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虚拟语气讲与练

发布时间:2013-10-06 13:08:25  

一、英语动词有三种语气:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

1.陈述语气:用来表示所说的话是事实或提出疑问,广泛用语陈述句,疑问句和感叹句。

We met in this room. 陈述语气

2.祈使语气:表示所说的话是请求,命令,指示或劝告等。

Do come to the meeting next Friday .祈使语气

3.虚拟语气:表示说话人的所说的话不是事实,

1) 一种表示假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);

2) 一种表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。 If I were you , I would study hard . 虚拟语气

二、虚拟语气的用法:

(一) 虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的用法.

条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。

真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,是与事实相符的。

If it is fine tomorrow, I will go to visit my grandma.

非真实条件句(虚拟条件句)所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的, 与事实相反的情况。 If I were a bird, I would fly to America.

虚拟语气在非真实条件句中

现在事实相反

1. If I were you, I would give AIDS patient a hug.

2. If I won the lottery(彩票), I ____________(buy) an expensive car. /I _____________ (buy) a big

house./I__________ (travel) around the world.

过去事实相反

1. If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t have made a mistake.

2. If I ____________(have)time last night, I _____________ (go)to see the film with you .

3. If he________ (drive)more carefully, he _____________ (not cause)the car accident yesterday.

将来事实相反

1. If it rained tomorrow, they wouldn’t go for an outing.

2. If you____________(get)a full mark next time,I ________ (hold)a party for you .

练习:

1. If they ______ (be) here, they __________ (take) your advice.

2. If the world-war ___________ (break) out again, what ________________ (happen) to our people on earth?

3. If the policeman _____________ (be not) in that room now, it ________________ (be) very dangerous.

4. If I _______ (be) in your position, I _____________(ask) for teacher’s help

5. If Tom (be) more careful in the exam, he (pass) it

already.

6. If you

7. If I together.

8. If there use of nuclear power .

9. What , 虚拟条件句的特殊用法:

1.省略 if 的条件从句

当从句中有 were, had 或 should 时,可省略if ,而把它们放在句首,再将句子的主语和谓语动词实行全部倒装或部分倒装。

E.g.:1.If I were to meet him tomorrow, I should ask him about it.

→Were I to meet him tomorrow,…

2.If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again.

→Should he fail in the experiment…

3.If he had worked harder, he would have passed the final examinations.

→Had he worked harder, ...

2 由介词或介词短语暗示的虚拟结构常见的介词或介词短语有without(没有) 、but for(要不是) E.g.: 1.Without electricity (= If there were no electricity), human life would be quite difficult today.

2. Without his advice (= If it hadn’t been for his advice), I couldn’t have done it all by myself.

3. But for the meeting(= If it hadn’t been for the meeting) ,I would have gone to your party last Saturday . 练习:

1. Without sunlight , or water or air , there ___ no life on the earth .

A will have B would be C should be D must be

2 But for the snow , we ___ earlier .

A will arrive B should have arrived C arrive D arrived

(二) 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法

1、wish 后面的宾语从句中,一般用虚拟语气。表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓语动词形式为:

表现在的愿望: 过去时

表过去的愿望: 过去完成时

表将来的愿望: would, might, could+动词原形

E.g.: 1.I wish I were a bird

2.I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake

3.We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us.

练习:

1. I wish I_______(be)as tall as you.

2. I wish I __________(become)as famous as Yao Ming.

3. He wish he ______________(eat) so much watermelon just now.

4. I wish it ______________(rain) tomorrow.

5. A: You have made some mistakes.

B: I wish I ____mistakes every day.

A. don’t make B. haven’t made C. wouldn’t have made D. didn’t make

6. I wish they ___ in yesterday’s ball game.

A would be succeeded B would be successful C had been success D had been successful

7. How I wish that I ___ the moon sometime in the future .

A had visited B would visit C visited D will visit

2. 在表示建议,要求,命令的词“suggest,demand,order,propose,insist,command,request,desire” 后的宾

语从句中,从句谓语动词的形式为:“(should) +动词原形”

e.g. 1.I suggest that we (should) set off at once.

2.I demanded that he (should) answer me immediately.

(一个坚持insist ,两个命令order, command ,三个建议advise, suggest, propose四个要求demand , require, request, desire)

注:以上动词的名词形式用于同位语从句中,从句中的动词也是用“(should) + 动词原形”

练习:

1.I advised that the sick child ___ a hospital as soon as possible .

A should sent to B should be sent C be sent to D must be sent to

2.The workers in the factory demanded that their pay ___ be 20 percent .

A be raised B would be raised C raised D raise

3 The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ___ the rules .

A obeys B obey C will obey D would obey

4. Jane’s pale face suggested that he ___ ill , and her parents suggested that she ___ a medical examination .

A be , should have B was , have C should be , had D was , has

5. --- Do you know where he comes from ?

---No , but his accent suggests that he ___ from the south .

A was B should be C is D were

(三).用于表语从句和同位语从句

在suggestion / proposal(提议) / order / plan / advice / idea / request(请求) /demand(要求) 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形” should可以省略.

Eg: My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others.

We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.

练习:

1.His suggestion that you _____ once more sounds reasonable.

A. try B. tries C. must try D. can try

2.We are in favor of your proposal that the meeting ______.

A. should be put off B. was put off C. should put off D. is to put off

(四) 现在的事情发生 (动词)过去时

would rather(宁愿) that+句子 宁愿 过去的事情发生 (动词)过去完成时

将来的事情发生 (动词)过去时

Eg:

I would rather you paid me now.

I would rather you had gone, too.

Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.

