英语的五个基本结构 S十V 主谓结构 S十V十P 主系表结构 N S十V十O 主谓宾结构 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构 说明： S＝主语；V＝谓语；P＝表语； O＝宾语；O1＝间接宾语；O2＝直接宾语 C＝宾语补足语 F
1．S 十 V 句式 He runs quickly． 2．S 十 V 十 P 句式： The story sounds interesting． 3．S 十 V 十 O 句式 They built a house last year． 4．S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式 He offered me his seat / his seat to me． B
5．S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式 定义 英语中有一些及物动词，除了 有一个宾语外，还要有一个宾语补 足语，句义才完整。这类常用的及 物动词有：make, consider, cause, see, find, call, get, have, let 等。
可以充当宾语补足语的一般为名 词，形容词，介词短语，不定式， 分词，副词。可以简记为：名、 形、介短、不、分、副。
Most pop singers make music their career. I don’t consider Mr. Smith my friend. All this noise will drive me mad. I want to have my room clean and tidy.
Please make yourself at home.
He found himself in the hospital when he woke up.
His father asked him not to make friends with such fellows. We persuaded him to redesign the whole machine. He Kept me waiting for a long time. We’ll keep you informed. Keep him out. Is that Jessica? Let her in.
1. 某些表示独一无二的职务的名词 如 manager, mayor, monitor, head ,chairman ,president 等作 宾语补足语时，名次前不用冠词。 eg. We choose Jennifer chairperson.
2. 表示感官的动词（如see, watch, notice, observe, hear, listen to, feel, find等）以及表示使役的动词（如have, make, let等）作谓语时， 用不带to的 不定式作宾语不足语，但变为被动语 态时，不定式要带to。 I heard her sing many English songs She was heard to sing many English songs. .
3. 分词（短语）作宾语补足语时，若表示 宾语与补足语之间是主动关系，则用现 在分词；若表示宾语与补足语之间是被 动关系，则用过去分词。 eg. I saw the old man knocked down by a car. I saw the train coming into the station.
4. 感官动词用不带to的不定式作宾语补 足语，表示动作的全过程；用现在分 词作宾语补足语，表示动作正在进行。
I saw him cross the street. I saw him crossing the street.
5. 某些过去分词如seated, hidden, dressed, disappointed，lost等，由 于源自系表结构，故一般不用它们的 现在分词形式作宾补。 eg. I found her seated on the grass just now.
6.在复合宾语中，宾语通常为名词或代词， 但有时也可以用不定式（短语）、动名词 （短语）或that从句来充当。这时，应使用 先行it代替宾语，而将真正的宾语移到句子的 后部，如： I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings. Do you consider it any good trying
again? We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us.
注意：在这种结构中，宾语补足语 通常为名词或形容词；常用于这种 结构的动词有：
feel, find, think, make, take, judge, consider 等。
1. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself understand. understood 2. We all elected Jason the monitor. 3. The teacher asked us not make so to much noise. 4. --- What a nice fire you have in your fireplace! --- During the winter I like my house warmly and comfortable. warm
5. Don’t leave the water run while you brush your teeth. running 6. He pushed the door opening. open 7. She looked around and caught a man put his hand into the pocket of a putting passenger. to 8. With a lot of difficult problems settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 9. When I came in, I found a boy hide hidden behind the door. 10. It was a pity that the great writer with died of his works unfinished. F
1. Tell him _____ the window.
A. to shut not
B. not to shut
C. to not shut
D. not shut
2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. ---- I know, I’m going to have it _____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended 3. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today
he was made ____ by his little sister.
A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry
4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line.
A. to risk going C. for risk to go B. risking to go D. risk going
5. I found the door _____ when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 8. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newlyelected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 9. I advised _____ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start
10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still ____. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating 11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out 12. He managed to make himself____with his____English. A. understand; breaking B. understand; broken C. understood; breaking D. understood; broken 13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing
只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词 有：catch, keep, mind, prevent, stop, smell, excuse 等。例如： She caught her son smoking a cigarette. His words started me thinking. B