 4. Jim was badly hurt, so he had to stop ___ (walk).
5. When I was walking in the street I saw a plane ______ over my head. A. flies B. flying C. flew D. to fly (福建省)
6. A woman saw it ______ when she was walking past. A. happen B. happens C. happening D. to happen (黑龙江省) Key：1.A 2.C 3.C 4.wlking 5. B 6. A 九、动词不定式的省略及其符号to的保留
1. Would you like to go to the cinema with us?Yes, ______. What time are we going to meet?A. I would B. I would like C. I like to D. I'd like to (浙江省) 2. Would you like to go for a picnic with us?
______. What time are we going to meet?A. No, I can't B. Yes, I'm glad C. Yes, I'd love to D. I'd like (大连市)Keys： 1. D 2. C 十、动词不定式的被动式和其他形式 The new hospital ______ is near the factory.
A. build B. builds C. to build D. to be built (青海省) Key：D 二、动名词
1.He is an attacking player.他是一个攻击型的运动员。
2.He asked an embarrassing question.他提了一个令人难堪的问题。 3.A little child learning to walk often falls.学走路的小孩常常跌跤。
4.Do you know the number of people coming to the party？你知道来参加晚会的人数吗？
-ing形式做定语通常从以下三方面考查，即： 1)说明被修饰词的性质，特征或用途。如： 1.They set up an operating table in a small temple.
2.He may be in the reading room，for all I know.他说不定在阅览室里。 3.Ladies and gentlemen，please go and wait in the meeting room. 2)与被修饰词为主动关系且表示正在进行的动作。如： 1.There were about 200 children studying in the art school. 2.Who is the woman talking to our English teacher？
1.That must have been a terrifying experience.那准时一段可怕的经历。 2.The experiment was an amazing success.那项试验是一个惊人的成功。 3.There is a page missing from this book.这本书缺了一页。 三．分词
概念: 分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式 现在分词的用法：
）做表语：He was very amusing. That book was rather boring. 2）作定语：上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语, 修饰一个名词：
动词的-ing形式既包括动名词又包括现在分词，在英语中使用极其广泛，因此要 exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.
That must have been a terrifying experience. I found him a charming person. 现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词, 相当于一个定语从句： There are a few boys swimming in the river. There is a car waiting outside. 3) 作状语： 现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作：
Following Tom, we started to climb the mountain. Opening the drawer, he took out a box.
Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door. 现在分词短语还可以表示原因, 相当于一个原因状语从句： Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.
Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Returning home, he began to do his homework. Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis. Be careful when crossing the road. Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner. Having finished her work, she went home. 4)作宾补：
现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语： 例如, see, hear, catch, find, keep , have 等.
I see him passing my house every day. I caught him stealing things in that shop. I smelt something burning.She kept him working all day. 2.过去分词的用法：
1) 作表语：We were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning.
She felt confused, and even frightened.They were very pleased with the girl. I’m satisfied with your answer. He is not interested in research.
2) 作定语：She has a pleased look on her face. The teacher gave us a satisfied smile. cooked food a written report fried eggs boiled water frozen food armed forces required courses fallen leaves
finished products a forced smile the risen sun new arrived visitors What’s the language spoken in that country?They’re problem left over by history. The play put on by the teachers was a big success. Is there anybody injured?
Do you know the number of books ordered? 3)作状语：
Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year. They came in, followed by some children.
Depressed, he went to see his elder sister. When treated with kindness, he was very amiable.
I will have the clothes washed tomorrow.When they get back home, they found the room robbed.
1：The ground is with leave.
A. covered ; falling B. covered ; fallen C. covering ; falling D. covering ; fallen 2：It was stupid your advice.
A. for me to not take B. for me not to take C. of me to not take D. of me not to take 3: ---Did you get your pay ? ---Yes ,I remember .But I forget the exact amount. A. being paid B. to be paid C. paying D. having paid 4: of reading, he put down the book and stopped TV.
A. Tiring ; watching B. Tiring ; to watch C. Tired : to watch D. Tired : watching 5: It is important a beginner the correct pronunciation of a foreign language when he studies it.
A. of ; to teach B. for ; to be taught C. of ; to be taught D. for ; to have taught 6: That Arab said that he had never heard of a pilot.
A. woman’s being B. a woman to be C. a woman’s to be D. a woman being 7: We have not decided there by bus or on foot. A. to get B. getting C. if to get D. whether to get 8: I must apologize for ahead of time. A. not letting you know B. letting you not know C. letting you know not D. letting not you know
9: ---Did you have trouble with your car this morning?---Yes , but I finally managed .
班级_____ 姓名______ 制作人 李述斌
A. to get it start B. get it starting C. to get it started D. getting it started 10: I prefer studying English at home the match.
