There is a beautiful 《小芳》 村里有个姑娘叫小 and kind girl named Xiaofang in the 芳 village. 长得好看又善良 She 一双美丽的大眼睛 who has a pair of beautiful big eyes 辫子粗又长 在回城之前的那个 and long thick hair. 晚上 你和我来到小河旁 ……
If a person loses wealth, he loses much. If a person loses friends, he loses more. If a person loses courage, he loses all. loses courage, A person who loses friends, loses wealth all. more. loses much.
A person (who loses wealth) loses much; A person (who loses friends) loses more; A person (who loses courage) loses all.
A person who loses wealth loses much; he A person who loses friends loses more; he A person who loses courage loses all. he
关系代词 who whom which whose that as
先行词 人 人 物 人/物 人/物 人/物
在从句中的成分 主语/宾语 宾语 主语/宾语 定语 主语/宾语/表语 主语/宾语/表语
who 代替人 在定语从句中作主语或宾语 The man will succeed. He has a positive attitude. The man who has a positive attitude will succeed.
练习：用定语从句连成一个句子 The girl is a singer. who (定)The girl is sitting in the corner. The girl who is sitting in the corner is a singer.
He is the man. (定)The man wants to speak to you. who He is the man who wants to speak to you.
whom代替人在定语从句中作宾语 ? 作宾语时whom可以省略 This is the person. whom (定)I talked to the person just now.
This is the person who I talked to just now whom This is the person to whom I talked just now
I have many friends. whom (定)I send postcards to my friends before their birthday. who ? I have many friends whom I send postcards to before their birthday. ? I have many friends to whom I send postcards before their birthday.
主语也可作宾语 ? 作宾语时which可省略 Thinking is the key. The key opens the doors of the world.
Thinking is the key which opens the doors of the world.
Don’t expect people to do things. (定)You wouldn’t do the things yourself. which Don’t expect people to do things which you wouldn’t do yourself.
which are two days about _____ nobody worries, and these are yesterday and tomorrow. whom ? This is the person to _____ I just talked.
One of the reasons that made it cool for him not to care was the power of his peer(同龄人) group.
1.含有关系词的： ? 开始——关系词(介词+关系代词) ? 结束——第二个谓语动词之前 People who used horses to pull heavy loads
would choose to keep stronger animals. People used horses to pull heavy loads.
1. People may have chosen to keep horses that had a gentle personality so they could be ridden more easily. Horses had a gentle personality.
2. We write long letters in which we often discover our strangest selves. We often discover our strangest selves in letters.
of the reasons that made it cool for him not to care was the power of his peer(同龄人) group. ? The reasons made it cool for him not to care.
2. 无关系词的： 开始——句中出现主谓结构 结束——第二个谓语动词之前 This is the person I talked to.
The first interactions human had with horses were far different from those today. Human had interactions with horses.
3. 选择题中： 开始——空格 结束——第二个谓语动词之前
I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction D she had come. _ A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which
She had come from the direction.
练习：用定语从句连成一个句子 The train ran over and killed a girl and her dog. (定) The girlthat her dog were just and crossing the road.
关系代词that ? that可以代替人，也可以代替物 ? (人+物)+that ? (序数词/最高级)+先行词+that ? everything/anything/nothing/all/ much/little + that ? (no/little/few/any)+先行词+that
1. The man and the horse C __fell into the river were drowned(淹死). A. which B. who C. that D. of which 2. There is nothing in the world __ can A frighten him. A. that B. which C. who D. whom
3. They first went to a large room __ A looked like a shop． B A. that B. which C. what D where 4. Do you know everybody C came to _ the party? Almost, but I don’t know the one with _ you talked. A. who, who B. which, which C. that, whom D. who, that
whose ...= ... of which/whom of which/whom ...