(五) 用于主语从句中

1.It is necessary/important/ strange/naturalimpossible / surprising + that 从句 从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。

Eg :

It is necessary that you (should) clean the room after work.

It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language.

It is strange that she (should )refuse to come to the party.

2. It is suggested/desired / ordered / requested / proposed / demanded +that从句…从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略

Eg :

It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

It is ordered that the work (should) be done at once.

3. It is a pity/a shame/no wonder + that 从句。。。从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略省略

eg : It is a pity that he should be so careless.

真可惜他竟然如此粗心.

练习:

1. Is it necessary that he _____ the examination?

A. takes B. has to take C. must take D. take

2. It is strange that he _____ you this.

A. would tell B. should tell C. had told D. has told

(六) 虚拟语气在其他从句中的用法

1. It is (high / about ) time that…从句动词用 过去式/should+do 的形式(注意:should不能省略.) “到做----的时间了.”

eg :It’s time that we went to bed.(我们该去睡觉了)

It’s time that we should go to bed. (我们该去睡觉了)

2.If only 引导的感叹句“要是...该有多好啊”用法与wish 相同

Eg : If only I knew the answer!

If only I had seen the film yesterday!

3.as if /though + 从句 “好象”

与现在事实相反 (从句动词)用过去式

与过去事实相反 (从句动词)过去完成式

与将来事实相反 (从句动词)Would / could / might +动词原形

1) as if /as though连接表语从句

He talks as if he knew where she was .

He looked as if he hadn’t slept for two days.

2) as if / as though连接状语从 句

She looked after the boy as if he were her own son.

He speaks to us as if he had been there.

4.在In case, for fear that 和lest “万一;惟恐;以免”引导的状语 从句中,谓语动词多用 should+动词原形 should 可省略

Eg : I daren’t tell you what he did for fear that he should be angry with.

In case I should fail, I would try again

I will not read aloud the book lest I should disturb you .

5.在带有even if/ even though “即使”引导的让步状语从句中,动词形式与含有非真实的条件句的虚拟语气相同.

E.g. Even if Lin Tao _______(be) here, I should say the same thing.

Even though he ____________(be) ill, he would have gone to his office.

(七) 错综条件虚拟语气

条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句所假设的谓语动词不一致,谓语动词形式应做适当调整。

E.g. If you had followed my advice , you would be better now.

If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now.

If you had spoken to him last time you saw him, you would know what to do now.

综合练习:

A. be B. was C. were D. am

speak

with French accents.

A. don't B. will not C. mustn't D. wouldn't

today, would we be able to get there by Tuesday?

A. Were we leaving B. If we leave

C. Would we leave D. Were we to leave

tomorrow, what would you do?

A. were not to come B. will not come

C. would not come D. had not come

(5). “She didn't ask me, so I didn't help her?”

“You mean to say, you would've helped her ?”

A. if she asked you B. if she were to ask you

C. had she asked you C. were she to ask you

(6). They took the injured straight to the hospital. Otherwise some of them .

A. might have died B. might die C. would die D. could die

(7). If they had known him, to him?

A. would they have talked B. would they talk

C. had they talked D. they would talk

(8). If I lived in the city, I travel in crowded buses, but I to see lots of films.

A. shall have to/shall be able B. shall have to/am able

C. would have to/were able D. would have to/would be able

(9). I would have gone to the concert, if I time.

A. had had B. have had C. had D. would have had

(10). I know it, I would have told you.

A. Have B. If C. Had D. Having

(11). your help, I would not have succeeded.

A. Because B. Because of C. But D. But for

(12). “What did Mr Smith say about his career?”

“Only that ifa millionaire, he would have fewer worries.”

A. did not become B. had not become

C. does not become D. has not become

(13). “Why didn't you help him?”

“I would haveI didn't have the money.”

A. still B. but C. otherwise D. or

(14). “Who should go to see Li Ying? He is ill today.”

“I suggest Wang Hong

A. goes B. would go C. go D. went

television on week nights.

A. not watch B. must not to watch

C. not be watching D. have not watch

.

A. can B. could C. had D. speak

(17). “Are you enjoying your stay here?’

“Yes, very much. I wish Ihave to leave so soon.”

A. won't B. don't C. mustn't D. didn't

(18). “What will you do during the summer holidays?”

“I don't know, but it's about timeon something.”

A. I'm deciding B. I'll decide C. I decided D. I'd decided

A. say B. didn't say C. don't say D. not say

(20). “Why do you have to be there at six?”

“The teacher demands that everyone

A. would be B. can be C. be D. will be

it.

A. forgets B. forget C. will forget D. will not forget

(22). “how does the librarian act?”

“He acts as if hea walking dictionary.”

A. were B. be C. is D. has been

severely punished.

A. were B. are C. be D. will be

interrupt when I'm talking on the phone.

A. will not B. would not C. do not D. did not

A. understands B. understood C. understand D. would understand

A. saw B. has seen C. had seen D. would see

(27). Give her my best regards, A. should you see her today B. if you saw her today

C. if you would see her today D. should you have seen her today

A. had been B. would be C. was D. should be

A. was made B. be made C. will be made D. would be made

work in the same office as he dose.

A. does not B. did not C. would not D. will not

back by two o'clock.

A. be B. to be C. would be D. shall be

there.

A. went B. was C. were D.had bee

A. did away with B. do away with

C. did away D. should do away with

虚拟语气专项练习题参考答案

(1)C (2) D (3) D (4) A (5) C (6) A (7) A (8) D (9) A (10) C

(11) D (12) B (13) B (14) C (15) A (16) B (17) D (18) C (19) B

(20) C (21) B (22) A (23) C (24) B (25) B (26) C (27) A (28) D

(29) B (30) B (31) A (32) D (33) A

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