A. to watching B. rather than watching C. rather than D. to watch
11: I knew he didn’t listen to me , but I went on to get him in the plan. A. to hope; interesting B. to hope; interested C. hoping; interested D. hoping; interesting 12:-I can’t make out whether this figure is a three or an eight.-Perhaps you need .A. examining; (不填) B.to have; examined C.to have; examining D.to be; examining 13. I saw your father under the tree , .
A. seat ; thinking B. seating ; thought C. seated ; think D. seated ; thinking 14: The library needs , but it’ll have until Sunday.
A. to clean; to wait B. to clean; waiting C. cleaning; to wait D. cleaning; waiting 15: many times , they succeeded the experiment.
A.Having tried; in doing B. Trie; in being doneC. Having tried; to do D. Tried; doing 16: “We must keep a secret of the things here”, the general
said at the man in charge of the information office. A.discussed ; stared seriously B.being discussed ；seriously staring
C.to be discussed ；seriously stared D.having been discussed ; and seriously stared 17: He did his best to make himself with his English.
A.understand; spoken B. hear; spoken C. heard; speaking D. understood; spoken 18: My grandpa likes young people basketball.
A. to watch; play B. watching; to play C. watching; playing D. to watch; playing 19: ---Whom should the message be sent to ?---My father is the one . A. to sent it B. to be sent to C. for senting it D. to sent it to 20: I didn’t feel like ,so he suggested an English letter right now. A. reading ; practicing writing B .reading ; to practice to write C. to read ; to practice writing D.to read ; to practice write
21: They know her very well. They had seen her up form childhood.
A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow
. A. sit B. sit on C. be set D. be sat on 23: There was a terrible noise the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 24: ---Good morning. Can I help you ?---I’d like to have this package A. be weight B. to be weight C. to weight D. weight 25: Last summer I took a course on .
A. how to make dress B. how dress be made C. how to be made dress D. how dress to be made
26: The secretary worked late into the night, a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 27: She’s upstairs letters.
A. writes B. is writing C. write D. writing 28: The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself . A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard 29: The murderer was bought in , with his hands behind his back. A. being tied B. having tired C. to be tied D. tired 30: On Saturday afternoon , Mr Green went to the market , Some bananas and visited his cousin. A. bought B. buying C. to buy D. buy 31: Jane was made the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing 32: Mr smith warned her daughter after drinking.
A. never to drive B. never drive C. never driving D. ever drive 33: I can hardly imagine Peter across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed 34: ---Shall we go skating or stay at home ? ---Which do yourself ?
A. do your rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather 35: a replay , he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 36: The salesman scolded the girl caught and let her off. A. to have stolen B. to be stealing C. to steal D. stealing 37: Little Jim should love to the theatre this evening.
A. to be taken C. to take C. being taken D. taking 38: ---I usually go there by train. ---Why not by boat for a change A. to try going B. trying to go
C. to try and go D. try going
39: I would appreciate back this afternoon.
A: you to call B. you call C. your calling D. you’re calling 40: is a good form ofexercise for both young and old. A. The walk B. Walking
C. To walk D. Walk
41: “Can’t you read?” Mary said to the notice.
A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing 42:The computer centre, last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 43: Charles Babbage is generally considered the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented 44: How about the two of us a walk down the garden. A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking
45: down the radio---the baby’s asleep in the next room. A. Turing B. To turn C. Turned D. Turn
46: The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with his talks , That he had enjoyed his stay here.
A. having added B. to add C.adding D. added
47: The first text books for teaching English as a foreign Language came out in the 16th century.
A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 48: She set out soon after dark home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and arrived 49: We agreed here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.
A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 50: ---You were brave enough to raise abjections at the meeting.- --Well , now I regret that.
A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 51: Such people are
A. respect B. to respect C. to be respecting D. to be respected 52: There is nothing to do except till it shops snowing. A. to wait B. waiting C. wait D. waits 53: I am sorry you so much trouble. And thank you for you help. A. to give B. to have given C. giving D. gave 54: She was sorry she had got no knife .
A. to cut B. cutting C. to cut it D. to cut it with 55: The novel is said last month.
A. to publish B. to be published C. publish D. to have been published 56: She doesn’t like .
A. praised B. to praised C. to be praised D. praising 57: you the truth. I don’t want to tell you about it.
A. To tell B. Telling C. To be told D. Told 58: ---Do you want to give a talk on that subject?--- .
A. I wouldn’t prefer. B. I prefer not C. I prefer not to D. I prefer to not 59: ---In class you should listen to Miss Gao English A. to speak B. speak C. speaks D. spoke 60: We ask to work in the countryside.
A. to be sent B. to send C. to be sending D. sending
1—-5 BDACB 6—-10 DDACA 11—-15 CBDCA 16—-20 BDADA 21—-25 ABBDA 26—-30 BDDDA 31—-35AACBC 36—-40 DADCB 41--45 ADCCD 46—-50 CDDCD 51—-55DCBDD 56--60 CACBA