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中考英语语法讲解课件-句子结构

发布时间:2013-10-07 12:07:21  

句子

句子 句子 句子 成分 结构 种类

句子成分

主语:行为主体,句子描述的主体 谓语: 主语发出的动作 宾语: 动作的承受者

表语:表示主语“是什么”“怎么样” 状语:时间、地点、原因等 定语:用来修饰名词、代词

句子成分
主语:You beat him. 谓语: You beat him.

宾语: You beat him.
表语:He is bad./He is a boy. 状语:You beat him at home. 定语:You beat the bad boy.

? 主语:一个句子所叙述的主体。 句子中的第一个名词或代词.

句子结构

主+系+表 主+不及物动词
主+谓+宾

主+及物动词+宾语
主+及物动词+间宾+直宾
主+及物动词+宾语+宾补

句子种类
按句子的用途分 按句子的结构分

陈述句

简单句

疑问句 祈使句
感叹句

并列句 复合句

? 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或 并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列 谓语)。 ? e.g. He often reads English in the morning. ? Tom and Mike are American boys. ? She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.

? 我们可以给句子的动词加上副词修饰, 给名词加上形容词、介词短语修饰,给 句子加上状语进行修饰等,以使整个句 子的意思变得更加的丰富和充实。但不 管如何变,都只有一个主谓结构。
? He worked hard all his life. (划线部分在 句中作状语,修饰动词worked) ? He is a school student in No. 1 Middle School. (划线部分在句中作定语,修饰名 词student)

? 2) 并列句: ? 句型:简单句+并列连词+简单句 ? 并列句是由两个或两个以上的简单句 连接而成。并列句中的各简单句意义 同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系, 是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词 连结。 ? e.g. You help him and he helps you. ? The future is bright; the road is tortuous.

并列句的分类
? 1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等连接。 ? e.g. The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John.
? 2、表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。 e.g. Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.

?

3、表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, yet, while, when等。 ? e.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting.
? 4、表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, 等。 ? e.g. August is the time of the year for harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.

3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的 句子。 从句包括名词性从句(主语从句、宾语 从 句、表语从句和同位语从句) 定语从句和状语从句等。
句型 主句+连词+从句;或连词+从句+主句 ? e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

? 复合句就是含有两个或两个以上主谓结 构的句子

。这种结构中,必定有一个主 谓结构是句子的主句部分,而另一个主 谓结构则是句子的次要部分,即从句部 分。 ? As is known to all, China is getting more and more powerful. (As 引导一个定语从 句) ? Where there is a will, there is a way. (Where引导一个表地点的状语从句)

Exercises 判断句型
? 1.Having finished his homework, the boy went on to help his mother.

(简单句划线部分在句中作状语,修饰 整个句子)
? 2. What he says doesn’t suit what he does.
(复合句包含两个名词性从句:What he says 是一个主语从句;what he does 是一 个宾语从句)

? 3. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 简单句
? 4. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 复合句

? 5. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there?

简单句

6. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.

并列句

7. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.

复合句

8. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening.

简单句

9. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.

并列句

10. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it?

复合句

11. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 简单句

12. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 简单句

句子成分

Subject 主语 S 主语句子中表明动作执行者或谓语描 述对象的名词、名词短语或代词

句子成分

Predicate 谓语 V
谓语修饰主语。包括动词、宾语或动词所 支配的短语。 如 Jane opened the door. 或 The child is very sleepy.

句子成分

Object 宾语 O --- Predicative 表语 P
宾语一个句子中接受动词的动作或受动词 影响的名词或名词性词组 系动词 + 表语(名词/形容词) 及物动词 + 宾语(名词)

句子成分

Attribute 定语 Attrib.
定语指一个词或短语(多为形容词或名词词 组),在句法上从属于它所修饰的词或短语 如:my sister‘s brown dog

Adverbial 状语 adv.

句子成分

Complement 补语 C
补语跟在一个动词后的一个或几个单词共 同组成的谓语结构 (多为不定式或介词短 语) 如: We like to eat ice cream.

句子成分(Members of Sentence) Appositive 同位语
同位语重复指代并进一步说明名词及名词 性词语。由名词、名词性词语、从句等充 当,放在被修饰词后。 如: They all work hard. John, a friend of hers, has gone.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 1) 主语+谓语(S+V)
Day dawns. 天亮了.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 2) 主语+连系动词+表语(S+L+P)
He is a professor. 他是一位教授.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 3) 主语+谓语+宾语(S+V+O)
She understands French. 她懂法语.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 4) 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 (S+V+IO+DO)
He told us the whole story. 他把全部经

过告诉了我们.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 5) 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补语 (S+V+O+C)
He found George intelligent. 他发现乔治很聪明.


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