I’d like a girlfriend, whom thewhom the character is quiet. character of the of whose character girl I want a boyfriend, the whom theof the boy is elegant. whom of behavior behavior whose behavior
1. A child C parents are dead is called _ an orphan A. which B. his C. whose D. with 2. Her parents wouldn’t allow her to D marry anyone __ family was poor. A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose
Dictionary is the only place where success comes before work. Defeat is a school where truth always grows strong. Courage is the ladder where all the other virtues mount.
关系副词when, where, why 关系副词 先行词 在从句中的成分 when 时间 时间状语 where 地点 地点状语 why reason 原因状语
? when可用in/on/at/during + which
代替 I still remember the day. which (定)I first met him on the day. I still remember the day on which when I first met him.
where可用in/on/at/to + which代替
The dictionary is the only place. (定)
Success comes before work which in the dictionary. where The dictionary is the only place in which success comes before work.
ABC =American born Chinese ? America is the country. ? I was born in the country. which. America is the country in which I was born where BBC=Beijing born Chinese where Beijing is the city in which I was born.
关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾 语 关系副词在定语从句中作状语
Women C drink more than two _ cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those __ don’t. (06北京) A. who, / B. /, who C. who, who D. /, /
He owns a little shop D sells a lot of _ goods _ are necessary to the people _ are living nearby. A. where, that, who B. that, which, / C. /, which, who D. which, that, who
? 断——断句 ? 找——被修饰的词（即先行词）
“...的”——whose, of which/whom 加介词放回—— 介词+which/whom where, when
This is the chicken farmwhich/that _______ we visited last year. This is the chicken farm where _______ we worked last year. (which, that, where)
will never forget the days ________ which/that we spent in the village last year. ? I will never forget the days ________ we worked together in when the village last year. (which, that, when)
限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 ? My wife who is in Shanghai will come back next week. ? My wife, who is in Shanghai, will come back next week.
非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 ? 形式上： ? 形式上： 有逗号分开 无逗号 ? 意思上： ? 意思上： 去掉后无影响 不能省 The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put into my mouth.
非限制性定语从句中的关系词 ? that 禁用
C you seen the film “Titanic”, _ leading actor is world-famous? (01上海) A. its B. it’s C. whose D. which
I bought an ancient Chinese vase, B was very _ reasonable. (00上海) A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose
D famous basketball star, __ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. (02全国春) A. where B. when C. which D. who
will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, C other visitors seldom go. _ A. what B. which go to the places C. where D. when ? When is your son’s birthday? It’s the same day of my birthday,C _ I can’t forget. forget the day A. that B. when C. which D. it
B was late for class again, _ made the teacher very angry. A. what B. which C. as D. one ? The weather turned out to be very good, B was more than we could _ expect. (94) A. what B. which C. that D. it
含有插入语的定语从句 We went to Qianmen Street ye
sterday, _, not surprisingly, was crowded with B visitors from all over the world. A. where B. which C. that D. when
定语从句中的主谓一致 ? He is the only one of the students who __ a winner of scholarship for three D years. A. was B. are C. have been D. has been B ? She is one of the few girls who __ in the kindergarten. A. is well paid B. are well paid C. is paying well D. are paying well
one of + 复数名词——复数 the only one of + 复数名词——单数
why ? 先行词只能是reason ? 可以用for which代替
This is the reason __ he is leaving now. C A. as B. which C. why D. what
He is leaving for the reason.
D reason __ she gives for not coming to the party is that her mother won’t let her. A. what B. why C. when D. which She gives the reason for not coming to the party.
限制性定语从句中 ? 固定结构： such/so... as... the same… as...
is such a lazy man A nobody _ wants to work with. Nobody wants to work with the man. ? He is such a lazy man _ nobody B wants to work with him. A. as B. that C. who D. whom
have the same magazine Dyou _ bought just now. A. which B. like C. what D. as You bought the same magazine just now. ? They had such a fierce dog B no one _ dare to go near their house. A. as B. that C. / D. which
as用法： 非限制性定语从句中 ? 位置:位于句首只能选as ? as常和be连用 若没有be, 使用which